Abstract

We investigate light propagation and self-localization in a voltage-controlled array of channel waveguides realized in undoped nematic liquid crystals. We report on discrete diffraction and solitons, as well as all-optical angular steering and the formation of multiband vector breathers. The results and are in excellent agreement with both coupled mode theory and full numerical simulations.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Somekh, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, R. G. Hunsperger, “Channel optical waveguide directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 46–47 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Finlayson, G. I. Stegeman, “Spatial switching, instabilities, and chaos in a three-waveguide nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2276–2278 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, U. Trutschel, F. Lederer, “Nonlinear switching in multiple-core couplers,” Opt. Lett. 16, 294–296 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Coupling instability and power-induced switching with two-core dual-polarizations fiber nonlinear couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 483–491 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. N. Christodoulides, R. I. Joseph, “Discrete self-focusing in nonlinear arrays of coupled waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 13, 794–796 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 31–50 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4756–4759 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424, 817–823 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. B. Aceves, C. de Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Discrete self-trapping, soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172–1189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Matsumoto, “Optical switching in nonlinear waveguide arrays with a longitudinally decreasing coupling coefficient,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1758–1760 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, “Generation and stability of discrete gap solitons,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2345–2347 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, “Power-controlled beam steering in non equidistant arrays of nonlinear waveguides,” Opt. Comm. 136, 16–21 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. N. Christodoulides, E. D. Eugenieva, “Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 233901 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, “All-optical switching in quadratically nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28, 102–104 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. O. Bang, P. D. Miller, “Exploiting discreteness for switching in waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1105–1107 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, F. Lederer, “Beam steering in waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3247–3249 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Krolikowsky, Y. S. Kivshar, “Soliton-based optical switching in waveguide arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 876–880 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. Vicencio, M. I. Molina, Y. S. Kivshar, “Switching of discrete optical solitons in engineered waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 026602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213906 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, “Multigap discrete vector solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, “Multiband Vector Lattice Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Hudock, P. G. Kevrekidis, B. A. Malomed, D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete vector solitons in two-dimensional nonlinear waveguide arrays: solutions, stability, and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056618 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Meier, J. Hudock, D. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete vector solitons in Kerr nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143907 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
  30. M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, I. C. Khoo, “Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7–9 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Karpierz, “Solitary waves in liquid crystalline waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 036603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, “Spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 13–21 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. Conti, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Signal readdressing by steering of spatial solitons in bulk nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1690–1692 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. Fratalocchi, G. Assanto, K. A. Brzda̢kiewicz, M. A. Karpierz, “Discrete propagation and spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1530–1532 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. I. C. Khoo, Liquid crystals: physical properties and optical phenomena (Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995).
  38. D. A. Dumm, A. Fukuda, G. R. Luckhurst, Physical properties of liquid crystals: nematics (INSPEC, London, 2001).

2004 (4)

R. A. Vicencio, M. I. Molina, Y. S. Kivshar, “Switching of discrete optical solitons in engineered waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 026602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fratalocchi, G. Assanto, K. A. Brzda̢kiewicz, M. A. Karpierz, “Discrete propagation and spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1530–1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (12)

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, “Multigap discrete vector solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, “Multiband Vector Lattice Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hudock, P. G. Kevrekidis, B. A. Malomed, D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete vector solitons in two-dimensional nonlinear waveguide arrays: solutions, stability, and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, J. Hudock, D. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete vector solitons in Kerr nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 31–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424, 817–823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, “Generation and stability of discrete gap solitons,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2345–2347 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, “All-optical switching in quadratically nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28, 102–104 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, “Spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 13–21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, F. Lederer, “Beam steering in waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3247–3249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Signal readdressing by steering of spatial solitons in bulk nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1690–1692 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Karpierz, “Solitary waves in liquid crystalline waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 036603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. N. Christodoulides, E. D. Eugenieva, “Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 233901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Dumm, A. Fukuda, G. R. Luckhurst, Physical properties of liquid crystals: nematics (INSPEC, London, 2001).

2000 (2)

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, I. C. Khoo, “Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4756–4759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, “Power-controlled beam steering in non equidistant arrays of nonlinear waveguides,” Opt. Comm. 136, 16–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. B. Aceves, C. de Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Discrete self-trapping, soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowsky, Y. S. Kivshar, “Soliton-based optical switching in waveguide arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 876–880 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Bang, P. D. Miller, “Exploiting discreteness for switching in waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1105–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

N. Finlayson, G. I. Stegeman, “Spatial switching, instabilities, and chaos in a three-waveguide nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2276–2278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

S. M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

S. Somekh, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, R. G. Hunsperger, “Channel optical waveguide directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 46–47 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aceves, A. B.

A. B. Aceves, C. de Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Discrete self-trapping, soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Meier, J. Hudock, D. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete vector solitons in Kerr nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4756–4759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

A. Fratalocchi, G. Assanto, K. A. Brzda̢kiewicz, M. A. Karpierz, “Discrete propagation and spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1530–1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, “Spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 13–21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Signal readdressing by steering of spatial solitons in bulk nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1690–1692 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, I. C. Khoo, “Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Brauer, A.

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, F. Lederer, “Beam steering in waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3247–3249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brzda?kiewicz, K. A.

Christodoulides, D.

D. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424, 817–823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Meier, J. Hudock, D. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete vector solitons in Kerr nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christodoulides, D. N.

J. Hudock, P. G. Kevrekidis, B. A. Malomed, D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete vector solitons in two-dimensional nonlinear waveguide arrays: solutions, stability, and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, “Multiband Vector Lattice Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, E. D. Eugenieva, “Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 233901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, R. I. Joseph, “Discrete self-focusing in nonlinear arrays of coupled waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 13, 794–796 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, “Multiband Vector Lattice Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conti, C.

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Angelis, C.

A. B. Aceves, C. de Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Discrete self-trapping, soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Luca, A.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, I. C. Khoo, “Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dumm, D. A.

D. A. Dumm, A. Fukuda, G. R. Luckhurst, Physical properties of liquid crystals: nematics (INSPEC, London, 2001).

Efremidis, N. K.

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisenberg, H. S.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 31–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4756–4759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eugenieva, E. D.

D. N. Christodoulides, E. D. Eugenieva, “Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 233901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlayson, N.

N. Finlayson, G. I. Stegeman, “Spatial switching, instabilities, and chaos in a three-waveguide nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2276–2278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, J. W.

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, “Multiband Vector Lattice Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fratalocchi, A.

Fukuda, A.

D. A. Dumm, A. Fukuda, G. R. Luckhurst, Physical properties of liquid crystals: nematics (INSPEC, London, 2001).

Garmire, E.

S. Somekh, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, R. G. Hunsperger, “Channel optical waveguide directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 46–47 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Garvin, H. L.

S. Somekh, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, R. G. Hunsperger, “Channel optical waveguide directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 46–47 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hudock, J.

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hudock, P. G. Kevrekidis, B. A. Malomed, D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete vector solitons in two-dimensional nonlinear waveguide arrays: solutions, stability, and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, J. Hudock, D. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete vector solitons in Kerr nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunsperger, R. G.

S. Somekh, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, R. G. Hunsperger, “Channel optical waveguide directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 46–47 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Iwanow, R.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, S. M.

S. M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. I.

Karpierz, M.

M. Karpierz, “Solitary waves in liquid crystalline waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 036603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karpierz, M. A.

Kevrekidis, P. G.

J. Hudock, P. G. Kevrekidis, B. A. Malomed, D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete vector solitons in two-dimensional nonlinear waveguide arrays: solutions, stability, and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, I. C. Khoo, “Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Liquid crystals: physical properties and optical phenomena (Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995).

Kivshar, Y. S.

R. A. Vicencio, M. I. Molina, Y. S. Kivshar, “Switching of discrete optical solitons in engineered waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 026602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, “Multigap discrete vector solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 31–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, “Generation and stability of discrete gap solitons,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2345–2347 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Krolikowsky, Y. S. Kivshar, “Soliton-based optical switching in waveguide arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 876–880 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowsky, W.

Lederer, F.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, “All-optical switching in quadratically nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28, 102–104 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424, 817–823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, F. Lederer, “Beam steering in waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3247–3249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, “Power-controlled beam steering in non equidistant arrays of nonlinear waveguides,” Opt. Comm. 136, 16–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Aceves, C. de Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Discrete self-trapping, soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, U. Trutschel, F. Lederer, “Nonlinear switching in multiple-core couplers,” Opt. Lett. 16, 294–296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luckhurst, G. R.

D. A. Dumm, A. Fukuda, G. R. Luckhurst, Physical properties of liquid crystals: nematics (INSPEC, London, 2001).

Malomed, B. A.

J. Hudock, P. G. Kevrekidis, B. A. Malomed, D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete vector solitons in two-dimensional nonlinear waveguide arrays: solutions, stability, and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mandelik, D.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, M.

Meier, J.

J. Meier, J. Hudock, D. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete vector solitons in Kerr nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, P. D.

Min, Y.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molina, M. I.

R. A. Vicencio, M. I. Molina, Y. S. Kivshar, “Switching of discrete optical solitons in engineered waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 026602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

J. Meier, J. Hudock, D. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete vector solitons in Kerr nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4756–4759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Muschall, R.

T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, “Power-controlled beam steering in non equidistant arrays of nonlinear waveguides,” Opt. Comm. 136, 16–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Aceves, C. de Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Discrete self-trapping, soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peccianti, M.

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, “Spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 13–21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Signal readdressing by steering of spatial solitons in bulk nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1690–1692 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, I. C. Khoo, “Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, “All-optical switching in quadratically nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28, 102–104 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, F. Lederer, “Beam steering in waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3247–3249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, T.

T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, “Power-controlled beam steering in non equidistant arrays of nonlinear waveguides,” Opt. Comm. 136, 16–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Aceves, C. de Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Discrete self-trapping, soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, “All-optical switching in quadratically nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28, 102–104 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, F. Lederer, “Beam steering in waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3247–3249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4756–4759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakoda, K.

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).

Schiek, R.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.

Schwartz, T.

O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, “Multiband Vector Lattice Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, “Multiband Vector Lattice Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

J. Meier, J. Hudock, D. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete vector solitons in Kerr nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 31–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424, 817–823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4756–4759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somekh, S.

S. Somekh, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, R. G. Hunsperger, “Channel optical waveguide directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 46–47 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

J. Meier, J. Hudock, D. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete vector solitons in Kerr nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Finlayson, G. I. Stegeman, “Spatial switching, instabilities, and chaos in a three-waveguide nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2276–2278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, “Generation and stability of discrete gap solitons,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2345–2347 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 31–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, “Multigap discrete vector solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trillo, S.

A. B. Aceves, C. de Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Discrete self-trapping, soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Coupling instability and power-induced switching with two-core dual-polarizations fiber nonlinear couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 483–491 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Trutschel, U.

Umeton, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, I. C. Khoo, “Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vicencio, R. A.

R. A. Vicencio, M. I. Molina, Y. S. Kivshar, “Switching of discrete optical solitons in engineered waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 026602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, S.

A. B. Aceves, C. de Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Discrete self-trapping, soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Coupling instability and power-induced switching with two-core dual-polarizations fiber nonlinear couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 483–491 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

S. Somekh, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, R. G. Hunsperger, “Channel optical waveguide directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 46–47 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, F. Lederer, “Beam steering in waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3247–3249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Somekh, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, R. G. Hunsperger, “Channel optical waveguide directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 46–47 (1973).
[CrossRef]

N. Finlayson, G. I. Stegeman, “Spatial switching, instabilities, and chaos in a three-waveguide nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2276–2278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, F. Lederer, “Beam steering in waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3247–3249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, I. C. Khoo, “Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, “Spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 13–21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 31–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

D. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424, 817–823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Comm. (1)

T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, “Power-controlled beam steering in non equidistant arrays of nonlinear waveguides,” Opt. Comm. 136, 16–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. E (4)

M. Karpierz, “Solitary waves in liquid crystalline waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 036603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Vicencio, M. I. Molina, Y. S. Kivshar, “Switching of discrete optical solitons in engineered waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 026602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hudock, P. G. Kevrekidis, B. A. Malomed, D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete vector solitons in two-dimensional nonlinear waveguide arrays: solutions, stability, and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Aceves, C. de Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, “Discrete self-trapping, soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

D. N. Christodoulides, E. D. Eugenieva, “Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 233901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4756–4759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, J. Hudock, D. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete vector solitons in Kerr nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet-Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. S. Kivshar, “Multigap discrete vector solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, “Multiband Vector Lattice Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, “Observation of mutually trapped multiband optical breathers in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

I. C. Khoo, Liquid crystals: physical properties and optical phenomena (Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995).

D. A. Dumm, A. Fukuda, G. R. Luckhurst, Physical properties of liquid crystals: nematics (INSPEC, London, 2001).

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (1123 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (222 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1 .
Fig. 1 .

eft) Sketch of the NLC waveguide array. Right) Typical transverse index distribution for a bias of 1V.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(1123 KB) Eigenvalue spectrum of the array (left), width of first and second gaps (center) and corresponding refractive index (cross sections at the center of the cell, x=0) for different biases. (Right) Gap 1 and gap 2 are between bands 0–1 and bands 1–2, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental response of the NLC array with Λ=8µm: (a) discrete diffraction in (y,z) for P=1mW; (b) assembled photographs of light propagation in z 0<z<z 1 versus bias and (c) versus input power; (d) photograph of a discrete soliton excited by P=10mW and propagating along the input channel.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(222 KB) Animation showing light propagation in the plane (y,z), evolving from diffraction to discrete soliton generation as the power injected in a single channel ramps from 0.1.to 1.0mW. Here V=0.74V (z-and y-axes units are in µm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

BPM simulations of discrete beam steering: (a) linear (P L =0.1mW) and (b) nonlinear (P H =2.0mW) light propagation in (y,z); (c) corresponding cross-section of the output intensity distribution in z=2mm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental observations of angular beam steering: (a) discrete diffraction of a tilted beam for P L =1mW; (b) observation of nonlinear steering for P H =7mW; (c) profiles of the output intensity in z=2mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Numerical (BPM) experiments on vectors breather in NLC: (a) Floquet-Bloch profiles (density plots) with corresponding refractive index distributions for V=1V (contour lines) and ky=1 in band 0 (top) and band 1 (bottom); (b) light propagation of FB modes belonging to band 0 (top) and band 1 (bottom) for P=0.2mW; (c) a vector breather generated by superimposing band 0 and band 1 excitations (b) with a total P=0.4mW.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Low power P=0.2mW and (b) high power P=7mW light propagation in the NLC array excited by a Gaussian beam with w y =5µm launched between waveguides. (c) Breather period (blue dots and error bars) and calculated width of gap 1 (red solid line) versus applied bias.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K 2 θ + Δ ε RF E x 2 2 sin 2 θ = 0
x [ ( ε cos 2 θ + ε sin 2 θ ) x V ] + ε 2 y 2 V = 0
E FB = Π k ( x , y ) exp j ( k y y k z z )
[ 2 + 2 j k y y + k 0 2 n 2 ( x , y ) k y 2 ] Π k ( x , y ) = k z 2 Π k ( x , y )

Metrics