Abstract

The nonlinear optical absorption, scattering and optical limiting properties of CdS nanoparticles dispersed in dimethylformamide (DMF) are investigated. The nanoparticles are synthesized using the standard chemical synthesis method with thioglycerol as the capping agent. The investigations are carried out at 532 nm in the ns regime. Strong two-photon absorption and nonlinear scattering are found to be responsible for good optical limiting characteristics in these nanoparticles.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quant. Electron. 17, 299–338(1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T.F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623(1985).
  3. M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, and R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1742–1744(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. E. Hernandez, S. Yang, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “High dynamic-range cascaded-focus optical limiter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1180–1182(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Hollins, “Materials for optical limiters,” Current opinion in Solid State and Material Science 4, 189–196 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Ricard, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Flytzanis, “Surface-mediated enhancement of optical phase conjugation metal colloids,” Opt. Lett. 10, 511–513(1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. Del Fatti and F. Vallee, “Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 383–390(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Vossmeyer, L. Katiskas, M. Glersig, I. G. Popvic, K. Dienser, M. Chemseddine, A. Eychmuller, and A., H. Weller. “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift.” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673(1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715(1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X.J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884–1887(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769(1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles, (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  13. V. Joudrier, P. Bourdon, F. Hache, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonlinear light scattering in a two-component medium: optical limiting application,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 627–632(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. E. Schwerzel, K. B. Spahr, J. P. Kurmer, V. E. Wood, and J. A. Jenkins, “Nanocomposite photonic polymers. 1. third-order nonlinear optical properties of capped cadmium sulfide nanocrystals in an ordered polydiacetylene host,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 5622–5626 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Du, G. Q. Xu, W. S. Chin, L. Huang, and W. Ji, “Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of hybridized CdS-polystyrene Nanocomposite,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4473–4479(2002).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Du, G. Q. Xu, W. S. Chin, L. Huang, and W. Ji, “Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of hybridized CdS-polystyrene Nanocomposite,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4473–4479(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Del Fatti and F. Vallee, “Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 383–390(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. C. Hollins, “Materials for optical limiters,” Current opinion in Solid State and Material Science 4, 189–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X.J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884–1887(1998).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Schwerzel, K. B. Spahr, J. P. Kurmer, V. E. Wood, and J. A. Jenkins, “Nanocomposite photonic polymers. 1. third-order nonlinear optical properties of capped cadmium sulfide nanocrystals in an ordered polydiacetylene host,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 5622–5626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, and R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1742–1744(1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Joudrier, P. Bourdon, F. Hache, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonlinear light scattering in a two-component medium: optical limiting application,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 627–632(1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katiskas, M. Glersig, I. G. Popvic, K. Dienser, M. Chemseddine, A. Eychmuller, and A., H. Weller. “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift.” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673(1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715(1993).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quant. Electron. 17, 299–338(1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769(1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T.F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623(1985).

D. Ricard, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Flytzanis, “Surface-mediated enhancement of optical phase conjugation metal colloids,” Opt. Lett. 10, 511–513(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715(1993).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quant. Electron. 17, 299–338(1993).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T.F.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T.F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623(1985).

Bohren, G. F.

G. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles, (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Bourdon, P.

V. Joudrier, P. Bourdon, F. Hache, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonlinear light scattering in a two-component medium: optical limiting application,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 627–632(1998).
[CrossRef]

Chemseddine, M.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katiskas, M. Glersig, I. G. Popvic, K. Dienser, M. Chemseddine, A. Eychmuller, and A., H. Weller. “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift.” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673(1994).
[CrossRef]

Chew, C. H.

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X.J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884–1887(1998).
[CrossRef]

Chin, W. S.

H. Du, G. Q. Xu, W. S. Chin, L. Huang, and W. Ji, “Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of hybridized CdS-polystyrene Nanocomposite,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4473–4479(2002).
[CrossRef]

Chin, W.S.

J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
[CrossRef]

Del Fatti, N.

N. Del Fatti and F. Vallee, “Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 383–390(2001).
[CrossRef]

Dienser, K.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katiskas, M. Glersig, I. G. Popvic, K. Dienser, M. Chemseddine, A. Eychmuller, and A., H. Weller. “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift.” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673(1994).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

H. Du, G. Q. Xu, W. S. Chin, L. Huang, and W. Ji, “Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of hybridized CdS-polystyrene Nanocomposite,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4473–4479(2002).
[CrossRef]

Elim, H. I.

J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
[CrossRef]

Eychmuller, A.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katiskas, M. Glersig, I. G. Popvic, K. Dienser, M. Chemseddine, A. Eychmuller, and A., H. Weller. “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift.” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673(1994).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

V. Joudrier, P. Bourdon, F. Hache, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonlinear light scattering in a two-component medium: optical limiting application,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 627–632(1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Ricard, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Flytzanis, “Surface-mediated enhancement of optical phase conjugation metal colloids,” Opt. Lett. 10, 511–513(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, L. M.

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X.J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884–1887(1998).
[CrossRef]

Glersig, M.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katiskas, M. Glersig, I. G. Popvic, K. Dienser, M. Chemseddine, A. Eychmuller, and A., H. Weller. “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift.” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673(1994).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T.F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623(1985).

Hache, F.

V. Joudrier, P. Bourdon, F. Hache, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonlinear light scattering in a two-component medium: optical limiting application,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 627–632(1998).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

F. E. Hernandez, S. Yang, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “High dynamic-range cascaded-focus optical limiter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1180–1182(2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769(1990).
[CrossRef]

Han, M. Y.

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X.J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884–1887(1998).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, F. E.

Hollins, R. C.

R. C. Hollins, “Materials for optical limiters,” Current opinion in Solid State and Material Science 4, 189–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

H. Du, G. Q. Xu, W. S. Chin, L. Huang, and W. Ji, “Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of hybridized CdS-polystyrene Nanocomposite,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4473–4479(2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X.J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884–1887(1998).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

G. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles, (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Jenkins, J. A.

R. E. Schwerzel, K. B. Spahr, J. P. Kurmer, V. E. Wood, and J. A. Jenkins, “Nanocomposite photonic polymers. 1. third-order nonlinear optical properties of capped cadmium sulfide nanocrystals in an ordered polydiacetylene host,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 5622–5626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Du, G. Q. Xu, W. S. Chin, L. Huang, and W. Ji, “Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of hybridized CdS-polystyrene Nanocomposite,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4473–4479(2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X.J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884–1887(1998).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, M. P.

Joudrier, V.

V. Joudrier, P. Bourdon, F. Hache, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonlinear light scattering in a two-component medium: optical limiting application,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 627–632(1998).
[CrossRef]

Kannan, R.

Katiskas, L.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katiskas, M. Glersig, I. G. Popvic, K. Dienser, M. Chemseddine, A. Eychmuller, and A., H. Weller. “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift.” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673(1994).
[CrossRef]

Kurmer, J. P.

R. E. Schwerzel, K. B. Spahr, J. P. Kurmer, V. E. Wood, and J. A. Jenkins, “Nanocomposite photonic polymers. 1. third-order nonlinear optical properties of capped cadmium sulfide nanocrystals in an ordered polydiacetylene host,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 5622–5626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, G. H.

J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. B.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715(1993).
[CrossRef]

Norris, D. J.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715(1993).
[CrossRef]

Popvic, I. G.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katiskas, M. Glersig, I. G. Popvic, K. Dienser, M. Chemseddine, A. Eychmuller, and A., H. Weller. “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift.” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673(1994).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

Reinhardt, B. A.

Ricard, D.

Roussignol, Ph.

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769(1990).
[CrossRef]

Schwerzel, R. E.

R. E. Schwerzel, K. B. Spahr, J. P. Kurmer, V. E. Wood, and J. A. Jenkins, “Nanocomposite photonic polymers. 1. third-order nonlinear optical properties of capped cadmium sulfide nanocrystals in an ordered polydiacetylene host,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 5622–5626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769(1990).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A. L.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T.F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623(1985).

Soileau, M. J.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T.F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623(1985).

Spahr, K. B.

R. E. Schwerzel, K. B. Spahr, J. P. Kurmer, V. E. Wood, and J. A. Jenkins, “Nanocomposite photonic polymers. 1. third-order nonlinear optical properties of capped cadmium sulfide nanocrystals in an ordered polydiacetylene host,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 5622–5626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. X.

J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
[CrossRef]

Swiatkiewicz, J.

Tang, S.H.

J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quant. Electron. 17, 299–338(1993).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, F.

N. Del Fatti and F. Vallee, “Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 383–390(2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

F. E. Hernandez, S. Yang, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “High dynamic-range cascaded-focus optical limiter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1180–1182(2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769(1990).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T.F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623(1985).

Vanherzeele, H.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T.F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623(1985).

Vossmeyer, T.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katiskas, M. Glersig, I. G. Popvic, K. Dienser, M. Chemseddine, A. Eychmuller, and A., H. Weller. “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift.” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673(1994).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769(1990).
[CrossRef]

Weller, A., H.

T. Vossmeyer, L. Katiskas, M. Glersig, I. G. Popvic, K. Dienser, M. Chemseddine, A. Eychmuller, and A., H. Weller. “CdS nanoclusters: synthesis, characterization, size dependent oscillator strength, temperature shift of the excitonic transition energy, and reversible absorbance shift.” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7665–7673(1994).
[CrossRef]

Wood, V. E.

R. E. Schwerzel, K. B. Spahr, J. P. Kurmer, V. E. Wood, and J. A. Jenkins, “Nanocomposite photonic polymers. 1. third-order nonlinear optical properties of capped cadmium sulfide nanocrystals in an ordered polydiacetylene host,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 5622–5626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woodall, M. A.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T.F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623(1985).

Xu, F.

Xu, G. Q.

H. Du, G. Q. Xu, W. S. Chin, L. Huang, and W. Ji, “Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of hybridized CdS-polystyrene Nanocomposite,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4473–4479(2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Zhang, X.J.

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X.J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884–1887(1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. H.

J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

N. Del Fatti and F. Vallee, “Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 383–390(2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Joudrier, P. Bourdon, F. Hache, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonlinear light scattering in a two-component medium: optical limiting application,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 627–632(1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

H. Du, G. Q. Xu, W. S. Chin, L. Huang, and W. Ji, “Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of hybridized CdS-polystyrene Nanocomposite,” Chem. Mater. 14, 4473–4479(2002).
[CrossRef]

Current opinion in Solid State and Material Science (1)

R. C. Hollins, “Materials for optical limiters,” Current opinion in Solid State and Material Science 4, 189–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769(1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. He, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, S.H. Tang, H. I. Elim, W. X. Sun, Z. H. Zhang, and W.S. Chin, “Excitonic nonlinear absorption in CdS nanocrystals studied using Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6381–6386(2004).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the Z scan set up for recording the nonlinear absorption and scattering. A-aperture, S-sample, F1, F2, F3, F4-Neutral Density Filters, D1, D2, D3-Detectors, BS-Beam splitter, L1, L2, L3, L4-lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

UV-Vis absorption of 4.5 nm size of CdS nanoparticles in DMF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

XRD of 4.5 nm CdS nanoparticles powder on glass plate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

TEM image of 4.5 nm CdS nanoparticles.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Open aperture Z-Scan (Detector 2) of 4.5 nm CdS nanoparticles in DMF and its theoretical fits (solid line) at two different intensities and at a concentration of CdS: DMF=1:100

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Scattering of 4.5 nm CdS nanoparticles at three different angles with intensity (Z-position).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Transmitted light and scattering (Detector1), transmitted light minus scattering (Detector2) of 4.5 nm CdS nanoparticles with respect to input fluence. Dashed line represents linear transmittance of 0.76 at 532 nm and the solid line is the curve obtained by integrating the equation 3.

Equations (3)

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d N 0 dt = β I 2 2 ω + N 1 τ 1
dN 1 dt = β I 2 2 ω N 1 τ 1
dI dz = α s I β I 2

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