Abstract

Several different compositions of tellurium-thallium oxide glasses were fabricated and tested for their Raman gain performance. The addition of PbO to the glass matrix increased the surface optical damage threshold by 60–230%. The maximum material Raman gain coefficient experimentally obtained was (58±3) times higher than the peak Raman gain of a 3.18 mm thick Corning 7980-2F fused silica sample (Δν=13.2 THz). The highest peak in the Raman gain spectrum of the tellurium-thallium glass is attributed to the presence of TeO3 and TeO3+1 structural units with thallium ions in the vicinity at a frequency shift near 21.3 THz.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. M.N. Islam, “Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548- 559 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Grüner-Nielsen, A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification or loss compensation in dispersion compensating fibre modules,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1136-1137 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F.L Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen Jr., R. H. Geils, W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. E. Lines, “Raman gain estimates for high-gain optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4363-4370 (1987)
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, M. E. Lines, “The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Lines, “Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876-6884 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. A. Richardson, T. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 10, 155-159 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. . P. A. Thielen, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Small-core As-Se fiber for Raman amplification,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1406-1408 (2003
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. Brandon Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146-1155 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, M. Tonokawa, “Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Sarger, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium(I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, F. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mat. 3, 187-203 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, M. Shimizu, “Ultra-wideband tellurite-based Raman fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1142-1143 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 2641-2645 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, F. D’Amore, “TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5, TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, V. O. Sokolov, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Grishin, M. F. Churbanov, “Raman band intensities of tellurite glasses,” manuscript in preparation.
  18. R. Stegeman, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, C. Rivero, G. Stegeman, K. Richardson, P. Delfyett, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, T. Cardinal, “Tellurite glasses with peak absolute Raman gain coefficients up to 30 times that of fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1126-1128 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman Gain Coefficients in Tellurite Glasses,” J. of Non-Cryst. Solids 345-356, 396-401 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Dexpert-Ghys, B. Pirio, S. Rossignol, J. M. Réau, B. Tanguy, J. J. Videau, J. Portier, “Investigations by Raman scattering of the [TeO2-RMO0.5] (M = Ag or Tl) glasses and of the related ionic conductors [TeO2-RMO0.5](1-x)[AgI]x,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 167-174 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Jeansannetas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, B. Frit, “Crystal structure of Tl2Te3O7,” Mat. Res. Bull. 32 (1), 51-58 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Jeansannetas, P. Marchet, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, B. Frit, “New investigations within the TeO2-rich part of the Tl2O-TeO2 system,” J. of Mat. Chem. 8 (4), 1039-1042 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Jeansannetas, “Synthèse et caractérisation de quelques phases cristallisées et vitreuses du ternaire thallium-tellure-oxygène: vers de nouveaux matériaux por l’optique nonlinéaire," Thesis (University of Limoge 1998).
  24. M. Dutreilh-Colas, "Nouveaux matériaux pour l’optique nonlinéaire: synthèse et étude structurale de quelques phases cristallisées et vitreuses appartenant aux systèmes TeO2-Tl2O-Ga2O3 et TeO2-Tl2O-PbO," Thesis (University of Limoges 2001).
  25. R. Stegeman, C. Rivero, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, K. Richardson, G. Stegeman, P. Delfyett, Jr., “Raman gain measurements in bulk glass samples,” manuscript in preparation.
  26. R. H. Stolen, J. P Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silica-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159-1166 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  27. I. Kang, T. Krauss, F. Wise, “Sensitive measurement of nonlinear refraction and two-photon absorption by spectrally resolved two-beam coupling,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1077-1079 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 273-276 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Dutreilh-Colas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, E. Fargin “New TeO2 based glasses for nonlinear optical applications: study of the Tl2O-TeO2-Bi2O3, Tl2O-TeO2-PbO and Tl2O-TeO2-Ga2O3 systems,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 44, 349-352 (2003).
  30. A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villezusanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, L.Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2-Nb2O5 and TeO2-Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 126, 143-151 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, T.-T. Yang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 964- 967 (1975).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F.L Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen Jr., R. H. Geils, W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 273-276 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Grüner-Nielsen, A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification or loss compensation in dispersion compensating fibre modules,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1136-1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, M. Shimizu, “Ultra-wideband tellurite-based Raman fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1142-1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M.N. Islam, “Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548- 559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. E. Lines, “Raman gain estimates for high-gain optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4363-4370 (1987)
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, “Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876-6884 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

J. Dexpert-Ghys, B. Pirio, S. Rossignol, J. M. Réau, B. Tanguy, J. J. Videau, J. Portier, “Investigations by Raman scattering of the [TeO2-RMO0.5] (M = Ag or Tl) glasses and of the related ionic conductors [TeO2-RMO0.5](1-x)[AgI]x,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 167-174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, M. E. Lines, “The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, M. Tonokawa, “Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. of Mat. Chem. (1)

B. Jeansannetas, P. Marchet, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, B. Frit, “New investigations within the TeO2-rich part of the Tl2O-TeO2 system,” J. of Mat. Chem. 8 (4), 1039-1042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. of Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman Gain Coefficients in Tellurite Glasses,” J. of Non-Cryst. Solids 345-356, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Sol. St. Chem. (2)

A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villezusanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, L.Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2-Nb2O5 and TeO2-Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 126, 143-151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Sarger, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium(I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mat. Res. Bull. (1)

B. Jeansannetas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, B. Frit, “Crystal structure of Tl2Te3O7,” Mat. Res. Bull. 32 (1), 51-58 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mat. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, F. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mat. 3, 187-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. A. Richardson, T. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, F. D’Amore, “TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5, TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

M. Dutreilh-Colas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, E. Fargin “New TeO2 based glasses for nonlinear optical applications: study of the Tl2O-TeO2-Bi2O3, Tl2O-TeO2-PbO and Tl2O-TeO2-Ga2O3 systems,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 44, 349-352 (2003).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, T.-T. Yang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 964- 967 (1975).

Other (4)

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, V. O. Sokolov, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Grishin, M. F. Churbanov, “Raman band intensities of tellurite glasses,” manuscript in preparation.

B. Jeansannetas, “Synthèse et caractérisation de quelques phases cristallisées et vitreuses du ternaire thallium-tellure-oxygène: vers de nouveaux matériaux por l’optique nonlinéaire," Thesis (University of Limoge 1998).

M. Dutreilh-Colas, "Nouveaux matériaux pour l’optique nonlinéaire: synthèse et étude structurale de quelques phases cristallisées et vitreuses appartenant aux systèmes TeO2-Tl2O-Ga2O3 et TeO2-Tl2O-PbO," Thesis (University of Limoges 2001).

R. Stegeman, C. Rivero, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, K. Richardson, G. Stegeman, P. Delfyett, Jr., “Raman gain measurements in bulk glass samples,” manuscript in preparation.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dispersion in the absorption coefficient for the tellurite glasses tested for Raman gain.

Figs. 2.
Figs. 2.

(a), (b), and (c). Raman gain curve of (a) 59.5TeO2 – 25.5TlO0.5 – 15PbO, (b) 63TeO2 – 27TlO0.5 – 10PbO, and (c) 66.5TeO2 – 28.5TlO0.5 – 5PbO

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Raman gain coefficients of TeO4ν=20 THz) units and TeO3 and/or TeO3+1 units (Δν=21.3 THz) resonances and optical surface damage thresholds

Metrics