Abstract

The properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber designed for 1.55 um transmission are investigated with special emphasis on polarization issues. Large and strongly wavelength dependent phase and group delays are found. At the same time the principle states of polarization move strongly and erratically as a function of wavelength, leading to strong mode coupling. Wavelength regions with high polarization dependent loss coincide with depolarization due to a polarization dependent coupling to surface modes at these wavelengths.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  30. M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, K.P. Hansen, T.P. Hansen, and C. Jakobsen, “Detailed polarization properties comparison of three completely different species of highly birefringent fibers,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, NIST Special Publication  1024, 119–122, 2004
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  33. R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmansa, and H. Thienpont, “Sensitivity of holey fiber based sensors,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2003, paper Tu.P.22, 340–343, Warsaw, Poland, 2003
    [Crossref]

2004 (5)

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonsen, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 11–15, 2004
[Crossref]

X. Chen, M.J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, W.A. Wood, A.M. Crowley, J.P. Carberry, L.A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, “Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 3888–3893, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3888
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, 2004
[Crossref]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Communications 241, 339–348, 2004
[Crossref]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, K.P. Hansen, T.P. Hansen, and C. Jakobsen, “Detailed polarization properties comparison of three completely different species of highly birefringent fibers,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, NIST Special Publication  1024, 119–122, 2004

2003 (5)

M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3374–3378, 2003
[Crossref]

P. Russel, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362, 2003
[Crossref]

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Laegsgaard, N.A. Mortensen, J. Riishede, and A. Bjarklev, “Material effects in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. America B: Opt. Phys. 20, 2046–2051, 2003
[Crossref]

C.M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J.A. West, N.F. Borrelli, D.C. Allan, and K.W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291–1293, 2002
[Crossref]

D. Müller, J. West, and K. Koch, “Interferometric chromatic dispersion measurement of a photonic band-gap fiber,” Active and passive optical components for WDM communications II, in proceedings of SPIE 4870, 395–403, 2002

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurements in single-mode optical fibers with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 828–835, 2002
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa, and L. Palmieri, “Beat length characterization based on backscattering analysis in randomly perturbed single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1172–1178, 1999
[Crossref]

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539, 1999
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

B. Huttner, J. Recht, O. Guinnard, J.P. Von Der Weid, and R. Passy, “Local Birefringence Measurements in Single Mode Fibers with Coherent Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460, 1998
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J.P. Von Der Weid, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with OFDR,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1–11, 1997

1991 (1)

N. Gisin, J.P. Von der Weid, and J.P. Pellaux, “Polarization mode dispersion of short and long single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 821–827, 1991
[Crossref]

Ahmad, F.R.

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allan, D.C.

C.M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J.A. West, N.F. Borrelli, D.C. Allan, and K.W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539, 1999
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antkowiak, M.

R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmansa, and H. Thienpont, “Sensitivity of holey fiber based sensors,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2003, paper Tu.P.22, 340–343, Warsaw, Poland, 2003
[Crossref]

Barkou, S.E.

Berghmansa, F.

R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmansa, and H. Thienpont, “Sensitivity of holey fiber based sensors,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2003, paper Tu.P.22, 340–343, Warsaw, Poland, 2003
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T.A.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539, 1999
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

Bise, R.

J. Jaspara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of mode-cut-off on dispersion in photonic bandgap fibers,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper ThI3, 492–493, Atlanta, USA, 2003

Bjarklev, A.

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonsen, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 11–15, 2004
[Crossref]

J. Laegsgaard, N.A. Mortensen, J. Riishede, and A. Bjarklev, “Material effects in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. America B: Opt. Phys. 20, 2046–2051, 2003
[Crossref]

J. Broeng, S.E. Barkou, T. Sondergaard, and A. Bjarklev, “Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 96–98, 2000
[Crossref]

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonson, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guidance over 345m large-core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper PD4-1-3,Atlanta, USA, 2003

Bock, W.J.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, and W.J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal holey fibers,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2002, paper We.P.10, 89–92, Warsaw, Poland, 2002

Borrelli, N.F.

C.M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J.A. West, N.F. Borrelli, D.C. Allan, and K.W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

J.D. Shephard, J.D.C. Jones, D.P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, and B.J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12, 717–723, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, L. Farr, B.J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, “Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express11, 1613–1620, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-14-1613
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broeng, J.

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonsen, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 11–15, 2004
[Crossref]

J. Broeng, S.E. Barkou, T. Sondergaard, and A. Bjarklev, “Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 96–98, 2000
[Crossref]

M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, T.P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, “Polarization properties of an air-guiding Photonic Bandgap Fibre for 1550 nm transmission,” in proceedings of ECOC 2004, paper Mo4.3.7, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonson, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guidance over 345m large-core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper PD4-1-3,Atlanta, USA, 2003

Carberry, J.P.

Chen, X.

Corsi, F.

Couny, F.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

Coupland, S.

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

Cregan, R.F.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539, 1999
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crowley, A.M.

Digonnet, M.J.F.

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, 2004
[Crossref]

H.K. Kim, M.J.F. Digonnet, G.S. Kino, J. Shin, and S. Fan, “Simulations of the effect of the core ring on surface and air-core modes in photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express12, 3436–3442, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-15-3436
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fajardo, J.C.

N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, C.M. Smith, D. Müller, J.A. West, K.W. Koch, and J.C. Fajardo, “Low loss (13 dB/km) air core photonicband-gap fibre,” in proceedings of ECOC 2002, paper PD 1.1, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002

Fan, S.

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, 2004
[Crossref]

H.K. Kim, M.J.F. Digonnet, G.S. Kino, J. Shin, and S. Fan, “Simulations of the effect of the core ring on surface and air-core modes in photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express12, 3436–3442, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-15-3436
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farr, L.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, L. Farr, B.J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, “Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express11, 1613–1620, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-14-1613
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flea, R.

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

Folkenberg, J.R.

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonsen, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 11–15, 2004
[Crossref]

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonson, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guidance over 345m large-core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper PD4-1-3,Atlanta, USA, 2003

Gaeta, A.L.

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M.T.

X. Chen, M.J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, W.A. Wood, A.M. Crowley, J.P. Carberry, L.A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, “Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 3888–3893, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3888
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J.A. West, N.F. Borrelli, D.C. Allan, and K.W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, C.M. Smith, D. Müller, J.A. West, K.W. Koch, and J.C. Fajardo, “Low loss (13 dB/km) air core photonicband-gap fibre,” in proceedings of ECOC 2002, paper PD 1.1, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002

Galtarossa, A.

Gisin, N.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, K.P. Hansen, T.P. Hansen, and C. Jakobsen, “Detailed polarization properties comparison of three completely different species of highly birefringent fibers,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, NIST Special Publication  1024, 119–122, 2004

M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3374–3378, 2003
[Crossref]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurements in single-mode optical fibers with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 828–835, 2002
[Crossref]

G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J.P. Von Der Weid, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with OFDR,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1–11, 1997

N. Gisin, J.P. Von der Weid, and J.P. Pellaux, “Polarization mode dispersion of short and long single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 821–827, 1991
[Crossref]

T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Experimental study of polarization properties of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express12, 5931–5939, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, T.P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, “Polarization properties of an air-guiding Photonic Bandgap Fibre for 1550 nm transmission,” in proceedings of ECOC 2004, paper Mo4.3.7, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004

Guinnard, O.

B. Huttner, J. Recht, O. Guinnard, J.P. Von Der Weid, and R. Passy, “Local Birefringence Measurements in Single Mode Fibers with Coherent Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460, 1998
[Crossref]

Hand, D.P.

J.D. Shephard, J.D.C. Jones, D.P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, and B.J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12, 717–723, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, K.P.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, K.P. Hansen, T.P. Hansen, and C. Jakobsen, “Detailed polarization properties comparison of three completely different species of highly birefringent fibers,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, NIST Special Publication  1024, 119–122, 2004

Hansen, T.P.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, K.P. Hansen, T.P. Hansen, and C. Jakobsen, “Detailed polarization properties comparison of three completely different species of highly birefringent fibers,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, NIST Special Publication  1024, 119–122, 2004

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonsen, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 11–15, 2004
[Crossref]

M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, T.P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, “Polarization properties of an air-guiding Photonic Bandgap Fibre for 1550 nm transmission,” in proceedings of ECOC 2004, paper Mo4.3.7, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonson, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guidance over 345m large-core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper PD4-1-3,Atlanta, USA, 2003

Heffner, B.L.

B.L. Heffner, “Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4, 1066–1069, 1992
[Crossref]

Her, T.

J. Jaspara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of mode-cut-off on dispersion in photonic bandgap fibers,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper ThI3, 492–493, Atlanta, USA, 2003

Huttner, B.

B. Huttner, J. Recht, O. Guinnard, J.P. Von Der Weid, and R. Passy, “Local Birefringence Measurements in Single Mode Fibers with Coherent Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460, 1998
[Crossref]

Jakobsen, C.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, K.P. Hansen, T.P. Hansen, and C. Jakobsen, “Detailed polarization properties comparison of three completely different species of highly birefringent fibers,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, NIST Special Publication  1024, 119–122, 2004

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonsen, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 11–15, 2004
[Crossref]

M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, T.P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, “Polarization properties of an air-guiding Photonic Bandgap Fibre for 1550 nm transmission,” in proceedings of ECOC 2004, paper Mo4.3.7, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonson, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guidance over 345m large-core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper PD4-1-3,Atlanta, USA, 2003

Jaspara, J.

J. Jaspara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of mode-cut-off on dispersion in photonic bandgap fibers,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper ThI3, 492–493, Atlanta, USA, 2003

Jones, J.D.C.

J.D. Shephard, J.D.C. Jones, D.P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, and B.J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12, 717–723, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.K.

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, 2004
[Crossref]

H.K. Kim, M.J.F. Digonnet, G.S. Kino, J. Shin, and S. Fan, “Simulations of the effect of the core ring on surface and air-core modes in photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express12, 3436–3442, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-15-3436
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kino, G.S.

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, 2004
[Crossref]

H.K. Kim, M.J.F. Digonnet, G.S. Kino, J. Shin, and S. Fan, “Simulations of the effect of the core ring on surface and air-core modes in photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express12, 3436–3442, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-15-3436
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, J.C.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539, 1999
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.D. Shephard, J.D.C. Jones, D.P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, and B.J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12, 717–723, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, L. Farr, B.J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, “Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express11, 1613–1620, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-14-1613
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, K.

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Müller, J. West, and K. Koch, “Interferometric chromatic dispersion measurement of a photonic band-gap fiber,” Active and passive optical components for WDM communications II, in proceedings of SPIE 4870, 395–403, 2002

Koch, K.W.

X. Chen, M.J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, W.A. Wood, A.M. Crowley, J.P. Carberry, L.A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, “Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 3888–3893, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3888
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J.A. West, N.F. Borrelli, D.C. Allan, and K.W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, C.M. Smith, D. Müller, J.A. West, K.W. Koch, and J.C. Fajardo, “Low loss (13 dB/km) air core photonicband-gap fibre,” in proceedings of ECOC 2002, paper PD 1.1, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002

Koshiba, M.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291–1293, 2002
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Leakage loss and group velocity dispersion in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express11, 3100–3109, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3100
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotynski, R.

R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmansa, and H. Thienpont, “Sensitivity of holey fiber based sensors,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2003, paper Tu.P.22, 340–343, Warsaw, Poland, 2003
[Crossref]

Laegsgaard, J.

J. Laegsgaard, N.A. Mortensen, J. Riishede, and A. Bjarklev, “Material effects in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. America B: Opt. Phys. 20, 2046–2051, 2003
[Crossref]

Langford, A.

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

Lawman, M.

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

Legré, M.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, K.P. Hansen, T.P. Hansen, and C. Jakobsen, “Detailed polarization properties comparison of three completely different species of highly birefringent fibers,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, NIST Special Publication  1024, 119–122, 2004

M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3374–3378, 2003
[Crossref]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurements in single-mode optical fibers with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 828–835, 2002
[Crossref]

T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Experimental study of polarization properties of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express12, 5931–5939, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.J.

Luan, F.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, L. Farr, B.J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, “Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express11, 1613–1620, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-14-1613
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ludvigsen, H.

T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Experimental study of polarization properties of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express12, 5931–5939, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mangan, B.J.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539, 1999
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.D. Shephard, J.D.C. Jones, D.P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, and B.J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12, 717–723, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, L. Farr, B.J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, “Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express11, 1613–1620, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-14-1613
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martynkien, T.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Communications 241, 339–348, 2004
[Crossref]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, and W.J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal holey fibers,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2002, paper We.P.10, 89–92, Warsaw, Poland, 2002

Mason, M.

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

Mason, M. W.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mortensen, N.A.

J. Laegsgaard, N.A. Mortensen, J. Riishede, and A. Bjarklev, “Material effects in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. America B: Opt. Phys. 20, 2046–2051, 2003
[Crossref]

Müller, D.

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J.A. West, N.F. Borrelli, D.C. Allan, and K.W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Müller, J. West, and K. Koch, “Interferometric chromatic dispersion measurement of a photonic band-gap fiber,” Active and passive optical components for WDM communications II, in proceedings of SPIE 4870, 395–403, 2002

N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, C.M. Smith, D. Müller, J.A. West, K.W. Koch, and J.C. Fajardo, “Low loss (13 dB/km) air core photonicband-gap fibre,” in proceedings of ECOC 2002, paper PD 1.1, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002

Mussi, G.

G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J.P. Von Der Weid, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with OFDR,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1–11, 1997

Nasilowski, T.

R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmansa, and H. Thienpont, “Sensitivity of holey fiber based sensors,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2003, paper Tu.P.22, 340–343, Warsaw, Poland, 2003
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J.

J. Jaspara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of mode-cut-off on dispersion in photonic bandgap fibers,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper ThI3, 492–493, Atlanta, USA, 2003

Nielsen, M.D.

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonsen, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 11–15, 2004
[Crossref]

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonson, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guidance over 345m large-core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper PD4-1-3,Atlanta, USA, 2003

Ouzounov, D.G.

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmieri, L.

Passy, R.

B. Huttner, J. Recht, O. Guinnard, J.P. Von Der Weid, and R. Passy, “Local Birefringence Measurements in Single Mode Fibers with Coherent Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460, 1998
[Crossref]

G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J.P. Von Der Weid, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with OFDR,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1–11, 1997

Pellaux, J.P.

N. Gisin, J.P. Von der Weid, and J.P. Pellaux, “Polarization mode dispersion of short and long single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 821–827, 1991
[Crossref]

Recht, J.

B. Huttner, J. Recht, O. Guinnard, J.P. Von Der Weid, and R. Passy, “Local Birefringence Measurements in Single Mode Fibers with Coherent Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460, 1998
[Crossref]

Riishede, J.

J. Laegsgaard, N.A. Mortensen, J. Riishede, and A. Bjarklev, “Material effects in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. America B: Opt. Phys. 20, 2046–2051, 2003
[Crossref]

Ritari, T.

T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Experimental study of polarization properties of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express12, 5931–5939, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. J.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, P.J.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539, 1999
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

Russel, P.

P. Russel, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362, 2003
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P.St.J.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539, 1999
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.D. Shephard, J.D.C. Jones, D.P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, and B.J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12, 717–723, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, L. Farr, B.J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, “Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express11, 1613–1620, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-14-1613
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabert, H.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, L. Farr, B.J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, “Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express11, 1613–1620, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-14-1613
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saitoh, K.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291–1293, 2002
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Leakage loss and group velocity dispersion in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express11, 3100–3109, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3100
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shephard, J.D.

J.D. Shephard, J.D.C. Jones, D.P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, and B.J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12, 717–723, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J.

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, 2004
[Crossref]

H.K. Kim, M.J.F. Digonnet, G.S. Kino, J. Shin, and S. Fan, “Simulations of the effect of the core ring on surface and air-core modes in photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express12, 3436–3442, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-15-3436
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silcox, J.

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simonsen, H.R.

Simonson, H.R.

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonson, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guidance over 345m large-core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper PD4-1-3,Atlanta, USA, 2003

Skovgaard, P.M.W.

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonsen, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 11–15, 2004
[Crossref]

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonson, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guidance over 345m large-core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper PD4-1-3,Atlanta, USA, 2003

Smith, C.M.

C.M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J.A. West, N.F. Borrelli, D.C. Allan, and K.W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, C.M. Smith, D. Müller, J.A. West, K.W. Koch, and J.C. Fajardo, “Low loss (13 dB/km) air core photonicband-gap fibre,” in proceedings of ECOC 2002, paper PD 1.1, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002

Sondergaard, T.

Statkiewicz, G.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Communications 241, 339–348, 2004
[Crossref]

Szpulak, M.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, and W.J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal holey fibers,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2002, paper We.P.10, 89–92, Warsaw, Poland, 2002

Thienpont, H.

R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmansa, and H. Thienpont, “Sensitivity of holey fiber based sensors,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2003, paper Tu.P.22, 340–343, Warsaw, Poland, 2003
[Crossref]

Thomas, M.G.

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbanczyk, W.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Communications 241, 339–348, 2004
[Crossref]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, and W.J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal holey fibers,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2002, paper We.P.10, 89–92, Warsaw, Poland, 2002

Venkataraman, N.

X. Chen, M.J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, W.A. Wood, A.M. Crowley, J.P. Carberry, L.A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, “Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 3888–3893, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3888
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J.A. West, N.F. Borrelli, D.C. Allan, and K.W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, C.M. Smith, D. Müller, J.A. West, K.W. Koch, and J.C. Fajardo, “Low loss (13 dB/km) air core photonicband-gap fibre,” in proceedings of ECOC 2002, paper PD 1.1, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002

Vienne, G.

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonsen, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 11–15, 2004
[Crossref]

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonson, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guidance over 345m large-core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper PD4-1-3,Atlanta, USA, 2003

Von Der Weid, J.P.

B. Huttner, J. Recht, O. Guinnard, J.P. Von Der Weid, and R. Passy, “Local Birefringence Measurements in Single Mode Fibers with Coherent Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460, 1998
[Crossref]

G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J.P. Von Der Weid, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with OFDR,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1–11, 1997

N. Gisin, J.P. Von der Weid, and J.P. Pellaux, “Polarization mode dispersion of short and long single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 821–827, 1991
[Crossref]

Wegmuller, M.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, K.P. Hansen, T.P. Hansen, and C. Jakobsen, “Detailed polarization properties comparison of three completely different species of highly birefringent fibers,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, NIST Special Publication  1024, 119–122, 2004

M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3374–3378, 2003
[Crossref]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurements in single-mode optical fibers with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 828–835, 2002
[Crossref]

M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, T.P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, “Polarization properties of an air-guiding Photonic Bandgap Fibre for 1550 nm transmission,” in proceedings of ECOC 2004, paper Mo4.3.7, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004

T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Experimental study of polarization properties of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express12, 5931–5939, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, J.

D. Müller, J. West, and K. Koch, “Interferometric chromatic dispersion measurement of a photonic band-gap fiber,” Active and passive optical components for WDM communications II, in proceedings of SPIE 4870, 395–403, 2002

West, J.A.

C.M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J.A. West, N.F. Borrelli, D.C. Allan, and K.W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, C.M. Smith, D. Müller, J.A. West, K.W. Koch, and J.C. Fajardo, “Low loss (13 dB/km) air core photonicband-gap fibre,” in proceedings of ECOC 2002, paper PD 1.1, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002

Williams, D. P.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, D.P.

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

Wojcik, J.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, and W.J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal holey fibers,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2002, paper We.P.10, 89–92, Warsaw, Poland, 2002

Wood, W.A.

Zenteno, L.A.

Active and passive optical components for WDM communications II, in proceedings of SPIE (1)

D. Müller, J. West, and K. Koch, “Interferometric chromatic dispersion measurement of a photonic band-gap fiber,” Active and passive optical components for WDM communications II, in proceedings of SPIE 4870, 395–403, 2002

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, 2004
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291–1293, 2002
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J.P. Von Der Weid, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with OFDR,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1–11, 1997

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurements in single-mode optical fibers with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 828–835, 2002
[Crossref]

F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa, and L. Palmieri, “Beat length characterization based on backscattering analysis in randomly perturbed single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1172–1178, 1999
[Crossref]

N. Gisin, J.P. Von der Weid, and J.P. Pellaux, “Polarization mode dispersion of short and long single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 821–827, 1991
[Crossref]

M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3374–3378, 2003
[Crossref]

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonsen, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practical handling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 11–15, 2004
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. America B: Opt. Phys. (1)

J. Laegsgaard, N.A. Mortensen, J. Riishede, and A. Bjarklev, “Material effects in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. America B: Opt. Phys. 20, 2046–2051, 2003
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

C.M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J.A. West, N.F. Borrelli, D.C. Allan, and K.W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Communications (1)

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Communications 241, 339–348, 2004
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Huttner, J. Recht, O. Guinnard, J.P. Von Der Weid, and R. Passy, “Local Birefringence Measurements in Single Mode Fibers with Coherent Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460, 1998
[Crossref]

Science (3)

D.G. Ouzounov, F.R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, M.G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. Koch, and A.L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704, 2003
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Russel, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362, 2003
[Crossref]

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539, 1999
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004 (1)

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, K.P. Hansen, T.P. Hansen, and C. Jakobsen, “Detailed polarization properties comparison of three completely different species of highly birefringent fibers,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, NIST Special Publication  1024, 119–122, 2004

Other (14)

B.L. Heffner, “Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4, 1066–1069, 1992
[Crossref]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, and W.J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal holey fibers,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2002, paper We.P.10, 89–92, Warsaw, Poland, 2002

R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, M. Antkowiak, F. Berghmansa, and H. Thienpont, “Sensitivity of holey fiber based sensors,” in proceedings of International Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON 2003, paper Tu.P.22, 340–343, Warsaw, Poland, 2003
[Crossref]

M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, T.P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, “Polarization properties of an air-guiding Photonic Bandgap Fibre for 1550 nm transmission,” in proceedings of ECOC 2004, paper Mo4.3.7, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004

T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Experimental study of polarization properties of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express12, 5931–5939, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.D. Shephard, J.D.C. Jones, D.P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, and B.J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express12, 717–723, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Venkataraman, M.T. Gallagher, C.M. Smith, D. Müller, J.A. West, K.W. Koch, and J.C. Fajardo, “Low loss (13 dB/km) air core photonicband-gap fibre,” in proceedings of ECOC 2002, paper PD 1.1, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002

B.J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P.J. Roberts, D.P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2004, paper PDP24, Los Angeles, USA, 2004

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13, 236–244, 2005, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H.R. Simonson, M.D. Nielsen, P.M.W. Skovgaard, J.R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Air-guidance over 345m large-core photonic bandgap fiber,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper PD4-1-3,Atlanta, USA, 2003

H.K. Kim, M.J.F. Digonnet, G.S. Kino, J. Shin, and S. Fan, “Simulations of the effect of the core ring on surface and air-core modes in photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express12, 3436–3442, 2004, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-15-3436
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Leakage loss and group velocity dispersion in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express11, 3100–3109, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3100
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, P.St.J. Russell, L. Farr, B.J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, “Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express11, 1613–1620, 2003, http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-14-1613
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jaspara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of mode-cut-off on dispersion in photonic bandgap fibers,” in proceedings of OFC 2003, paper ThI3, 492–493, Atlanta, USA, 2003

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM pictures of a typical cross-section of the investigated HC-PBGF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured overall insertion loss (including SMF pigtails on both sides of the HC-PBGF).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distributed reflectivity along 50 m long HC-PBGF (blue). Green curve, reflection of an SMF fiber of similar length (slightly shifted in distance for better comparison) and reflectivity (not shifted). Ghost is a measurement artefact (the reflective peak at the entry of the HC-PBGF takes the role of the local oscillator, see [23] for details).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured PDL for 50 m long HC-PBGF, as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured mode-fields (contour lines) for some selected wavelengths at the exit of the 50 m long HC-PBGF, on top of the HC-PBGF structure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

DOP (blue) and total (polarized and unpolarized) transmitted power S0 (light gray, raw data; red, adjacent averaging) at 1480 nm as a function of the arbitrarily varied launch polarization. Measurements are rearranged for increasing DOP.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Typical power spectral density (psd) of backscattered OFDR signal power after linear polarizer.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Interferometric PMD traces for 50 m long HC-PBGF, using an LED centered at 1542.5 nm. Green, no HC-PBGF; blue, depolarized LED; red, polarized LED.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Differential group delay after the 50 m long HC-PBGF, as a function of wavelength, using JME (left). Phase delay (blue) and ratio of group to phase delay (black) as a function of wavelength (right).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Evolution of the output polarization state as a function of wavelength for the HC-PBGF (left) and a PCF with similar birefringence (right).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Mean difference in the PSP direction (on the Poincaré sphere) for two different wavelength separations, as a function of wavelength. Also shown is the differential group delay for easy comparison. Both sets of data are for 50 m long HC-PBGF.

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