Abstract

LDS dyes were doped into zirconia-organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) materials prepared by low temperature sol-gel technique. Embedded channel waveguides were fabricated using wet etching of glass substrates followed by deposition of the LDS 925-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL in the channel. Near infrared distributed feedback (DFB) laser action was induced in the LDS 925-doped sol-gel channel waveguide. Narrow line-width (<0.5 nm) tuning of the output wavelength was achieved by varying the period of the gain modulation generated by a nanosecond neodymium:YAG laser at 532 nm. Tuning range was from 787 nm to 933 nm. The dispersion behavior of the laser output was checked by comparing experiments with the predictions of Marcatili’s theory. Additionally, near infrared (NIR) wide-band tuning and high-order DFB lasing operation were realized in LDS dye-doped planar waveguides.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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App. Phys. B

M. Broyer, J. Chevaleyre, G. Delacretaz and L. Wöste, �??CVL-Pumped Dye Laser For Spectroscopic Application,�?? App. Phys. B 35, 31 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

C. Ye, J. Wang, L. Shi and D. Lo, �??Polarization and threshold energy variation of distributed feedback lasing of oxazine dye in zirconia waveguides and in solutions,�?? Appl. Phys. B 78, 189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Voss, D. Scheel, W. Schade, �??A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser,�?? Appl. Phys. B 73, 105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Kobayashi, J.B. Savatier, G. Jordan, W.J. Blau, Y. Suzuki and T. Kaino, �??Near-infrared laser emission from luminescent plastic waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.E. Bjorkholm, C.V. Shank, �??Higher-Order Distributed Feedback Oscillators,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 306 (1972).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, �??A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Benatsou, B. Capoen, M. Bouazaoui, W. Tchana, and J. P. Vilcot, �??Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived Er3+:Al2O3-SiO2 planar waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 428 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sorek, R. Reisfeld, I. Finkelstein, and S. Ruschin, �??Light amplification in a dye-doped glass planar waveguide,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, �??Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Tousssaere, J. Zyss, A. Pogantsch, E.W.J. List, H. Tillman, H.H. Horhold, �??Optically written solid-state lasers with broadly tunable mode emission based on improved poly (2,5-dialkoxy-phenylene-vinylene),�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 716 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Zhu and D. Lo, �??Distributed-feedback sol-gel dye laser tunable in the near ultraviolet,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2647 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Zhu and D. Lo, �??Sol-gel glass distributed feedback waveguide laser,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Lo, L. Shi, J. Wang, G. Zhang and X.-L. Zhu, �??Zirconia and zirconia-organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers tunable in the visible,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2707 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X.-L. Zhu, �??Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Merlo, P. Prosposito, R. Russo, and S. Schutzmann, �??1.3 µm light amplification in dye-doped hybrid sol-gel channel waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, J. Wang, C. Ye, D. Lo and X.-L. Zhu, �??Distributed feedback sol-gel zirconia channel waveguide lasers,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, �??Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,�?? Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.

G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, �??Sol-gel glass waveguides,�?? J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N.J. Vasa and M. Maeda, �??Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,�?? Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett.

G. Wang and F. Gan, �??Optical parameters and absorption studies of azo dye-doped polymer thin films on silicon,�?? Mater. Lett. 43, 6 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Denis, C. Fiorini, J.M. Nunzi, F. Sobel, B. Sahraoui, D. Gindre, �??Polymer thin-film distributed feedback tunable lasers,�?? J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Bado, C. Dupuy, K.R. Wilson, R. Boggy, J. Bowen and S. Westra, �??High Efficiency Picosecond Pulse Generation in the 675-930nm Region from a Dye Laser Synchronously Pumped by an Argon-Ion Laser,�?? Opt. Commun. 46(3, 4), 241 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Hoffnagle, L. Ph. Roesch, N. Schlumpf and A. Weis, �??Cw Operation of Laser Dyes Styryl-9 and Styryl-11,�?? Opt. Commun. 42, 267 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, S. Miyamoto, M. Tanaka, D. Zuo and M. Maeda, �??Long lifetime and high repetition rate operation from distributed feedback plastic waveguided dye lasers�?? Opt. Commun. 214, 277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

M. Zevin and R. Reisfeld, �??Preparation and properties of active waveguides based on zirconia glasses,�?? Opt. Mater. 8, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oyo Butsuri.

K. Matsutani, A. Shinpoh, M. Uchiumi, T. Okada, M. Maeda, K. Muraoka and M. Akazaki, �??Laser Action in New Styryl Dyes and Their Tuning Characteristics,�?? Oyo Butsuri. 59(8), 1089 (1990).

Synth. Met.

G.A. Turnbull, T.F. Krauss, W.L. Barnes, I.D.W. Samuel, �??Tuneable distributed feedback lasing in MEH-PPV films,�?? Synth. Met. 121, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. R. Pollack, Fundamentals of Optoelectronics (Irwin, Chicago, 1995), Chap. 8.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscope images of a 30-µm-wide channel waveguide in glass (b) and its cross-section (a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of n (refractive index) (a) and k (extinction coefficient) (b) from 400 nm to 1200 nm taken at 10-nm interval.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorption, fluorescence and amplified spontaneous emission spectra for an LDS 925-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

DFB waveguide laser tuning data (a) and output spectrum (b) for a 30-µm-wide, 4-µm-deep channel waveguide. The dye concentration was 0.005 M.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

DFB laser output wavelength for channels of various width and a depth of 1.8 µm. The solid line is prediction based on Marcatili’s theory.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Wavelength tuning of first-, second- and third-order DFB lasing of LDS 925-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL waveguide laser. (b) NIR wide-band wavelength tuning vs theoretical fit for LDS dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL waveguide laser.

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