Abstract

In this paper we describe a new modulation scheme using stimulated Raman scattering in conjunction with a reverse biased p-i-n diode embedded in a silicon waveguide. We show optical modulation of a weak probe beam by modulating the reverse bias voltage of the silicon waveguide excited by a strong pump beam. The probe beam modulation is due to the two-photon absorption-induced carrier density modulation in the waveguide. By tuning the probe wavelength to the Stokes wavelength, we demonstrate for the first time a lossless optical modulator in silicon with modulation speeds up to 80-MHz.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  6. C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1 GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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  9. P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
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  11. U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Elect Lett. 30406–407 (1994)
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  14. T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343–3345 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  15. Richard Jones, Haisheng Rong, Ansheng Liu, Alexander W. Fang, Mario J. Paniccia, Dani Hak, and Oded Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Exp.13519–525 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=82390&seq=0
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 4437–4442 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express13, 796–800 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-796
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Details are available at http://www.photond.com
  24. A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express12, 4261–4268 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd edition (Academic Press, New York, 1995).
  26. I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

2005 (1)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196–2198 (2004)
[Crossref]

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub us switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 162039–2041 (2004)
[Crossref]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of 11dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier,” IEICE Elect. Express 1, 429–434 (2004)
[Crossref]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343–3345 (2004)
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1 GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 ▫m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Elect Lett. 30406–407 (1994)
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. T. Feng and E. A. Irene, “Thermo-optical switching in Si based etalons,” J. Appl. Phys. 723897–3903 (1992)
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electro-optical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-23, 123–129 (1987)
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R. A. Soref and P. J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6 µm.,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-22, 873–879 (1986).
[Crossref]

Aalto, T.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub us switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 162039–2041 (2004)
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd edition (Academic Press, New York, 1995).

Almeida, V. R.

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 4437–4442 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asgari, M.

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 ▫m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electro-optical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-23, 123–129 (1987)
[Crossref]

Boyraz, O.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of 11dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier,” IEICE Elect. Express 1, 429–434 (2004)
[Crossref]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express12, 5269–5273 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express13, 796–800 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-796
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breglio, G.

A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1 GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chabloz, M.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Claps, R.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 2774–2780 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196–2198 (2004)
[Crossref]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express12, 4261–4268 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, Oded

Richard Jones, Haisheng Rong, Ansheng Liu, Alexander W. Fang, Mario J. Paniccia, Dani Hak, and Oded Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Exp.13519–525 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=82390&seq=0
[Crossref]

Cutolo, A.

A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1 GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dainesi, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Day, I.

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 ▫m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Day, S.

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

Declerq, M.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dimitropoulos, D.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 2774–2780 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drake, J.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 ▫m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Evans, I.

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Alexander W.

Richard Jones, Haisheng Rong, Ansheng Liu, Alexander W. Fang, Mario J. Paniccia, Dani Hak, and Oded Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Exp.13519–525 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=82390&seq=0
[Crossref]

Fazan, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Feng, S. T.

S. T. Feng and E. A. Irene, “Thermo-optical switching in Si based etalons,” J. Appl. Phys. 723897–3903 (1992)
[Crossref]

Fischer, U.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Elect Lett. 30406–407 (1994)
[Crossref]

Fluckiger, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196–2198 (2004)
[Crossref]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express12, 4261–4268 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hak, Dani

Richard Jones, Haisheng Rong, Ansheng Liu, Alexander W. Fang, Mario J. Paniccia, Dani Hak, and Oded Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Exp.13519–525 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=82390&seq=0
[Crossref]

Harjanne, M.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub us switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 162039–2041 (2004)
[Crossref]

Harpin, A.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 ▫m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Heimala, P.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub us switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 162039–2041 (2004)
[Crossref]

Hopper, F.

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

Ionescu, A.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Irace, A.

A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1 GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
[Crossref]

Irene, E. A.

S. T. Feng and E. A. Irene, “Thermo-optical switching in Si based etalons,” J. Appl. Phys. 723897–3903 (1992)
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of 11dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier,” IEICE Elect. Express 1, 429–434 (2004)
[Crossref]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express12, 5269–5273 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 2774–2780 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express13, 796–800 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-796
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnstone, J.

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, Richard

Richard Jones, Haisheng Rong, Ansheng Liu, Alexander W. Fang, Mario J. Paniccia, Dani Hak, and Oded Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Exp.13519–525 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=82390&seq=0
[Crossref]

Kapulainen, M.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub us switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 162039–2041 (2004)
[Crossref]

Knights, A.

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

Knights, A. P.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2004).

Kung, A.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lagos, A.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343–3345 (2004)
[Crossref]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 ▫m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 4437–4442 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196–2198 (2004)
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express12, 4261–4268 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Ansheng

Richard Jones, Haisheng Rong, Ansheng Liu, Alexander W. Fang, Mario J. Paniccia, Dani Hak, and Oded Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Exp.13519–525 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=82390&seq=0
[Crossref]

Lockwood, D. J.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Spronger-Verlag, New York, 2004).

Lorenzo, P. J.

R. A. Soref and P. J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6 µm.,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-22, 873–879 (1986).
[Crossref]

Luff, J.

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196–2198 (2004)
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196–2198 (2004)
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express12, 4261–4268 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniccia, Mario J.

Richard Jones, Haisheng Rong, Ansheng Liu, Alexander W. Fang, Mario J. Paniccia, Dani Hak, and Oded Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Exp.13519–525 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=82390&seq=0
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Spronger-Verlag, New York, 2004).

Petermann, K.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Elect Lett. 30406–407 (1994)
[Crossref]

Raghunathan, V.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 2774–2780 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, G. T.

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2004).

Renaud, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Robert, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Roberts, S.

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

Roberts, S. W.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 ▫m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196–2198 (2004)
[Crossref]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express12, 4261–4268 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rong, Haisheng

Richard Jones, Haisheng Rong, Ansheng Liu, Alexander W. Fang, Mario J. Paniccia, Dani Hak, and Oded Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Exp.13519–525 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=82390&seq=0
[Crossref]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuppert, B.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Elect Lett. 30406–407 (1994)
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electro-optical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-23, 123–129 (1987)
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref and P. J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6 µm.,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-22, 873–879 (1986).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. K.

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343–3345 (2004)
[Crossref]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 ▫m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

Wong, C. S.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 ▫m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 4437–4442 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zinke, T.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Elect Lett. 30406–407 (1994)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196–2198 (2004)
[Crossref]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 ▫m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343–3345 (2004)
[Crossref]

Elect Lett. (1)

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Elect Lett. 30406–407 (1994)
[Crossref]

Elect. Lett. (2)

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1 GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quant. Elec. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electro-optical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-23, 123–129 (1987)
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and P. J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6 µm.,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-22, 873–879 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. (1)

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub us switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 162039–2041 (2004)
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEICE Elect. Express (1)

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of 11dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier,” IEICE Elect. Express 1, 429–434 (2004)
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. T. Feng and E. A. Irene, “Thermo-optical switching in Si based etalons,” J. Appl. Phys. 723897–3903 (1992)
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427615–618 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (11)

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 2774–2780 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richard Jones, Haisheng Rong, Ansheng Liu, Alexander W. Fang, Mario J. Paniccia, Dani Hak, and Oded Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Exp.13519–525 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=82390&seq=0
[Crossref]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express12, 5269–5273 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Spronger-Verlag, New York, 2004).

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2004).

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 4437–4442 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express13, 796–800 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-796
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Details are available at http://www.photond.com

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express12, 4261–4268 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd edition (Academic Press, New York, 1995).

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knights, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnstone, S. Day, J. Luff, H. K. Tsang, and M. Asgari, “Tapered silicon waveguides for low insertion loss highly efficient high speed electronic variable attenuators,” IEEE OFC, March 24–27, 2003.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1. (a)
Fig. 1. (a)

Schematic diagram of the SOI p-i-n waveguide used in our experiment.

Fig. 1. (b)
Fig. 1. (b)

SEM image of the SOI p-i-n waveguide used in our experiment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup used to make the gain measurement. DUT is device under test, TEC is thermo-electric cooler

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Net Raman gain as a function of reverse bias for different pump powers coupled into the silicon waveguide, error bars display the standard deviation

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modeled carrier density in our silicon waveguide device at different pump powers as a function of bias voltage

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Demonstration of lossless silicon modulator for a pump power of 954-mW inside our device and 10-MHz square wave drive voltage

Fig. 6. (a)
Fig. 6. (a)

The on-chip voltage and optical modulation as a function of frequency for a pump power of 579-mW inside a d=6-um waveguide; error bars display the standard deviation

Fig. 6. (b)
Fig. 6. (b)

Normalized frequency plot for a pump power of 579-mW inside a d=6-um S-bend waveguide

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. DC current, Transmission loss, Modulation depth and 3-dB Bandwidth for this silicon modulator for various pump powers and drive voltages

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G = 10 log P s ( L ) P s ( 0 )
ζ = β 2 h ν P 2 A eff 2

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