Abstract

We describe the architecture, fabrication, and electro-optical characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D), periodic, highly ordered array of subwavelength scale organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). A 2D nanohole array template was introduced onto a patterned ITO glass substrate by two-step irradiated hologram lithography and reactive ion etching, and then a 2D nanohole OLED array was prepared by following typical OLED fabrication procedures. Our analysis of the electro-optical characteristics of this device showed that shrinking the OLEDs to sub-wavelength scale has only a minimal effect on their optical properties. We also used the Bragg scattering effect to confirm the compounding of the millions of ~220 nm OLED light sources to form 2D periodic nanohole emission by comparing the angular dependence of the emission spectrum of the OLED array with that of a conventional OLED.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structures,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 231–237 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  8. B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  10. J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
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    [Crossref]
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  20. J. G. C. Veinot, H. Yan, S. M. Smith, J. Cui, Q. Huang, and T. J. Marks, “Fabrication and properties of organic light-emitting “Nanodiode” arrays,” Nano Lett. 2, 333–335 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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2004 (1)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (5)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structures,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 231–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, “Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3479 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. G. C. Veinot, H. Yan, S. M. Smith, J. Cui, Q. Huang, and T. J. Marks, “Fabrication and properties of organic light-emitting “Nanodiode” arrays,” Nano Lett. 2, 333–335 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Patel, K. S. J. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (5)

N. Susa, “Threshold gain and gain-enhancement due to distributed-feedback in two-dimensional photonic-crystal lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 815–823 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Nojima, “Optical-gain enhancement in two-dimensional active photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 545–551 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-H. Lee, R. L. Sellin, and D. Bimberg, “Over 30-fold enhancement of light extraction from free-standing photonic crystal slabs with InGaAs quantum dots at low temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3573–3575 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340–3342 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036–1038 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, R.E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Lasing mechanism in two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. 69, 111–114 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

O. Karthaus, L. Grasjo, N. Maruyama, and M. Shimomura, “Formation of ordered mesoscopic patterns in polymer cast films by dewetting,” Thin Solid Films 327–329, 829–832 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic Crystals: Putting a New Twist on Light Nature,”  386, 143–149 (1997).

1994 (1)

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340–3342 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036–1038 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bimberg, D.

H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-H. Lee, R. L. Sellin, and D. Bimberg, “Over 30-fold enhancement of light extraction from free-standing photonic crystal slabs with InGaAs quantum dots at low temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3573–3575 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bloemer, M. J.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

Boroditsky, M.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036–1038 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bowden, C. M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

Burroughes, J. H.

N. Patel, K. S. J. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-O

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cinà, K. S. J.

N. Patel, K. S. J. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

Coccioli, R.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036–1038 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

J. G. C. Veinot, H. Yan, S. M. Smith, J. Cui, Q. Huang, and T. J. Marks, “Fabrication and properties of organic light-emitting “Nanodiode” arrays,” Nano Lett. 2, 333–335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Do, Y. R.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, R.E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Lasing mechanism in two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. 69, 111–114 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dowling, J. P.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic Crystals: Putting a New Twist on Light Nature,”  386, 143–149 (1997).

Grasjo, L.

O. Karthaus, L. Grasjo, N. Maruyama, and M. Shimomura, “Formation of ordered mesoscopic patterns in polymer cast films by dewetting,” Thin Solid Films 327–329, 829–832 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

J. G. C. Veinot, H. Yan, S. M. Smith, J. Cui, Q. Huang, and T. J. Marks, “Fabrication and properties of organic light-emitting “Nanodiode” arrays,” Nano Lett. 2, 333–335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huh, J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.-K.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structures,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 231–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jeon, H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. Mekis, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, R.E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Lasing mechanism in two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. 69, 111–114 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic Crystals: Putting a New Twist on Light Nature,”  386, 143–149 (1997).

Jory, M. J.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340–3342 (2000).
[Crossref]

Karthaus, O.

O. Karthaus, L. Grasjo, N. Maruyama, and M. Shimomura, “Formation of ordered mesoscopic patterns in polymer cast films by dewetting,” Thin Solid Films 327–329, 829–832 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-S.

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, “Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3479 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. C.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036–1038 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.-H.

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, “Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3479 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structures,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 231–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, “Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3479 (2002).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-H. Lee, R. L. Sellin, and D. Bimberg, “Over 30-fold enhancement of light extraction from free-standing photonic crystal slabs with InGaAs quantum dots at low temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3573–3575 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structures,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 231–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, “Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3479 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lupton, J. M.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340–3342 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marks, T. J.

J. G. C. Veinot, H. Yan, S. M. Smith, J. Cui, Q. Huang, and T. J. Marks, “Fabrication and properties of organic light-emitting “Nanodiode” arrays,” Nano Lett. 2, 333–335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, N.

O. Karthaus, L. Grasjo, N. Maruyama, and M. Shimomura, “Formation of ordered mesoscopic patterns in polymer cast films by dewetting,” Thin Solid Films 327–329, 829–832 (1998).
[Crossref]

Matterson, B. J.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340–3342 (2000).
[Crossref]

McGehee, M. D.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Meier, M.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, R.E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Lasing mechanism in two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. 69, 111–114 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, R.E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Lasing mechanism in two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. 69, 111–114 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nalamasu, O.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nojima, S.

S. Nojima, “Optical-gain enhancement in two-dimensional active photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 545–551 (2001).
[Crossref]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
[Crossref]

Patel, N.

N. Patel, K. S. J. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ryu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, “Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3479 (2002).
[Crossref]

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structures,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 231–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-H. Lee, R. L. Sellin, and D. Bimberg, “Over 30-fold enhancement of light extraction from free-standing photonic crystal slabs with InGaAs quantum dots at low temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3573–3575 (2001).
[Crossref]

Saafir, A. K.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Safonov, A. F.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sakoda, K.

K. Sakoda, “Enhanced light amplification due to group-velocity anomaly peculiar to two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express4, 167–176 (1999). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-5-167
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salt, M. G.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

Samuel, I. D. W.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340–3342 (2000).
[Crossref]

Scalora, M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sellin, R. L.

H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-H. Lee, R. L. Sellin, and D. Bimberg, “Over 30-fold enhancement of light extraction from free-standing photonic crystal slabs with InGaAs quantum dots at low temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3573–3575 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shimomura, M.

O. Karthaus, L. Grasjo, N. Maruyama, and M. Shimomura, “Formation of ordered mesoscopic patterns in polymer cast films by dewetting,” Thin Solid Films 327–329, 829–832 (1998).
[Crossref]

Slusher, R. E.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Slusher, R.E.

A. Mekis, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, R.E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Lasing mechanism in two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. 69, 111–114 (1999).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. M.

J. G. C. Veinot, H. Yan, S. M. Smith, J. Cui, Q. Huang, and T. J. Marks, “Fabrication and properties of organic light-emitting “Nanodiode” arrays,” Nano Lett. 2, 333–335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.-W.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Susa, N.

N. Susa, “Threshold gain and gain-enhancement due to distributed-feedback in two-dimensional photonic-crystal lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 815–823 (2001).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, H.

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tamamura, T.

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
[Crossref]

Timko, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Veinot, J. G. C.

J. G. C. Veinot, H. Yan, S. M. Smith, J. Cui, Q. Huang, and T. J. Marks, “Fabrication and properties of organic light-emitting “Nanodiode” arrays,” Nano Lett. 2, 333–335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic Crystals: Putting a New Twist on Light Nature,”  386, 143–149 (1997).

Vrijen, R.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036–1038 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wasey, J. A. E.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wedge, S.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036–1038 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

J. G. C. Veinot, H. Yan, S. M. Smith, J. Cui, Q. Huang, and T. J. Marks, “Fabrication and properties of organic light-emitting “Nanodiode” arrays,” Nano Lett. 2, 333–335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ziebarth, J. M.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zieler, H.W.

H.W. Zieler , “Resolving power and limit of useful magnification in visual observation and photomicrography,” in Selected Papers on Optical Microscopy, M. D. Rhodes, ed., MS163/HC in Milestone Series, 163–174 (SPIE Optical engineering Press, Washington, D.C., 2000).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. (1)

A. Mekis, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, R.E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Lasing mechanism in two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. 69, 111–114 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, “Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3479 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340–3342 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036–1038 (1999).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-H. Lee, R. L. Sellin, and D. Bimberg, “Over 30-fold enhancement of light extraction from free-standing photonic crystal slabs with InGaAs quantum dots at low temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3573–3575 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Patel, K. S. J. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (1)

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structures,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 8, 231–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. Susa, “Threshold gain and gain-enhancement due to distributed-feedback in two-dimensional photonic-crystal lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 815–823 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Nojima, “Optical-gain enhancement in two-dimensional active photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 545–551 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. G. C. Veinot, H. Yan, S. M. Smith, J. Cui, Q. Huang, and T. J. Marks, “Fabrication and properties of organic light-emitting “Nanodiode” arrays,” Nano Lett. 2, 333–335 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

O. Karthaus, L. Grasjo, N. Maruyama, and M. Shimomura, “Formation of ordered mesoscopic patterns in polymer cast films by dewetting,” Thin Solid Films 327–329, 829–832 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic Crystals: Putting a New Twist on Light Nature,”  386, 143–149 (1997).

K. Sakoda, “Enhanced light amplification due to group-velocity anomaly peculiar to two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express4, 167–176 (1999). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-5-167
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.W. Zieler , “Resolving power and limit of useful magnification in visual observation and photomicrography,” in Selected Papers on Optical Microscopy, M. D. Rhodes, ed., MS163/HC in Milestone Series, 163–174 (SPIE Optical engineering Press, Washington, D.C., 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the nanohole OLEDs embedded in the 2D periodic SiO2 nanohole array. Inset is view from above the 2D array of nanohole OLEDs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images taken from the side and from above the 2D SiO2 nanohole array of nanoholes with a pitch of ~360 nm, a diameter of ~220 nm, and a height of ~120 nm on ITO glass.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FIB-SEM image of a cross-sectional view of the 2D nanohole OLEDs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Applied voltage-luminance (left axis) dependence of both the conventional (filled squares) and the 2D nanohole OLEDs (half-filled circles). The luminance data for both OLEDs are the measuring data before correction. The current density-applied voltage (I-V, right axis) responses of the conventional and 2D nanohole OLEDs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plot of corrected EL luminance-current density for the conventional (filled squares) and 2D nanohole OLEDs (half-filled circles). The data for the moth-eye like OLED are corrected with the fill factor. Inset: Emission spectra measured along the normal of the surface (θ=0°) under an applied voltage of 10.0 V

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Angular dependences of the CIE color coordinates for the conventional (filled squares) and 2D nanohole OLEDs (half-filled circles, pitch (Λ)=360 nm).

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