The inadequacy of the optical trapping model based on ray optics in the case of describing the optical trapping performance of annular and doughnut laser beams is discussed. The inadequacy originates from neglecting the complex focused field distributions of such beams, such as polarization and phase, and thus leads to erroneous predictions of trapping force. Instead, the optical trapping model based on the vectorial diffraction theory, which considers the exact field distributions of a beam in the focal region, needs to be employed for the determination of the trapping force exerted on small particles. The theoretical predictions of such a trapping model agree with the experimentally measured results.
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