Abstract

An innovative platform is tested to perform reflectance measurements at sea. This platform is a mini-catamaran with two hulls 1m long and set 0.7m apart, fitted with optical sensors. It can be used far away from an oceanographic ship to avoid its hull influencing the measurement. Reflectance measurements were performed with a TriOS radiance sensor placed +2cm or -2cm from the water surface and a TriOS irradiance sensor. Tests were carried out in calm seas and with cloud cover. The processing to derive marine radiances from raw measurements is detailed. When the radiance sensor is above the interface, it limits the sky reflections on the targeted surface and the radiance is identical to that deduced from measurements below the surface. When the sensor is placed at +3cm above-water or higher, glint affects the measurements. The mini-catamaran shows a good ability to measure marine reflectance with an adapted measurement protocol. Except for very turbid waters, it seems preferable to perform upwelling radiance measurements below the surface.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. N.G. Jerlov, Marine optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).
  2. A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean colour,” Limn. Ocean. 22, 709–721 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  3. H.R. Gordon, O.B. Brown, and M.M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat, homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J.T.O. Kirk, “Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude,” Limnol. Ocean. 29, 350–356 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  5. H.R. Gordon, “Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle,” Limnol. Ocean. 34, 1484–1489 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters 2: Bi-directional aspects,” Appl. Optics. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, “A three model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
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  9. IOCCG, Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour in Coastal and Other Optically-Complex Waters (IOCCG, Darmouth, 2000).
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  11. S. Ouillon, P. Forget, J.M. Froidefond, and J.J. Naudin, “Estimating suspended matter concentrations from SPOT data and from field measurements in the Rhône river plume,” MTS journal 31, 15–20 (1997).
  12. J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. J.M Froidefond, P. Castaing, and R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite. “Application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. 46, 2029–2055 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  14. J.M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, P. Laborde, A. Herbland, and V. Lafon, “SeaWiFS data interpretation in a coastal area in the Bay of Biscay,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 881–904 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  15. H.R. Gordon, R.C. Smith, and J.R.V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VII, M.A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE 489, 2–41 (1984)
  16. C.D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Optics 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters 3: Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
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  18. A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean colour,” Bound. Layer Met. 18, 177–201 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  19. G.C. Chang, T.D. Dickey, C.D. Mobley, E. Boss, and W.S. Pegau. “Toward closure of upwelling radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1574–1582 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H.R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery: a review (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
    [Crossref]
  21. S.B. Hooker and A. Morel, “Platform and Environmental effects on above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atm. Ocean. Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Etcheber, “Comparaison de diverses méthodes d’évaluation des teneurs en matières en suspension et en carbone organique particulaire des eaux marines du plateau continental aquitain,” J. Rech. Oceanogr. 6, 37–42 (1981).
  23. C.S. Yentsch and D.W. Menzel, “A method for the determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll and pheophytin by fluorescence,” Deep-Sea Res. 10, 221–231 (1963).
  24. D. Doxaran, R.C. Nagur Cherukuru, and S.J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 690–697 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Ohde and H. Siegel, “Derivation of immersion factors for the hyperspectral TriOS radiance sensor,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, L12–L14 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Tassan, “Evaluation of the potential of the Thematic Mapper for marine application,” Int. J Remote Sens. 8, 1455–1478 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. Khorram, H. Cheshire, A.L. Geraci, and G. La Rosa, “Water quality mapping of Augusta Bay, Italy from Landsat-TM data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 803–808 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Ouillon, P. Douillet, and S. Andréfouët, “Coupling satellite data with in situ measurements and numerical modeling to study fine suspended sediment transport: a study for the lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs 23, 109–122 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. Doxaran, J.M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, “Remote sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

D. Doxaran, R.C. Nagur Cherukuru, and S.J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 690–697 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Ouillon, P. Douillet, and S. Andréfouët, “Coupling satellite data with in situ measurements and numerical modeling to study fine suspended sediment transport: a study for the lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs 23, 109–122 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

D. Doxaran, J.M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, “Remote sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ohde and H. Siegel, “Derivation of immersion factors for the hyperspectral TriOS radiance sensor,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, L12–L14 (2003).
[Crossref]

G.C. Chang, T.D. Dickey, C.D. Mobley, E. Boss, and W.S. Pegau. “Toward closure of upwelling radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1574–1582 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.B. Hooker and A. Morel, “Platform and Environmental effects on above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atm. Ocean. Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J.M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, P. Laborde, A. Herbland, and V. Lafon, “SeaWiFS data interpretation in a coastal area in the Bay of Biscay,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 881–904 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

F. Lahet, S. Ouillon, and P. Forget, “A three component model of ocean colour and its application in the Ebro River mouth area,” Remote Sens. Envir. 72, 181–190 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

C.D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Optics 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.M Froidefond, P. Castaing, and R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite. “Application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. 46, 2029–2055 (1999)
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Ouillon, P. Forget, J.M. Froidefond, and J.J. Naudin, “Estimating suspended matter concentrations from SPOT data and from field measurements in the Rhône river plume,” MTS journal 31, 15–20 (1997).

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters 2: Bi-directional aspects,” Appl. Optics. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khorram, H. Cheshire, A.L. Geraci, and G. La Rosa, “Water quality mapping of Augusta Bay, Italy from Landsat-TM data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 803–808 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, “A three model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[Crossref]

H.R. Gordon, “Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle,” Limnol. Ocean. 34, 1484–1489 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

S. Tassan, “Evaluation of the potential of the Thematic Mapper for marine application,” Int. J Remote Sens. 8, 1455–1478 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

J.T.O. Kirk, “Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude,” Limnol. Ocean. 29, 350–356 (1984).
[Crossref]

H.R. Gordon, R.C. Smith, and J.R.V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VII, M.A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE 489, 2–41 (1984)

1981 (1)

H. Etcheber, “Comparaison de diverses méthodes d’évaluation des teneurs en matières en suspension et en carbone organique particulaire des eaux marines du plateau continental aquitain,” J. Rech. Oceanogr. 6, 37–42 (1981).

1980 (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean colour,” Bound. Layer Met. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean colour,” Limn. Ocean. 22, 709–721 (1977).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

1963 (1)

C.S. Yentsch and D.W. Menzel, “A method for the determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll and pheophytin by fluorescence,” Deep-Sea Res. 10, 221–231 (1963).

Andréfouët, S.

S. Ouillon, P. Douillet, and S. Andréfouët, “Coupling satellite data with in situ measurements and numerical modeling to study fine suspended sediment transport: a study for the lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs 23, 109–122 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

Brown, O.B.

Carder, K.L.

J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Castaing, P.

D. Doxaran, J.M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, “Remote sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.M Froidefond, P. Castaing, and R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite. “Application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. 46, 2029–2055 (1999)
[Crossref]

Chang, G.C.

Cheshire, H.

S. Khorram, H. Cheshire, A.L. Geraci, and G. La Rosa, “Water quality mapping of Augusta Bay, Italy from Landsat-TM data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 803–808 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dickey, T.D.

Douillet, P.

S. Ouillon, P. Douillet, and S. Andréfouët, “Coupling satellite data with in situ measurements and numerical modeling to study fine suspended sediment transport: a study for the lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs 23, 109–122 (2004).
[Crossref]

Doxaran, D.

D. Doxaran, R.C. Nagur Cherukuru, and S.J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 690–697 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Doxaran, J.M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, “Remote sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Etcheber, H.

H. Etcheber, “Comparaison de diverses méthodes d’évaluation des teneurs en matières en suspension et en carbone organique particulaire des eaux marines du plateau continental aquitain,” J. Rech. Oceanogr. 6, 37–42 (1981).

Forget, P.

F. Lahet, S. Ouillon, and P. Forget, “A three component model of ocean colour and its application in the Ebro River mouth area,” Remote Sens. Envir. 72, 181–190 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Ouillon, P. Forget, J.M. Froidefond, and J.J. Naudin, “Estimating suspended matter concentrations from SPOT data and from field measurements in the Rhône river plume,” MTS journal 31, 15–20 (1997).

Froidefond, J.M

J.M Froidefond, P. Castaing, and R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite. “Application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. 46, 2029–2055 (1999)
[Crossref]

Froidefond, J.M.

D. Doxaran, J.M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, “Remote sensing reflectance of turbid sediment-dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects by use of reflectance ratios,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2623–2634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, P. Laborde, A. Herbland, and V. Lafon, “SeaWiFS data interpretation in a coastal area in the Bay of Biscay,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 881–904 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Ouillon, P. Forget, J.M. Froidefond, and J.J. Naudin, “Estimating suspended matter concentrations from SPOT data and from field measurements in the Rhône river plume,” MTS journal 31, 15–20 (1997).

Garver, S.A.

J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gentili, B.

Geraci, A.L.

S. Khorram, H. Cheshire, A.L. Geraci, and G. La Rosa, “Water quality mapping of Augusta Bay, Italy from Landsat-TM data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 803–808 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H.R.

H.R. Gordon, “Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle,” Limnol. Ocean. 34, 1484–1489 (1989).
[Crossref]

H.R. Gordon, R.C. Smith, and J.R.V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VII, M.A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE 489, 2–41 (1984)

H.R. Gordon, O.B. Brown, and M.M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat, homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery: a review (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
[Crossref]

Herbland, A.

J.M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, P. Laborde, A. Herbland, and V. Lafon, “SeaWiFS data interpretation in a coastal area in the Bay of Biscay,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 881–904 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hooker, S.B.

S.B. Hooker and A. Morel, “Platform and Environmental effects on above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atm. Ocean. Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, M.M.

Jerlov, N.G.

N.G. Jerlov, Marine optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

Kahru, M.

J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Khorram, S.

S. Khorram, H. Cheshire, A.L. Geraci, and G. La Rosa, “Water quality mapping of Augusta Bay, Italy from Landsat-TM data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 803–808 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kirk, J.T.O.

J.T.O. Kirk, “Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude,” Limnol. Ocean. 29, 350–356 (1984).
[Crossref]

La Rosa, G.

S. Khorram, H. Cheshire, A.L. Geraci, and G. La Rosa, “Water quality mapping of Augusta Bay, Italy from Landsat-TM data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 803–808 (1991).
[Crossref]

Laborde, P.

J.M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, P. Laborde, A. Herbland, and V. Lafon, “SeaWiFS data interpretation in a coastal area in the Bay of Biscay,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 881–904 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lafon, V.

J.M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, P. Laborde, A. Herbland, and V. Lafon, “SeaWiFS data interpretation in a coastal area in the Bay of Biscay,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 881–904 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lahet, F.

F. Lahet, S. Ouillon, and P. Forget, “A three component model of ocean colour and its application in the Ebro River mouth area,” Remote Sens. Envir. 72, 181–190 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lavender, S.

J.M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, P. Laborde, A. Herbland, and V. Lafon, “SeaWiFS data interpretation in a coastal area in the Bay of Biscay,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 881–904 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lavender, S.J.

D. Doxaran, R.C. Nagur Cherukuru, and S.J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 690–697 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maritorena, S.

J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

McClain, C.

J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Menzel, D.W.

C.S. Yentsch and D.W. Menzel, “A method for the determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll and pheophytin by fluorescence,” Deep-Sea Res. 10, 221–231 (1963).

Mitchell, G.G.

J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mobley, C.D.

G.C. Chang, T.D. Dickey, C.D. Mobley, E. Boss, and W.S. Pegau. “Toward closure of upwelling radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1574–1582 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Optics 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[Crossref]

Morel, A.

S.B. Hooker and A. Morel, “Platform and Environmental effects on above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atm. Ocean. Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters 3: Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters 2: Bi-directional aspects,” Appl. Optics. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, “A three model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean colour,” Bound. Layer Met. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean colour,” Limn. Ocean. 22, 709–721 (1977).
[Crossref]

H.R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery: a review (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
[Crossref]

Nagur Cherukuru, R.C.

D. Doxaran, R.C. Nagur Cherukuru, and S.J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 690–697 (2004).
[Crossref]

Naudin, J.J.

S. Ouillon, P. Forget, J.M. Froidefond, and J.J. Naudin, “Estimating suspended matter concentrations from SPOT data and from field measurements in the Rhône river plume,” MTS journal 31, 15–20 (1997).

O’Reilly, J.E.

J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ohde, T.

T. Ohde and H. Siegel, “Derivation of immersion factors for the hyperspectral TriOS radiance sensor,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, L12–L14 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ouillon, S.

S. Ouillon, P. Douillet, and S. Andréfouët, “Coupling satellite data with in situ measurements and numerical modeling to study fine suspended sediment transport: a study for the lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs 23, 109–122 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Lahet, S. Ouillon, and P. Forget, “A three component model of ocean colour and its application in the Ebro River mouth area,” Remote Sens. Envir. 72, 181–190 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Ouillon, P. Forget, J.M. Froidefond, and J.J. Naudin, “Estimating suspended matter concentrations from SPOT data and from field measurements in the Rhône river plume,” MTS journal 31, 15–20 (1997).

Pegau, W.S.

Prieur, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, “A three model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean colour,” Limn. Ocean. 22, 709–721 (1977).
[Crossref]

Prud’homme, R.

J.M Froidefond, P. Castaing, and R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite. “Application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. 46, 2029–2055 (1999)
[Crossref]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, “A three model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[Crossref]

Siegel, D.A.

J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Siegel, H.

T. Ohde and H. Siegel, “Derivation of immersion factors for the hyperspectral TriOS radiance sensor,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, L12–L14 (2003).
[Crossref]

Smith, R.C.

H.R. Gordon, R.C. Smith, and J.R.V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VII, M.A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE 489, 2–41 (1984)

Tassan, S.

S. Tassan, “Evaluation of the potential of the Thematic Mapper for marine application,” Int. J Remote Sens. 8, 1455–1478 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yentsch, C.S.

C.S. Yentsch and D.W. Menzel, “A method for the determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll and pheophytin by fluorescence,” Deep-Sea Res. 10, 221–231 (1963).

Zaneveld, J.R.V.

H.R. Gordon, R.C. Smith, and J.R.V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VII, M.A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE 489, 2–41 (1984)

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Optics (1)

C.D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Optics 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Optics. (1)

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters 2: Bi-directional aspects,” Appl. Optics. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bound. Layer Met. (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean colour,” Bound. Layer Met. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[Crossref]

Coral Reefs (1)

S. Ouillon, P. Douillet, and S. Andréfouët, “Coupling satellite data with in situ measurements and numerical modeling to study fine suspended sediment transport: a study for the lagoon of New Caledonia,” Coral Reefs 23, 109–122 (2004).
[Crossref]

Deep-Sea Res. (2)

C.S. Yentsch and D.W. Menzel, “A method for the determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll and pheophytin by fluorescence,” Deep-Sea Res. 10, 221–231 (1963).

J.M Froidefond, P. Castaing, and R. Prud’homme, “Monitoring suspended particulate matter fluxes and patterns with the AVHRR/NOAA-11 satellite. “Application to the Bay of Biscay,” Deep-Sea Res. 46, 2029–2055 (1999)
[Crossref]

Int. J Remote Sens. (1)

S. Tassan, “Evaluation of the potential of the Thematic Mapper for marine application,” Int. J Remote Sens. 8, 1455–1478 (1987).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (3)

S. Khorram, H. Cheshire, A.L. Geraci, and G. La Rosa, “Water quality mapping of Augusta Bay, Italy from Landsat-TM data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 803–808 (1991).
[Crossref]

J.M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, P. Laborde, A. Herbland, and V. Lafon, “SeaWiFS data interpretation in a coastal area in the Bay of Biscay,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 881–904 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, “A three model of ocean colour and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Atm. Ocean. Technol. (1)

S.B. Hooker and A. Morel, “Platform and Environmental effects on above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances,” J. Atm. Ocean. Technol. 20, 187–205 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Geoph. Res. (1)

J.E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, G.G. Mitchell, D.A. Siegel, K.L. Carder, S.A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain,. “Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geoph. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

T. Ohde and H. Siegel, “Derivation of immersion factors for the hyperspectral TriOS radiance sensor,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, L12–L14 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Doxaran, R.C. Nagur Cherukuru, and S.J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 690–697 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Rech. Oceanogr. (1)

H. Etcheber, “Comparaison de diverses méthodes d’évaluation des teneurs en matières en suspension et en carbone organique particulaire des eaux marines du plateau continental aquitain,” J. Rech. Oceanogr. 6, 37–42 (1981).

Limn. Ocean. (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean colour,” Limn. Ocean. 22, 709–721 (1977).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Ocean. (2)

J.T.O. Kirk, “Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude,” Limnol. Ocean. 29, 350–356 (1984).
[Crossref]

H.R. Gordon, “Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle,” Limnol. Ocean. 34, 1484–1489 (1989).
[Crossref]

MTS journal (1)

S. Ouillon, P. Forget, J.M. Froidefond, and J.J. Naudin, “Estimating suspended matter concentrations from SPOT data and from field measurements in the Rhône river plume,” MTS journal 31, 15–20 (1997).

Proc. SPIE (1)

H.R. Gordon, R.C. Smith, and J.R.V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VII, M.A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE 489, 2–41 (1984)

Remote Sens. Envir. (1)

F. Lahet, S. Ouillon, and P. Forget, “A three component model of ocean colour and its application in the Ebro River mouth area,” Remote Sens. Envir. 72, 181–190 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

N.G. Jerlov, Marine optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

IOCCG, Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour in Coastal and Other Optically-Complex Waters (IOCCG, Darmouth, 2000).

H.R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery: a review (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Calibration radiance spectra measured using the FieldCal device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurement platform fitted with TriOS irradiance and radiance sensors.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Testing device comprised of an aquarium placed on a white reflectance Spectralon® plate and in the shade to avoid major reflections on the glass tank.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectral radiances obtained following the schema of Fig. 3. The below-water spectrum L(λ,-1) corresponds to a non-corrected radiance.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Irradiance measured at Aiguillon under a covered sky on 17 February 2004 between 10:44 and 10:46 am and between 10:50 and 10:52 am.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Upwelling radiance measured at +2cm±1cm (17 red curves) and at -2cm±1cm (13 blue curves, uncorrected radiance) simultaneously with an irradiance measurement presented in Fig. 5. Aiguillon, 17 February 2004.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Radiance measured above-water at +3cm (7 red curves) and below the sea surface at -2cm (33 blue curves, uncorrected measurements), Teychan, 18 February 2004.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Remote-sensing reflectance calculated from irradiance and radiance shown in Fig. 5 and 6 at Aiguillon on 17 February 2004: Rrs=Lw/Ed with Lw computed from Lu(-2) in blue (measurements taken between 10:44 am and 10:46 am) and Rrs=L(+2)/Ed in red, measurements taken between 10:50 am and 10:52 am).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Remote-sensing reflectance and corresponding concentrations in Total Suspended Matter (S) and in chlorophyll-a (chl) for 7 stations in the Bay of Arcachon, 17 and 18 February 2004.

Equations (13)

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R ( λ , z ) = Eu ( λ , z ) Ed ( λ , z )
Eu ( λ , 0 ) = Eu ( λ , z ) e [ Ku ( λ ) . z ]
R ( λ ) = f . [ b b ( λ ) ( a ( λ ) + b b ( λ ) ) ]
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + a ch ( λ ) + a s ( λ ) + a y ( λ )
b b ( λ ) = b b w ( λ ) + b b ch ( λ ) + b b s ( λ )
Rrs ( λ , θ , ϕ ) = Lw ( λ , θ , ϕ , 0 + ) Ed ( λ , 0 + )
Lw ( λ ) = t n 2 * Lu ( λ , 0 )
L t ( λ , 0 + ) = L w ( λ ) + ρ L sky ( λ ) + Δ L ship ( λ )
θ water = arcsin [ ( 1 n ) * sin θ air ]
Ω IFOV = 2 π ( 1 cos θ )
Lw ( λ ) = 0.98 * L ( λ , 2 )
Rrs ( λ ) = 0.98 * L ( λ , 2 ) Ed ( λ , 0 + )
Ed ( λ , z ) = Ed ( λ , 0 ) . e [ Kd ( λ ) . z ]

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