Abstract

Angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of argon atoms by XUV attosecond pulses in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field are calculated to examine their dependence on the duration and the chirp of the attosecond pulses. From the calculated electron spectra, we show how to retrieve the duration and the chirp of the attosecond pulse using genetic algorithm. The method is expected to be used for characterizing the attosecond pulses which are produced by polarization gating of few-cycle left- and right-circularly polarized infrared laser pulses.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. Markus Kitzler, Nenad Milosevic, Armin Scrinzi, Ferenc Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904-1-4 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camara,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903-1–4 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability.Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2933–2936 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Ph. Antonie, B. Piraux, D. B. Milosevic, and M. Gajda, “Generation of ultrashort pulses of harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1761–R1764 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. T. Platonenko and V. V. Strelkov. “Single attosecond soft-x-ray pulse generated with a limited laser beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 435–440 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. Strekov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 879–884 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. Zenghu Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802-1-8 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. Bing Shan, Shambhu Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Modern. Optics 52, 277–283 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  14. E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultraviolet-infrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,” J. Phys. B 35, 3435–3442 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. J. Kennedy and S. T. Manson, “Photoionization of the noble gases: Cross sections and angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 5, 227–247 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. A. Parpia, W. R. Jphnson, and V. Radojevic, “Applicattion of the relativistic local-density approximation to photoionization of the outer shells of neon, argon, krypton and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 3173–3180 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Y. Adam, P. Morin, and G. Wendin. “Photoelectron satellite spectrum in the region of 3s Cooper minimum of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 1426–1433 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a stong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).
  19. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by lowe frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. A. Aseyev, Y. Ni, L. J. Frasinski, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223902-1-4 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Trebino, Kenneth W. DeLong, David N. Fittinghoff, John N. Sweetser, Marco A Krumbügel, and Bruce A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2004 (4)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Strekov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 879–884 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zenghu Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802-1-8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bing Shan, Shambhu Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Modern. Optics 52, 277–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. A. Aseyev, Y. Ni, L. J. Frasinski, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223902-1-4 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultraviolet-infrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,” J. Phys. B 35, 3435–3442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Markus Kitzler, Nenad Milosevic, Armin Scrinzi, Ferenc Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904-1-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camara,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903-1–4 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, Kenneth W. DeLong, David N. Fittinghoff, John N. Sweetser, Marco A Krumbügel, and Bruce A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Ph. Antonie, B. Piraux, D. B. Milosevic, and M. Gajda, “Generation of ultrashort pulses of harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1761–R1764 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability.Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by lowe frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

M. Y. Adam, P. Morin, and G. Wendin. “Photoelectron satellite spectrum in the region of 3s Cooper minimum of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 1426–1433 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

F. A. Parpia, W. R. Jphnson, and V. Radojevic, “Applicattion of the relativistic local-density approximation to photoionization of the outer shells of neon, argon, krypton and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 3173–3180 (1984).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

D. J. Kennedy and S. T. Manson, “Photoionization of the noble gases: Cross sections and angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 5, 227–247 (1972).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a stong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Adam, M. Y.

M. Y. Adam, P. Morin, and G. Wendin. “Photoelectron satellite spectrum in the region of 3s Cooper minimum of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 1426–1433 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonie, Ph.

Ph. Antonie, B. Piraux, D. B. Milosevic, and M. Gajda, “Generation of ultrashort pulses of harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1761–R1764 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aseyev, S. A.

S. A. Aseyev, Y. Ni, L. J. Frasinski, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223902-1-4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by lowe frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A.

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability.Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brabec, Thomas

Markus Kitzler, Nenad Milosevic, Armin Scrinzi, Ferenc Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904-1-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Burnett, N. H.

Chang, Zenghu

Zenghu Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802-1-8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bing Shan, Shambhu Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Modern. Optics 52, 277–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Constant, E.

V. Strekov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 879–884 (2004).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camara,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903-1–4 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability.Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by lowe frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, Paul B.

Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

V. Strekov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 879–884 (2004).
[Crossref]

DeLong, Kenneth W.

R. Trebino, Kenneth W. DeLong, David N. Fittinghoff, John N. Sweetser, Marco A Krumbügel, and Bruce A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Drescher, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Drescher, Markus

Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, David N.

R. Trebino, Kenneth W. DeLong, David N. Fittinghoff, John N. Sweetser, Marco A Krumbügel, and Bruce A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Frasinski, L. J.

S. A. Aseyev, Y. Ni, L. J. Frasinski, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223902-1-4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gajda, M.

Ph. Antonie, B. Piraux, D. B. Milosevic, and M. Gajda, “Generation of ultrashort pulses of harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1761–R1764 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ghimire, Shambhu

Bing Shan, Shambhu Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Modern. Optics 52, 277–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, Michael

Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camara,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903-1–4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M.

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability.Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

Ivanov, M. Yu.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camara,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903-1–4 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by lowe frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jphnson, W. R.

F. A. Parpia, W. R. Jphnson, and V. Radojevic, “Applicattion of the relativistic local-density approximation to photoionization of the outer shells of neon, argon, krypton and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 3173–3180 (1984).
[Crossref]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a stong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Kennedy, D. J.

D. J. Kennedy and S. T. Manson, “Photoionization of the noble gases: Cross sections and angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 5, 227–247 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kienberger, Reinhard

Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitzler, Markus

Markus Kitzler, Nenad Milosevic, Armin Scrinzi, Ferenc Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904-1-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camara,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903-1–4 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krausz, Ferenc

Markus Kitzler, Nenad Milosevic, Armin Scrinzi, Ferenc Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904-1-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krumbügel, Marco A

R. Trebino, Kenneth W. DeLong, David N. Fittinghoff, John N. Sweetser, Marco A Krumbügel, and Bruce A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, Anne

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by lowe frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by lowe frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López-Martens, R.

V. Strekov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 879–884 (2004).
[Crossref]

Manson, S. T.

D. J. Kennedy and S. T. Manson, “Photoionization of the noble gases: Cross sections and angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 5, 227–247 (1972).
[Crossref]

Mével, E.

V. Strekov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 879–884 (2004).
[Crossref]

Milosevic, D. B.

Ph. Antonie, B. Piraux, D. B. Milosevic, and M. Gajda, “Generation of ultrashort pulses of harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1761–R1764 (1996).
[Crossref]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Milosevic, Nenad

Markus Kitzler, Nenad Milosevic, Armin Scrinzi, Ferenc Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904-1-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Morin, P.

M. Y. Adam, P. Morin, and G. Wendin. “Photoelectron satellite spectrum in the region of 3s Cooper minimum of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 1426–1433 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

S. A. Aseyev, Y. Ni, L. J. Frasinski, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223902-1-4 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultraviolet-infrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,” J. Phys. B 35, 3435–3442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ni, Y.

S. A. Aseyev, Y. Ni, L. J. Frasinski, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223902-1-4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Parpia, F. A.

F. A. Parpia, W. R. Jphnson, and V. Radojevic, “Applicattion of the relativistic local-density approximation to photoionization of the outer shells of neon, argon, krypton and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 3173–3180 (1984).
[Crossref]

Piraux, B.

Ph. Antonie, B. Piraux, D. B. Milosevic, and M. Gajda, “Generation of ultrashort pulses of harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1761–R1764 (1996).
[Crossref]

Platonenko, V. T.

Quéré, F.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camara,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903-1–4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Radojevic, V.

F. A. Parpia, W. R. Jphnson, and V. Radojevic, “Applicattion of the relativistic local-density approximation to photoionization of the outer shells of neon, argon, krypton and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 3173–3180 (1984).
[Crossref]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Reider, Georg A.

Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richman, Bruce A.

R. Trebino, Kenneth W. DeLong, David N. Fittinghoff, John N. Sweetser, Marco A Krumbügel, and Bruce A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Scrinzi, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, Armin

Markus Kitzler, Nenad Milosevic, Armin Scrinzi, Ferenc Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904-1-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shan, Bing

Bing Shan, Shambhu Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Modern. Optics 52, 277–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, Christian

Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strekov, V.

V. Strekov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 879–884 (2004).
[Crossref]

Strelkov, V. V.

Sweetser, John N.

R. Trebino, Kenneth W. DeLong, David N. Fittinghoff, John N. Sweetser, Marco A Krumbügel, and Bruce A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tcherbakoff, O.

V. Strekov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 879–884 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tempea, Gabriel

Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultraviolet-infrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,” J. Phys. B 35, 3435–3442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, Kenneth W. DeLong, David N. Fittinghoff, John N. Sweetser, Marco A Krumbügel, and Bruce A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

S. A. Aseyev, Y. Ni, L. J. Frasinski, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223902-1-4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wendin, G.

M. Y. Adam, P. Morin, and G. Wendin. “Photoelectron satellite spectrum in the region of 3s Cooper minimum of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 1426–1433 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camara,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903-1–4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zair, A.

V. Strekov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 879–884 (2004).
[Crossref]

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M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability.Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. Strekov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 879–884 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Modern. Optics (1)

Bing Shan, Shambhu Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Modern. Optics 52, 277–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultraviolet-infrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,” J. Phys. B 35, 3435–3442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nature (London) (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature (London),  414, 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Phys. Rev. A (6)

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[Crossref]

F. A. Parpia, W. R. Jphnson, and V. Radojevic, “Applicattion of the relativistic local-density approximation to photoionization of the outer shells of neon, argon, krypton and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 3173–3180 (1984).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Adam, P. Morin, and G. Wendin. “Photoelectron satellite spectrum in the region of 3s Cooper minimum of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 1426–1433 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ph. Antonie, B. Piraux, D. B. Milosevic, and M. Gajda, “Generation of ultrashort pulses of harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1761–R1764 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zenghu Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802-1-8 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, Anne L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by lowe frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
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S. A. Aseyev, Y. Ni, L. J. Frasinski, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223902-1-4 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability.Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markus Kitzler, Nenad Milosevic, Armin Scrinzi, Ferenc Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904-1-4 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camara,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903-1–4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, Kenneth W. DeLong, David N. Fittinghoff, John N. Sweetser, Marco A Krumbügel, and Bruce A. Richman, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

Markus Drescher, Michael Hentschel, Reinhard Kienberger, Gabriel Tempea, Christian Spielmann, Georg A. Reider, Paul B. Corkum, and Ferenc Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measuremnt of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a stong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The time-dependence of the ellipticity and the two perpendicular electric field components of a laser pulse resulting from combining a left-hand circularly polarized pulse and a right-hand circularly polarized pulse. The pulse duration for both circular pulses is 5 fs and the delay between them is 5 fs. The solid and dotted lines represent the two orthogonal field components and the dashed line shows the ellipticity. Note that the small window of vanishing ellipticity or polarization gating where the combined field is nearly linearly polarized.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The square of the dipole transition moment and (b)the asymmetry parameter β from the ground state of Ar by monochromatic light. (c) The ionization probability density vs photoelectron energy of Ar ionized by an XUV pulse which has mean photon energy of 35 eV, duration of 0.1 fs and peak intensity of 1012 W/cm2. Dashed lines represent the spectral shape of the XUV pulse.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Energy and angular distributions of photoelectrons from Ar by a single XUV pulse of duration (FWHM) 100 as. The polarization of the XUV pulse is along the x-axis from which the angles of the photoelectrons are measured. (b) and (c), electron spectra by XUV pulses assisted by a circularly polarized laser with phase of π/2 and 0, respectively. The XUV pulse was assumed to be not chirped.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of photoelectron spectra on the XUV pulse durations. The upper row is for laser-free photoionization and the lower row is for laser-assisted photoionization where the laser phase was chosen to be π/2. From (a) to (c) the XUV pulse durations are 0.2, 0.5 and 2 fs, respectively. The XUV pulses are assumed to have no chirp.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photoelectron spectra by laser-assisted XUV pulses with different chirp parameters and pulse durations as indicated in the figure. The frequency width of XUV pulse is fixed as 18.25 eV.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The center of gravity energy of the photoelectrons vs the electron’s angle for different chirp parameters from 0 to 20 of the XUV pulses. The width of the XUV pulse is fixed at 18.25 eV. Note the shift to the higher energy as the chirp parameter increases until at the highest chirp where the pulse duration is close to the optical period.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Photoelectron spectra by a train of two attosecond XUV pulses: (a) no laser ; (b),(c),(d), with lasers, of phase 0, π/4 and π/2, respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of the retrieved electric field with the original field. The inset shows the intensity profile of the original and the retrieved pulses, in units of 1012W/cm2.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of the photoelectron spectra calculated using (a) the original pulse and (b) the retrieved pulse, at a different time delay of -0.2 fs.

Equations (15)

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V ( r ) = ( 1 + 5.4 e r + 11.6 e 3.682 r ) r .
R ( + ) = 0 r P 3 p P ε s ( ε d ) dr ,
d 2 = 6 ( 1 3 R 2 + 2 3 R + 2 )
d σ d Ω = σ tot 4 π [ 1 + β 3 cos 2 θ 1 2 ] ,
E x ( t ) = Re { E 0 x e σ ( 1 i ξ ) t 2 e i ω x t e x } ,
E l ( t ) = 1 2 E 0 ( t ) [ cos ( ω l t + ϕ ) e x + sin ( ω l t + ϕ ) e y ]
v l ( t ) = t E l ( t ) dt .
v l ( t ) 1 2 ω l E 0 ( t ) [ sin ( ω l t + ϕ ) e x + cos ( ω l t + ϕ ) e y ] .
b ( v ) = i dt d [ p ( t ) ] · E x ( t ) exp [ i t dt [ p ( t ) ] 2 2 + i I p t ]
1 2 [ v v l ( t s ) ] 2 = E 0 ,
Δ ω = 4 ln 2 τ x 1 + ξ 2 .
1 2 [ v v l ( t ) ] 2 = E 0 2 σ ξ t = Ω ( t ) .
E x ( t T 0 4 ) + E x ( t + T 0 4 ) .
b ( v ) = i dt d ( v ) · E x ( t ) exp [ i ( 1 2 ) v 2 t + i I p t ] .
ϕ ( ω ) = i = 1 N c i ( ω ω 0 ) i

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