Abstract

We investigate the interaction of visible supercontinuum light with fiber Bragg gratings that are UV-written in a birefringent air-silica microstructure fiber. Spectral enhancements near the grating resonance are observed, and their variations are studied by adjusting the power level and polarization of input pulses. With weak input pulses (<0.5nJ), individual Raman solitons are observed in the spectrum, and the grating generates a picosecond dispersive wave centered near its bandgap when a Raman soliton has both spatial and spectral overlap with the grating resonance. Using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with a simplified model of the grating dispersion, our numerical modeling reproduces the salient features of this enhancement, and shows the important role played by grating dispersion outside the bandgap

© 2005 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, �??Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 25 �??27 (2000)
  2. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, �??Carrier envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,�?? Science 288, 635-639 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, �??Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001)
  4. A. Bassi, J. Swartling, C. D�??Andrea, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, �??Time-resolved spectrophotometer for turbid media based on supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2405-2407 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, V. Sandoghdar, �??Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, �??Characterization of a supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber and its application to coherent Raman spectroscopy,�?? Opt. Lett. 23, 2360-2362 (2003)
  7. K. Mori, H. Takara, and S. Kawanishi, �??Analysis and design of supercontinuum pulse generation in a single-mode optical fiber,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1780-1792 (2001)
  8. A. L. Gaeta, �??Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 924-926 (2002)
  9. A. Apolonski, B. Povazay, A. Unterhuber, W. Drexler, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, �??Spectral shaping of supercontinuum in a cobweb photonic-crystal fiber with sub-20-fs pulses,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2165-2170 (2002)
  10. B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, and R. S. Windeler, �??Ultrashort pulse propagation in air-silica microstructure fiber,�?? Opt. Express 10, 575-580 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-13-575">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-13-575</a>
  11. Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, "Effect of frequency chirping on supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 689-694 (2004), ,<a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-689">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-689</a>
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880-2887 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880</a>
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Xu, D. H. Reitze, and R. S. Windeler, "Controlling nonlinear processes in microstructured fibers using shaped pulses," Opt. Express 12, 4731-4741 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4731">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4731</a>
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, �??Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 1415-1417 (2000)
  15. J. M. Dudley, L. Provino, N. Grossard, H. Maillotte, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, and S. Coen, �??Supercontinuum generation in microstructure fibers with nanosecond and femtosecond pulse pumping,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 765-771 (2002)
  16. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, �??Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-25-1520">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-25-1520</a>
  17. J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, A. Yablon, �??All-fiber, octave-spanning supercontinuum,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 643-645 (2003)
  18. V. L. Kalashnikov, P. Dombi, T. Fuji, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, R. S. Windeler, A. Apolonski, �??Maximization of supercontinua in photonic crystal fibers by using double pulses and polarization effects,�?? Appl. Phys. B 77, 319-324 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. M. Hilligsøe, T. V. Andersen, H. N. Paulsen, C. K. Nielsen, K. Mølmer, S. Keiding, R. Kristiansen, K. P. Hansen, and J. J. Larsen, "Supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 12, 1045-1054 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1045">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1045</a>
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, and A. D. Yablon, �??Supercontinuum generation in ultraviolet-irradiated fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2363-2365 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Bloembergen and A. J. Sievers, �??Nonlinear optical properties of periodic laminar structures,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483-485 (1970)
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. G. Brown, �??Supercontinuum generation in a fiber grating�??, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600-4602 (2004)
  23. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, et al., �??Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999).
  24. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and G. L. Burdge, �??Cladding-mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fibers�??, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1084 -1100 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, �??Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibers,�?? Electron. Lett. 37, 1510-1512 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, �??Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fibre,�?? Electron. Lett. 38, 167-169 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli and F. Ouellette, �??Dispersion compensation using a fibre grating in transmission�??, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610-1612 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, USA, 2001)
  29. N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton and D. B. Patterson, �??Fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in transmission: theoretical model and design criteria for nearly ideal pulse recompression,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1303-1313 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  30. Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, �??Full-vectorial finite-difference analysis of microstructured optical fibers,�?? Opt. Express 10, 853-864 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-17-853">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-17-853</a>
  31. Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, �??Polarization properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in birefringent photonic crystal fibers,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 249-257 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. P. Gordon, �??Dispersive perturbations of solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 91-97 (1992)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. L. Kalashnikov, P. Dombi, T. Fuji, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, R. S. Windeler, A. Apolonski, �??Maximization of supercontinua in photonic crystal fibers by using double pulses and polarization effects,�?? Appl. Phys. B 77, 319-324 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Bloembergen and A. J. Sievers, �??Nonlinear optical properties of periodic laminar structures,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483-485 (1970)
[CrossRef]

Apply. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li, and T. G. Brown, �??Supercontinuum generation in a fiber grating�??, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600-4602 (2004)

Electron. Lett. (3)

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, �??Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibers,�?? Electron. Lett. 37, 1510-1512 (2001)
[CrossRef]

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, �??Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fibre,�?? Electron. Lett. 38, 167-169 (2002)
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli and F. Ouellette, �??Dispersion compensation using a fibre grating in transmission�??, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610-1612 (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and G. L. Burdge, �??Cladding-mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fibers�??, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1084 -1100 (2000)
[CrossRef]

N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton and D. B. Patterson, �??Fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in transmission: theoretical model and design criteria for nearly ideal pulse recompression,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1303-1313 (1997)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

A. Bassi, J. Swartling, C. D�??Andrea, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, �??Time-resolved spectrophotometer for turbid media based on supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2405-2407 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, �??Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-25-1520">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-25-1520</a>

Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, "Effect of frequency chirping on supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 689-694 (2004), ,<a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-689">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-689</a>
[CrossRef]

K. M. Hilligsøe, T. V. Andersen, H. N. Paulsen, C. K. Nielsen, K. Mølmer, S. Keiding, R. Kristiansen, K. P. Hansen, and J. J. Larsen, "Supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 12, 1045-1054 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1045">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1045</a>
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880-2887 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880</a>
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, D. H. Reitze, and R. S. Windeler, "Controlling nonlinear processes in microstructured fibers using shaped pulses," Opt. Express 12, 4731-4741 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4731">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4731</a>
[CrossRef]

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, and R. S. Windeler, �??Ultrashort pulse propagation in air-silica microstructure fiber,�?? Opt. Express 10, 575-580 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-13-575">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-13-575</a>

Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, �??Full-vectorial finite-difference analysis of microstructured optical fibers,�?? Opt. Express 10, 853-864 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-17-853">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-17-853</a>

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, V. Sandoghdar, �??Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, �??Carrier envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,�?? Science 288, 635-639 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, USA, 2001)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics