Abstract

We propose photonic crystal (PhC) structures in titanium dioxide (TiO2) material which is suitable for micro-nano structure optical device engineering and is a good candidate for visible light application. To provide a guideline for designing TiO2 based PhC, the comprehensive optical band gap maps of both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures are computed using the planewave expansion method. For 2D structures, besides the ideal infinite high 2D PhC and conventional air-bridge type slab, we also propose a “sandwich-type” PhC for better robustness and easier fabrication. The optimal thicknesses of both types of PhC slabs are investigated. In 3D PhC, we calculate the Yablonovite structure and its reverse which are made possible recently in our fabrication. For the first time to our knowledge, the computation results indicate that the reversed Yablonovite structure also shows a complete band gap characteristic, although it is smaller compared to that of the normal Yablonovite. The dependence of band gap width on the filling ratio and drilling angles for both types of Yablonovite structures are investigated.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486–2489 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1995).
  4. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1573–1575 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Painter, RK Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, JD O’Brien, PD Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal defect laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, X. Wang, A. Sai, and Y. Ohki, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic structure of titanium dioxide with sub-micrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.820, R4.5 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Yamasaki, N. Hata, T. Yoshida, H. Oheda, A. Matsuda, H. Okushi, and K. Tanaka, “Annealing studies on low optical absorption of GD a-Si:H using photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. 42, C4-297 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, “Preparation of Photonic Crystals Made of Air Spheres in Titania,” Science 281, 802–804 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K.-M. Ho, “Optical photonic crystals fabricated from colloidal systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3933–3935 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Cuisin, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Lourtioz, D. Decanini, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic structures with submicrometer resolution by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3505–3509 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Shimada, K. Miyazawa, and M. Kuwabara, “An easy method for fabricating TiO2 gel photonic crystals using molds and highly concentrated alkoxide solutions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L291–L293 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express. 8, 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Yablonovitch and T. J. Gmitter, “Photonic band structure: the face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295–2298 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Shimada, K. Miyazawa, and M. Kuwabara, “An easy method for fabricating TiO2 gel photonic crystals using molds and highly concentrated alkoxide solutions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L291–L293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express. 8, 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

C. Cuisin, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Lourtioz, D. Decanini, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic structures with submicrometer resolution by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3505–3509 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K.-M. Ho, “Optical photonic crystals fabricated from colloidal systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3933–3935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, RK Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, JD O’Brien, PD Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal defect laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, “Preparation of Photonic Crystals Made of Air Spheres in Titania,” Science 281, 802–804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1573–1575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

E. Yablonovitch and T. J. Gmitter, “Photonic band structure: the face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295–2298 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

S. Yamasaki, N. Hata, T. Yoshida, H. Oheda, A. Matsuda, H. Okushi, and K. Tanaka, “Annealing studies on low optical absorption of GD a-Si:H using photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. 42, C4-297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alleman, A.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Awazu, K.

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, X. Wang, A. Sai, and Y. Ohki, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic structure of titanium dioxide with sub-micrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.820, R4.5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K.-M. Ho, “Optical photonic crystals fabricated from colloidal systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3933–3935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chelnokov, A.

C. Cuisin, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Lourtioz, D. Decanini, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic structures with submicrometer resolution by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3505–3509 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. C.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

C. Cuisin, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Lourtioz, D. Decanini, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic structures with submicrometer resolution by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3505–3509 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Constant, K.

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K.-M. Ho, “Optical photonic crystals fabricated from colloidal systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3933–3935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cuisin, C.

C. Cuisin, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Lourtioz, D. Decanini, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic structures with submicrometer resolution by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3505–3509 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, PD

O. Painter, RK Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, JD O’Brien, PD Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal defect laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decanini, D.

C. Cuisin, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Lourtioz, D. Decanini, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic structures with submicrometer resolution by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3505–3509 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1573–1575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, Y.

Fujimaki, M.

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, X. Wang, A. Sai, and Y. Ohki, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic structure of titanium dioxide with sub-micrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.820, R4.5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

E. Yablonovitch and T. J. Gmitter, “Photonic band structure: the face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295–2298 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hata, N.

S. Yamasaki, N. Hata, T. Yoshida, H. Oheda, A. Matsuda, H. Okushi, and K. Tanaka, “Annealing studies on low optical absorption of GD a-Si:H using photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. 42, C4-297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, K.-M.

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K.-M. Ho, “Optical photonic crystals fabricated from colloidal systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3933–3935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, H.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imada, M.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, S.

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express. 8, 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1573–1575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1995).

John, S.

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express. 8, 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

O. Painter, RK Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, JD O’Brien, PD Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal defect laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, N.

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurland, I.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuwabara, M.

S. Shimada, K. Miyazawa, and M. Kuwabara, “An easy method for fabricating TiO2 gel photonic crystals using molds and highly concentrated alkoxide solutions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L291–L293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, RK

O. Painter, RK Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, JD O’Brien, PD Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal defect laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. Y.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lourtioz, J.-M.

C. Cuisin, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Lourtioz, D. Decanini, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic structures with submicrometer resolution by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3505–3509 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, A.

S. Yamasaki, N. Hata, T. Yoshida, H. Oheda, A. Matsuda, H. Okushi, and K. Tanaka, “Annealing studies on low optical absorption of GD a-Si:H using photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. 42, C4-297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1995).

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazawa, K.

S. Shimada, K. Miyazawa, and M. Kuwabara, “An easy method for fabricating TiO2 gel photonic crystals using molds and highly concentrated alkoxide solutions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L291–L293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, M.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagasawa, Y.

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, T.

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, K.

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, JD

O. Painter, RK Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, JD O’Brien, PD Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal defect laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogawa, S.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oheda, H.

S. Yamasaki, N. Hata, T. Yoshida, H. Oheda, A. Matsuda, H. Okushi, and K. Tanaka, “Annealing studies on low optical absorption of GD a-Si:H using photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. 42, C4-297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ohki, Y.

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, X. Wang, A. Sai, and Y. Ohki, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic structure of titanium dioxide with sub-micrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.820, R4.5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okano, M.

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okushi, H.

S. Yamasaki, N. Hata, T. Yoshida, H. Oheda, A. Matsuda, H. Okushi, and K. Tanaka, “Annealing studies on low optical absorption of GD a-Si:H using photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. 42, C4-297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, RK Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, JD O’Brien, PD Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal defect laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sai, A.

K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, X. Wang, A. Sai, and Y. Ohki, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic structure of titanium dioxide with sub-micrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.820, R4.5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, RK Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, JD O’Brien, PD Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal defect laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shima, K.

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, S.

S. Shimada, K. Miyazawa, and M. Kuwabara, “An easy method for fabricating TiO2 gel photonic crystals using molds and highly concentrated alkoxide solutions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L291–L293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K.-M. Ho, “Optical photonic crystals fabricated from colloidal systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3933–3935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramania, G.

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K.-M. Ho, “Optical photonic crystals fabricated from colloidal systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3933–3935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

S. Yamasaki, N. Hata, T. Yoshida, H. Oheda, A. Matsuda, H. Okushi, and K. Tanaka, “Annealing studies on low optical absorption of GD a-Si:H using photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. 42, C4-297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, P. B.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, W. L.

J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, “Preparation of Photonic Crystals Made of Air Spheres in Titania,” Science 281, 802–804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, X. Wang, A. Sai, and Y. Ohki, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic structure of titanium dioxide with sub-micrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.820, R4.5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wijnhoven, J. E. G. J.

J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, “Preparation of Photonic Crystals Made of Air Spheres in Titania,” Science 281, 802–804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1995).

Winn, J. N.

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch and T. J. Gmitter, “Photonic band structure: the face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295–2298 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamasaki, S.

S. Yamasaki, N. Hata, T. Yoshida, H. Oheda, A. Matsuda, H. Okushi, and K. Tanaka, “Annealing studies on low optical absorption of GD a-Si:H using photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. 42, C4-297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, RK Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, JD O’Brien, PD Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal defect laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, T.

S. Yamasaki, N. Hata, T. Yoshida, H. Oheda, A. Matsuda, H. Okushi, and K. Tanaka, “Annealing studies on low optical absorption of GD a-Si:H using photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. 42, C4-297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Zubrzycki, W.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K.-M. Ho, “Optical photonic crystals fabricated from colloidal systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3933–3935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. (1)

S. Yamasaki, N. Hata, T. Yoshida, H. Oheda, A. Matsuda, H. Okushi, and K. Tanaka, “Annealing studies on low optical absorption of GD a-Si:H using photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. (Paris), Colloq. 42, C4-297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. Cuisin, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Lourtioz, D. Decanini, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic structures with submicrometer resolution by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3505–3509 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Shimada, K. Miyazawa, and M. Kuwabara, “An easy method for fabricating TiO2 gel photonic crystals using molds and highly concentrated alkoxide solutions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L291–L293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. B. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature 407, 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express. (1)

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express. 8, 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Nomura, T. Nakanishi, Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, N. Kobayashi, S. Ishii, and K. Shima, “Structural change induced in TiO2 by swift heavy ions and its application to three dimensional lithography,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 64106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch and T. J. Gmitter, “Photonic band structure: the face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295–2298 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, “Preparation of Photonic Crystals Made of Air Spheres in Titania,” Science 281, 802–804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, RK Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, JD O’Brien, PD Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal defect laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki, X. Wang, A. Sai, and Y. Ohki, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic structure of titanium dioxide with sub-micrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.820, R4.5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1995).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The reversed Yablonovite structure of titania fabricated by the liquid phase deposition method using a PMMA template (honeycomb lattice). Diameter of individual rod is 400nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

An example of the band structure for a 2D PhC of triangular lattice air holes in TiO2 background. The hole radius is r=0.4a.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The optical band gap maps for two-dimensional TiO2 PhC of triangular lattice. (a) and (b) are for air holes in TiO2 background. (c) and (d) are for TiO2 rods in air.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The optical band gap maps for two-dimensional TiO2 PhC with square lattice ((a) and (b)) and honeycomb lattice ((c) and (d)). The TiO2 dielectric material is indicated in black in the insets.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The computational model of the air-bridge type PhC slab (Fig. (a)), and the computed TE-like band curves for r/a=0.4, h/a=0.6 slab (Fig. (b)).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The dependence of even-band gap width on the slab thickness for even mode at r/a=0.4.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The calculated TE transmission spectrum of the PhC slab for r/a=0.4 and h/a=0.6, by 3D FDTD.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) The proposed “sandwich-stucture” of TiO2 PhC slab on SiO2 substrate. (b) Its evenmode bandgap width against the slab thickness for different air-hole radii.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) The Yablonovite structure, (b) the unit cell for computation, and (c) the corresponding first Brillouin Zone.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) The band structures of TiO2 Yablonovite with drilling angle of 35.26° and air hole radius of 0.325a. (b) the band gap map for different air hole radii.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

The dependence of band gap width of TiO2 Yablonovite on drilling angle for different hole radii.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

The band structures of TiO2 Yablonovite with drilling angle of (a) 31.26°, (b) 39.26°.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

The band structure of reversed Yablonovite in TiO2 with drilling angle=35.26°. (a) the structure image. (b) the band structure for r/a=0.19.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

(a) The band gap map for different air hole radii. (b)The dependence of band gap width of TiO2 reversed Yablonovite on the drilling angle (r/a=0.19).

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

The band gap size of TiO2 Yablonovite with ellipsoidal holes. The gray line shows the corresponding optimal drilling angles.

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