Abstract

The focusing of a light beam with radial polarization has substantial advantages as the irradiance distribution in the focal plane is symmetric and there is maximum absorption at the focus. Using half wave plates cut into four quadrants with each quadrant having a linear polarization directed outwards gives a total field that approximates radial polarization, called pseudoradial polarization. The irradiance distributions in the focal region for different polarizations and beam profiles are compared. The irradiance is calculated by the numerical integration of the two-dimensional Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral of the first kind using the 2DSC method for both circular and annular apertures.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Hayazawa, Y. Saito and S. Kawata, “Detection and characterization of longitudinal field for tip-enhance Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6239-6241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light into a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1-7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Optik (1)

I. J. Cooper and C.J.R. Sheppard, “A matrix method for calculating the three-dimensional irradiance distribution in the focal region of a convergent beam,” Optik, 113, 298-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis and G. Leuchs, “Sharper Focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Roy. Soc. A (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A 253, 358-379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Irradiance distribution (dB) in the focal (XY) plane for a beam linearly polarized in the X direction. (a) X component, (b) Y component, (c) Z component and (d) total irradiance.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The irradiance (dB) in the focal plane for a pseudoradial polarized beam. (a) Circular aperture and (b) Annular aperture.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Uniform four quadrant pseudoradial polarizated beam. The total irradiance W and its X, Y and Z components, W x, W y and W z in the radial X direction (a) and axial Z direction (b). The total irradiance W (dB) along a discontinuity (at 45° to the X axis) and along either the X or Y axis (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The full width at half maximum of the total average electric energy density and the longitudinal component (L) measured in wavelength units for circular and annular (A) apertures for the different beams.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The strength of the first side lobes along the coordinate axes measured in decibels for the circular and annular apertures (A) for the different beams

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