Abstract

The influence of fat thickness on the diffuse reflectance spectra of muscle in the near infrared (NIR) region is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-layer structure and with phantom experiments. A polynomial relationship was established between the fat thickness and the detected diffuse reflectance. The influence of a range of optical coefficients (absorption and reduced scattering) for fat and muscle over the known range of human physiological values was also investigated. Subject-to-subject variation in the fat optical coefficients and thickness can be ignored if the fat thickness is less than 5 mm. A method was proposed to correct the fat thickness influence.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Astrophys. J. (1)

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, �??Diffuse radiation in galaxy,�?? Astrophys. J. 93, 70-83 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Sci. (1)

M. C. P. van Beekvelt, M. S. Borghuis, B. G. M. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers and W. N. J. M. Colier, �??Adipose tissue thickness affects in vivo quantitative near-IR spectroscopy in human skeletal muscle,�?? Clin. Sci. 101, 21-28 (2001).

Comput. Methods Programs. Biomed. (1)

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, �??MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues,�?? Comput. Methods Programs. Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng. (1)

L. Lin, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, N. Kudo, M. Takahashi and K. Yamamoto, �??Influence of a fat layer on muscle oxygenation measurement using near-IR spectroscopy: quantitative analysis based on two-layered phantom experiments and Monte Carlo simulation,�?? 10, 43-58 (2000).

IEICE Transactions on Info. and Sys. (1)

M Niwayama, K Yamamoto, D Kohata, K Hirai, N Kudo, T Hamaoka, R Kime, T Katsumura, �??A 200-channel imaging system of muscle oxygenation using CW near-infrared spectroscopy,�?? IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems E85D, 115-123 (2002).

Int. Symp. On Non-invasive Optical Diag. (1)

K. Yamamoto, M. Niwayama, L. Lin, T. shiga, N. Kudo and K. Shimizu, �??Influence of subcutaneous fat layer on muscle oxygenation measurement using NIRS,�?? in Proc. from the Int. Symp. On Non-invasive Optical Diagnosis, Beijing, China, 37-45 (1996).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Homma, T. Fukunaga, and A. Kagaya, �??Influence of adipose tissue thickness on near infrared spectroscopic signal in the measurement of human muscle,�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 418-424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Phys. (1)

D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, �??Similarity relations for anisotropic scattering in Monte Carlo simulations of deeply penetrating neutral particles.�?? J. Comp. Phys., 81, 137-150 (1989).

Med. Phys. (1)

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, �??A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distribution of light in tissues,�?? Med. Phys. 10, 824-830 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J Shao, L Lin, M Niwayama, N Kudo, K Yamamoto, �??Theoretical and experimental studies on linear and nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of muscle oxygenation using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy,�?? Opt. Eng. 40, 2293-2301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, and H. W. Jentink, �??Similarity relations for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media,�?? Opt. Eng. 32, 244-251 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

R. Cubeddu A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli and G. Valentini, �??A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,�?? Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971-1979 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

L.Lin, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, N. Kudo, M. Takahashi, K. Yamamoto, �??Two-layered phantom experiments for characterizing the influence of a fat layer on measurement of muscle oxygenation using NIRS,�?? in Infrared Spectroscopy: New Tool in Medicine , H. H. Mantsch and M.Jackson, Eds., Proc. SPIE 3257, 156-166 (1998).

J. Shao, L. Lin, M. Niwayama, N. Kudo, and K. Yamamoto, �??Determination of a quantitative algorithm for the measurement of muscle oxygenation using CW near-infrared spectroscopy �?? mean optical pathlength without the influence of adipose tissue,�?? in Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Manipulation for Biological and Biomedical Applications, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho and A. E. T. Chiou, Eds., Proc. SPIE 4082, 76-87 (2000).

W. Cui, C. Kumar and B. Chance, �??Experimental study of migration depth for the photons measured at sample surface. I. Time resolved spectroscopy and imaging,�?? in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissue, B. Chance, Eds., Proc. SPIE 1431, 180-191 (1991).

K. Yamamoto, M. Niwayama, L. Lin, T. Shiga, N. Kudo and M. Takahashi, �??Accurate NIRS measurement of muscle oxygenation by correcting the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer,�?? in Photon Propagation in Tissue III, D. A. Benaron, B. Chance and M. Ferrari, Eds., Proc. SPIE 3194, 159-165 (1998).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M Niwayama, L Lin, J Shao, N Kudo, K Yamamoto, �??Quantitative measurement of muscle hemoglobin oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy with correction for the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer,�?? Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4571-4575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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