Abstract

In force-measuring optical tweezers applications the position of a trapped bead in the direction perpendicular to the laser beam is usually accurately determined by measuring the deflection of the light transmitted through the bead. In this paper we demonstrate that this position and thus the force exerted on the bead can be determined using the backscattered light. Measuring the deflection for a 2.50 μm polystyrene bead with both a position sensitive detector (PSD) and a quadrant detector (QD) we found that the linear detection range for the PSD is approximately twice that for the QD. In a transmission-based setup no difference was found between both detector types. Using a PSD in both setups the linear detection range for 2.50 μm beads was found to be approximately 0.50 μm in both cases. Finally, for the reflection-based setup, parameters such as deflection sensitivity and linear detection range were considered as a function of bead diameter (in the range of 0.5-2.5 μm). 140pN was the largest force obtained using 2.50 μm beads.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. (1)

K. Svoboda and S.M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247–285 (1994)

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bioimaging (1)

J. Dapprich and N. Nicklaus, “DNA attachment to optically trapped beads in microstructures monitored by bead displacement,” Bioimaging 6, 25–32 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Bioph. J. (1)

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Bioph. J. 61, 569–582 (1992)

Biophys. J. (1)

R.M. Simmons, J.T. Finer, S. Chu and J.A. Spudich, “Quantitative measurements of force and displacement using an optical trap,” Biophys. J. 70, 1813–1822 (1996)

Cytometry (1)

I.M. Peters, Y. van Kooyk, S.J. van Vliet, B.G. de Grooth, C.G. Figdor and J. Greve, “3D single-particle tracking and optical trap measurements on adhesion proteins,” Cytometry 36, 189–194 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Eur. Biophys. J. (1)

F. Gittes and C.F. Schmidt, “Thermal noise limitations on micromechanical experiments,” Eur. Biophys. J. 27, 75–81 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Rohrbach and E.H.K. Stelzer,“Three-dimensional position detection of optically trapped dielectric particles,” J. Appl. Phys. 91 5474–5488 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Meth. in Enzym. (1)

K. Visscher and S.M. Block, “Versatile optical traps with feedback control,” Meth. in Enzym. 298, 460–489 (1998)

Micr. Res. Techn. (1)

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E.-L. Florin, E.H.K. Stelzer and J.K.H. Hörber, “Three-Dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Micr. Res. Techn. 44, 378–386 (1999).

Nat. Struct. Biol. (1)

M.L. Bennink, S.H. Leuba, G.H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B.G. de Grooth and J.Greve, “Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606–610 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

A. Ashkin, “Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers,” Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853– 4860 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S.M. Block, L.S.B. Goldstein and B.J. Schnapp, “Bead movement by single kinesin molecules studied with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 348, 348–352 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

T. Wohland, A. Rosin and E.H.K. Stelzer, “Theoretical determination of the influence of the polarization on forces exerted by optical tweezers,” Optik 102, 181–190 (1996)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156–159 (1970)
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

C. Bustamante and Y. Cui, “Pulling a single chromatin fiber reveals the forces that maintain its higher-order structure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 127–132 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Rev. Scient. Instr. (1)

L.P. Ghislain, N.A. Switz and W.W. Webb, “Measurement of small forces using an optical trap,” Rev. Scient. Instr. 65, 2762–2768 (1994)

Science (4)

A.D. Mehta, M. Rief, J.A. Spudich, D.A. Smith and R.M. Simmons, “Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods,” Science 283, 1689–1695 (1999)
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J.M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235, 1517– 1520 (1987)
[CrossRef]

M.S.Z. Kellermayer, S.B. Smith, H.L. Granzier and C. Bustamante, “Folding-unfolding transitions in single titin molecules characterized with laser tweezers,” Science 276, 1112–1116 (1997)
[CrossRef]

S.B. Smith, Y. Cui and C. Bustamante, “Overstretching B-DNA: the elastic response of individual double-stranded DNA molecules,” Science 271, 795–799 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. Reif, Fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965)

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