Abstract

In this study we use a multi-spectral digital microscope (MDM) to measure multi-spectral auto-fluorescence and reflectance images of the hamster cheek pouch model of DMBA (dimethylbenz[α]anthracene)-induced oral carcinogenesis. The multi-spectral images are analyzed both in the RGB (red, green, blue) color space as well as in the YCbCr (luminance, chromatic minus blue, chromatic minus red) color space. Mean image intensity, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis are selected as features to design a classification algorithm to discriminate normal mucosa from neoplastic tissue. The best diagnostic performance is achieved using features extracted from the YCbCr space, indicating the importance of chromatic information for classification. A sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 84% were achieved in separating normal from abnormal cheek pouch lesions. The results of this study suggest that a simple and inexpensive MDM has the potential to provide a cost-effective and accurate alternative to standard white light endoscopy.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. I.B. Gimenez-Conti, D.M. Shin, A.B. Bianchi, D.R. Roop, W.K. Hong, C.J. Conti, and T.J. Slaga, “Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Cancer Res. 50, 4441–4445 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  3. L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, C. Brookner, A. Zuluaga, I. Gimenez-Conti, and M. Follen-Mitchell, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of epithelial tissue throughtout the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in an animal model: spectroscopic changes precede morphologic changes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29,1–10 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Drezek, D. Heintzelman, A. Zuluaga, C. Brookner, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epitthelial neoplasia:results from an animal model,” Opt. Express 7, 436:445 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. Sevick-Muraca and R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Ann Rev Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  6. G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–32 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  7. H. Stepp, R. Sroka, and R. Baumgartner, “Fluorescence endoscopy of gastrointestinal diseases: basic principles, techniques, and clinical experience,” Endoscopy 30, 379–86 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S.B. Cantor, M. Follen-Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, C. Bratka, D. Bodurka, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and management of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions,” Obstet. Gynecol. 91, 270–277 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).
  10. N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. Agrawal, U. Utzinger, C. Brookner, C. Pitris, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix: influence of acetic acid, cervical mucus, and vaginal medications,” Lasers Surg. Med.,  25, 237–49 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
  13. J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. C.Y. Wang, T. Tsai, H.C. Chen, S.C. Chang, C.T. Chen, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 32, 18–24 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. N. Vengadesan, P. Aruna, and S. Ganesan, “Characterization of native fluorescence from DMBA-treated hamster cheek pouch buccal mucosa for measuring tissue transformation,” Br. J. Cancer 77, 391–5 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C.T. Chen, H.K. Chiang, S.N. Chow, C.Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, J.C. Tsai, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence in normal and malignant human oral tissues and in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470–474 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D.L. Heintzelman and U. Utzinger, et al., “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103–113 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. V. Bhaskaran and K. Konstantinides, Image and video compression standards algorithms and architectures (Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA, 1999).
  21. S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. B.W. Fei, Z.H. Lee, D.T. Boll, J.L. Duerk, D.B. Sodee, J.S. Lewin, and D.L. Wilson, “Registration and fusion of SPECT, high-resolution MRI, and interventional MRI for thermal ablation of prostate cancer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science 51: 177–183 Part 1(2004).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Seutens, “Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 187–198 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. R. Hsu, M. Abdel-Mottaleb, and A. K. Jain, “Face detection in color images,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 24: 696–706 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  25. O.D. Richard, E.H. Peter, and G.S. David, Pattern Classification (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001).
  26. A. Bera and C. Jarque, “Efficient tests for normality, heteroskedasticity and serial independence of regression residuals: Monte Carlo evidence,” Econo. Letter 7: 313–318 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Inaguma and K. Hashimoto, “Porphyrin-like fluorescence in oral cancer,” Cancer 86, 2201–2211 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B.W. Fei, Z.H. Lee, D.T. Boll, J.L. Duerk, D.B. Sodee, J.S. Lewin, and D.L. Wilson, “Registration and fusion of SPECT, high-resolution MRI, and interventional MRI for thermal ablation of prostate cancer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science 51: 177–183 Part 1(2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.Y. Wang, T. Tsai, H.C. Chen, S.C. Chang, C.T. Chen, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 32, 18–24 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hsu, M. Abdel-Mottaleb, and A. K. Jain, “Face detection in color images,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 24: 696–706 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, C. Brookner, A. Zuluaga, I. Gimenez-Conti, and M. Follen-Mitchell, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of epithelial tissue throughtout the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in an animal model: spectroscopic changes precede morphologic changes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29,1–10 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Drezek, D. Heintzelman, A. Zuluaga, C. Brookner, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epitthelial neoplasia:results from an animal model,” Opt. Express 7, 436:445 (2000).
[Crossref]

D.L. Heintzelman and U. Utzinger, et al., “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103–113 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

M. Inaguma and K. Hashimoto, “Porphyrin-like fluorescence in oral cancer,” Cancer 86, 2201–2211 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, U. Utzinger, C. Brookner, C. Pitris, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix: influence of acetic acid, cervical mucus, and vaginal medications,” Lasers Surg. Med.,  25, 237–49 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (7)

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Vengadesan, P. Aruna, and S. Ganesan, “Characterization of native fluorescence from DMBA-treated hamster cheek pouch buccal mucosa for measuring tissue transformation,” Br. J. Cancer 77, 391–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.T. Chen, H.K. Chiang, S.N. Chow, C.Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, J.C. Tsai, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence in normal and malignant human oral tissues and in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470–474 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–32 (1998).
[PubMed]

H. Stepp, R. Sroka, and R. Baumgartner, “Fluorescence endoscopy of gastrointestinal diseases: basic principles, techniques, and clinical experience,” Endoscopy 30, 379–86 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.B. Cantor, M. Follen-Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, C. Bratka, D. Bodurka, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and management of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions,” Obstet. Gynecol. 91, 270–277 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Seutens, “Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Sevick-Muraca and R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Ann Rev Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J.C. Zenklusen, S.L. Stockman, S.M. Fischer SM, C.J. Conti, and I.B. Gimenez-Conti, “Transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in Syrian hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Mol. Carcinog. 9, 10–16 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

I.B. Gimenez-Conti, D.M. Shin, A.B. Bianchi, D.R. Roop, W.K. Hong, C.J. Conti, and T.J. Slaga, “Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Cancer Res. 50, 4441–4445 (1990).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

A. Bera and C. Jarque, “Efficient tests for normality, heteroskedasticity and serial independence of regression residuals: Monte Carlo evidence,” Econo. Letter 7: 313–318 (1981).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Mottaleb, M.

R. Hsu, M. Abdel-Mottaleb, and A. K. Jain, “Face detection in color images,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 24: 696–706 (2002).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, A.

A. Agrawal, U. Utzinger, C. Brookner, C. Pitris, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix: influence of acetic acid, cervical mucus, and vaginal medications,” Lasers Surg. Med.,  25, 237–49 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aruna, P.

N. Vengadesan, P. Aruna, and S. Ganesan, “Characterization of native fluorescence from DMBA-treated hamster cheek pouch buccal mucosa for measuring tissue transformation,” Br. J. Cancer 77, 391–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, N.

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, R.

H. Stepp, R. Sroka, and R. Baumgartner, “Fluorescence endoscopy of gastrointestinal diseases: basic principles, techniques, and clinical experience,” Endoscopy 30, 379–86 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benavides, J.M.

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bera, A.

A. Bera and C. Jarque, “Efficient tests for normality, heteroskedasticity and serial independence of regression residuals: Monte Carlo evidence,” Econo. Letter 7: 313–318 (1981).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, V.

V. Bhaskaran and K. Konstantinides, Image and video compression standards algorithms and architectures (Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA, 1999).

Bianchi, A.B.

I.B. Gimenez-Conti, D.M. Shin, A.B. Bianchi, D.R. Roop, W.K. Hong, C.J. Conti, and T.J. Slaga, “Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Cancer Res. 50, 4441–4445 (1990).
[PubMed]

Bodurka, D.

S.B. Cantor, M. Follen-Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, C. Bratka, D. Bodurka, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and management of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions,” Obstet. Gynecol. 91, 270–277 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boll, D.T.

B.W. Fei, Z.H. Lee, D.T. Boll, J.L. Duerk, D.B. Sodee, J.S. Lewin, and D.L. Wilson, “Registration and fusion of SPECT, high-resolution MRI, and interventional MRI for thermal ablation of prostate cancer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science 51: 177–183 Part 1(2004).
[Crossref]

Boone, C.W.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bratka, C.

S.B. Cantor, M. Follen-Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, C. Bratka, D. Bodurka, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and management of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions,” Obstet. Gynecol. 91, 270–277 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brookner, C.

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, C. Brookner, A. Zuluaga, I. Gimenez-Conti, and M. Follen-Mitchell, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of epithelial tissue throughtout the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in an animal model: spectroscopic changes precede morphologic changes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29,1–10 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Drezek, D. Heintzelman, A. Zuluaga, C. Brookner, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epitthelial neoplasia:results from an animal model,” Opt. Express 7, 436:445 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Agrawal, U. Utzinger, C. Brookner, C. Pitris, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix: influence of acetic acid, cervical mucus, and vaginal medications,” Lasers Surg. Med.,  25, 237–49 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cantor, S.B.

S.B. Cantor, M. Follen-Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, C. Bratka, D. Bodurka, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and management of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions,” Obstet. Gynecol. 91, 270–277 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.C.

C.Y. Wang, T. Tsai, H.C. Chen, S.C. Chang, C.T. Chen, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 32, 18–24 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.K.

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.T.

C.Y. Wang, T. Tsai, H.C. Chen, S.C. Chang, C.T. Chen, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 32, 18–24 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.T. Chen, H.K. Chiang, S.N. Chow, C.Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, J.C. Tsai, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence in normal and malignant human oral tissues and in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470–474 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.C.

C.Y. Wang, T. Tsai, H.C. Chen, S.C. Chang, C.T. Chen, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 32, 18–24 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, C.P.

C.Y. Wang, T. Tsai, H.C. Chen, S.C. Chang, C.T. Chen, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 32, 18–24 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.T. Chen, H.K. Chiang, S.N. Chow, C.Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, J.C. Tsai, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence in normal and malignant human oral tissues and in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470–474 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, H.K.

C.T. Chen, H.K. Chiang, S.N. Chow, C.Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, J.C. Tsai, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence in normal and malignant human oral tissues and in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470–474 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chow, S.N.

C.T. Chen, H.K. Chiang, S.N. Chow, C.Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, J.C. Tsai, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence in normal and malignant human oral tissues and in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470–474 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clayman, G.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).

Coghlan, L.

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, C. Brookner, A. Zuluaga, I. Gimenez-Conti, and M. Follen-Mitchell, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of epithelial tissue throughtout the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in an animal model: spectroscopic changes precede morphologic changes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29,1–10 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Drezek, D. Heintzelman, A. Zuluaga, C. Brookner, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epitthelial neoplasia:results from an animal model,” Opt. Express 7, 436:445 (2000).
[Crossref]

Collignon, A.

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Seutens, “Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conti, C.J.

J.C. Zenklusen, S.L. Stockman, S.M. Fischer SM, C.J. Conti, and I.B. Gimenez-Conti, “Transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in Syrian hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Mol. Carcinog. 9, 10–16 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.B. Gimenez-Conti, D.M. Shin, A.B. Bianchi, D.R. Roop, W.K. Hong, C.J. Conti, and T.J. Slaga, “Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Cancer Res. 50, 4441–4445 (1990).
[PubMed]

Cox, D.

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R.R.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, G.S.

O.D. Richard, E.H. Peter, and G.S. David, Pattern Classification (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001).

Dhingra, J.K.

J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Drezek, D. Heintzelman, A. Zuluaga, C. Brookner, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epitthelial neoplasia:results from an animal model,” Opt. Express 7, 436:445 (2000).
[Crossref]

Duerk, J.L.

B.W. Fei, Z.H. Lee, D.T. Boll, J.L. Duerk, D.B. Sodee, J.S. Lewin, and D.L. Wilson, “Registration and fusion of SPECT, high-resolution MRI, and interventional MRI for thermal ablation of prostate cancer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science 51: 177–183 Part 1(2004).
[Crossref]

El-Naggar, A.K.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).

Fei, B.W.

B.W. Fei, Z.H. Lee, D.T. Boll, J.L. Duerk, D.B. Sodee, J.S. Lewin, and D.L. Wilson, “Registration and fusion of SPECT, high-resolution MRI, and interventional MRI for thermal ablation of prostate cancer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science 51: 177–183 Part 1(2004).
[Crossref]

Feld, M.S.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer SM, S.M.

J.C. Zenklusen, S.L. Stockman, S.M. Fischer SM, C.J. Conti, and I.B. Gimenez-Conti, “Transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in Syrian hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Mol. Carcinog. 9, 10–16 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Follen-Mitchell, M.

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, C. Brookner, A. Zuluaga, I. Gimenez-Conti, and M. Follen-Mitchell, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of epithelial tissue throughtout the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in an animal model: spectroscopic changes precede morphologic changes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29,1–10 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, U. Utzinger, C. Brookner, C. Pitris, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix: influence of acetic acid, cervical mucus, and vaginal medications,” Lasers Surg. Med.,  25, 237–49 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.B. Cantor, M. Follen-Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, C. Bratka, D. Bodurka, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and management of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions,” Obstet. Gynecol. 91, 270–277 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).

Fuentes, C.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganesan, S.

N. Vengadesan, P. Aruna, and S. Ganesan, “Characterization of native fluorescence from DMBA-treated hamster cheek pouch buccal mucosa for measuring tissue transformation,” Br. J. Cancer 77, 391–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganeshappa, R.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).

Georgakoudi, I.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

Gillenwater, A.R.

A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).

Gimenez-Conti, I.

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, C. Brookner, A. Zuluaga, I. Gimenez-Conti, and M. Follen-Mitchell, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of epithelial tissue throughtout the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in an animal model: spectroscopic changes precede morphologic changes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29,1–10 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gimenez-Conti, I.B.

J.C. Zenklusen, S.L. Stockman, S.M. Fischer SM, C.J. Conti, and I.B. Gimenez-Conti, “Transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in Syrian hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Mol. Carcinog. 9, 10–16 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.B. Gimenez-Conti, D.M. Shin, A.B. Bianchi, D.R. Roop, W.K. Hong, C.J. Conti, and T.J. Slaga, “Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Cancer Res. 50, 4441–4445 (1990).
[PubMed]

Gtaerkel, S.

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, K.

M. Inaguma and K. Hashimoto, “Porphyrin-like fluorescence in oral cancer,” Cancer 86, 2201–2211 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heintzelman, D.

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Drezek, D. Heintzelman, A. Zuluaga, C. Brookner, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epitthelial neoplasia:results from an animal model,” Opt. Express 7, 436:445 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heintzelman, D.L.

D.L. Heintzelman and U. Utzinger, et al., “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103–113 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, W.K.

I.B. Gimenez-Conti, D.M. Shin, A.B. Bianchi, D.R. Roop, W.K. Hong, C.J. Conti, and T.J. Slaga, “Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Cancer Res. 50, 4441–4445 (1990).
[PubMed]

Hsu, R.

R. Hsu, M. Abdel-Mottaleb, and A. K. Jain, “Face detection in color images,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 24: 696–706 (2002).
[Crossref]

Inaguma, M.

M. Inaguma and K. Hashimoto, “Porphyrin-like fluorescence in oral cancer,” Cancer 86, 2201–2211 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacob, R.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).

Jain, A. K.

R. Hsu, M. Abdel-Mottaleb, and A. K. Jain, “Face detection in color images,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 24: 696–706 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jarque, C.

A. Bera and C. Jarque, “Efficient tests for normality, heteroskedasticity and serial independence of regression residuals: Monte Carlo evidence,” Econo. Letter 7: 313–318 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kabani, S.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kemp, B.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).

Konstantinides, K.

V. Bhaskaran and K. Konstantinides, Image and video compression standards algorithms and architectures (Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA, 1999).

Laver, N.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.S.

C.T. Chen, H.K. Chiang, S.N. Chow, C.Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, J.C. Tsai, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence in normal and malignant human oral tissues and in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470–474 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Z.H.

B.W. Fei, Z.H. Lee, D.T. Boll, J.L. Duerk, D.B. Sodee, J.S. Lewin, and D.L. Wilson, “Registration and fusion of SPECT, high-resolution MRI, and interventional MRI for thermal ablation of prostate cancer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science 51: 177–183 Part 1(2004).
[Crossref]

Lewin, J.S.

B.W. Fei, Z.H. Lee, D.T. Boll, J.L. Duerk, D.B. Sodee, J.S. Lewin, and D.L. Wilson, “Registration and fusion of SPECT, high-resolution MRI, and interventional MRI for thermal ablation of prostate cancer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science 51: 177–183 Part 1(2004).
[Crossref]

MacAulay, C.

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacKinnon, N.

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maes, F.

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Seutens, “Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marchal, G.

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Seutens, “Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMillan, K.

J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milbourne, A.

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, M.G.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, J.L.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).

Park, S.Y.

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peter, E.H.

O.D. Richard, E.H. Peter, and G.S. David, Pattern Classification (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001).

Pitris, C.

A. Agrawal, U. Utzinger, C. Brookner, C. Pitris, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix: influence of acetic acid, cervical mucus, and vaginal medications,” Lasers Surg. Med.,  25, 237–49 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richard, O.D.

O.D. Richard, E.H. Peter, and G.S. David, Pattern Classification (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001).

Richards-Kortum, R.

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, C. Brookner, A. Zuluaga, I. Gimenez-Conti, and M. Follen-Mitchell, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of epithelial tissue throughtout the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in an animal model: spectroscopic changes precede morphologic changes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29,1–10 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Drezek, D. Heintzelman, A. Zuluaga, C. Brookner, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epitthelial neoplasia:results from an animal model,” Opt. Express 7, 436:445 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Agrawal, U. Utzinger, C. Brookner, C. Pitris, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix: influence of acetic acid, cervical mucus, and vaginal medications,” Lasers Surg. Med.,  25, 237–49 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.B. Cantor, M. Follen-Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, C. Bratka, D. Bodurka, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and management of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions,” Obstet. Gynecol. 91, 270–277 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Sevick-Muraca and R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Ann Rev Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref]

A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).

Roop, D.R.

I.B. Gimenez-Conti, D.M. Shin, A.B. Bianchi, D.R. Roop, W.K. Hong, C.J. Conti, and T.J. Slaga, “Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Cancer Res. 50, 4441–4445 (1990).
[PubMed]

Seutens, P.

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Seutens, “Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E.

E. Sevick-Muraca and R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Ann Rev Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shapshay, S.M.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharpshay, S.M.

J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, D.M.

I.B. Gimenez-Conti, D.M. Shin, A.B. Bianchi, D.R. Roop, W.K. Hong, C.J. Conti, and T.J. Slaga, “Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Cancer Res. 50, 4441–4445 (1990).
[PubMed]

Slaga, T.J.

I.B. Gimenez-Conti, D.M. Shin, A.B. Bianchi, D.R. Roop, W.K. Hong, C.J. Conti, and T.J. Slaga, “Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Cancer Res. 50, 4441–4445 (1990).
[PubMed]

Sodee, D.B.

B.W. Fei, Z.H. Lee, D.T. Boll, J.L. Duerk, D.B. Sodee, J.S. Lewin, and D.L. Wilson, “Registration and fusion of SPECT, high-resolution MRI, and interventional MRI for thermal ablation of prostate cancer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science 51: 177–183 Part 1(2004).
[Crossref]

Sroka, R.

H. Stepp, R. Sroka, and R. Baumgartner, “Fluorescence endoscopy of gastrointestinal diseases: basic principles, techniques, and clinical experience,” Endoscopy 30, 379–86 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staerkel, G.

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Star, W.M.

G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–32 (1998).
[PubMed]

Stepp, H.

H. Stepp, R. Sroka, and R. Baumgartner, “Fluorescence endoscopy of gastrointestinal diseases: basic principles, techniques, and clinical experience,” Endoscopy 30, 379–86 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stockman, S.L.

J.C. Zenklusen, S.L. Stockman, S.M. Fischer SM, C.J. Conti, and I.B. Gimenez-Conti, “Transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in Syrian hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Mol. Carcinog. 9, 10–16 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S.

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tortolero-Luna, G.

S.B. Cantor, M. Follen-Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, C. Bratka, D. Bodurka, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and management of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions,” Obstet. Gynecol. 91, 270–277 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, J.C.

C.T. Chen, H.K. Chiang, S.N. Chow, C.Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, J.C. Tsai, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence in normal and malignant human oral tissues and in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470–474 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, T.

C.Y. Wang, T. Tsai, H.C. Chen, S.C. Chang, C.T. Chen, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 32, 18–24 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, C. Brookner, A. Zuluaga, I. Gimenez-Conti, and M. Follen-Mitchell, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of epithelial tissue throughtout the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in an animal model: spectroscopic changes precede morphologic changes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29,1–10 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Drezek, D. Heintzelman, A. Zuluaga, C. Brookner, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epitthelial neoplasia:results from an animal model,” Opt. Express 7, 436:445 (2000).
[Crossref]

D.L. Heintzelman and U. Utzinger, et al., “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103–113 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, U. Utzinger, C. Brookner, C. Pitris, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix: influence of acetic acid, cervical mucus, and vaginal medications,” Lasers Surg. Med.,  25, 237–49 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valdez, T.A.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vandermeulen, D.

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Seutens, “Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vengadesan, N.

N. Vengadesan, P. Aruna, and S. Ganesan, “Characterization of native fluorescence from DMBA-treated hamster cheek pouch buccal mucosa for measuring tissue transformation,” Br. J. Cancer 77, 391–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagnieres, G.A.

G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–32 (1998).
[PubMed]

Wang, C.Y.

C.Y. Wang, T. Tsai, H.C. Chen, S.C. Chang, C.T. Chen, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 32, 18–24 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.T. Chen, H.K. Chiang, S.N. Chow, C.Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, J.C. Tsai, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence in normal and malignant human oral tissues and in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470–474 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B.C.

G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–32 (1998).
[PubMed]

Wilson, D.L.

B.W. Fei, Z.H. Lee, D.T. Boll, J.L. Duerk, D.B. Sodee, J.S. Lewin, and D.L. Wilson, “Registration and fusion of SPECT, high-resolution MRI, and interventional MRI for thermal ablation of prostate cancer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science 51: 177–183 Part 1(2004).
[Crossref]

Wright, T.

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zahng, X.

J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zenklusen, J.C.

J.C. Zenklusen, S.L. Stockman, S.M. Fischer SM, C.J. Conti, and I.B. Gimenez-Conti, “Transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in Syrian hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Mol. Carcinog. 9, 10–16 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuluaga, A.

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, C. Brookner, A. Zuluaga, I. Gimenez-Conti, and M. Follen-Mitchell, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of epithelial tissue throughtout the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in an animal model: spectroscopic changes precede morphologic changes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29,1–10 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Drezek, D. Heintzelman, A. Zuluaga, C. Brookner, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epitthelial neoplasia:results from an animal model,” Opt. Express 7, 436:445 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ann Rev Phys. Chem. (1)

E. Sevick-Muraca and R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Ann Rev Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Arch. Otolaryngol. (1)

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autoflurescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).

Br. J. Cancer (1)

N. Vengadesan, P. Aruna, and S. Ganesan, “Characterization of native fluorescence from DMBA-treated hamster cheek pouch buccal mucosa for measuring tissue transformation,” Br. J. Cancer 77, 391–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer (2)

M.G. Muller, T.A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C.W. Boone, R.R. Dasari, S.M. Shapshay, and M.S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681–1692 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Inaguma and K. Hashimoto, “Porphyrin-like fluorescence in oral cancer,” Cancer 86, 2201–2211 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

I.B. Gimenez-Conti, D.M. Shin, A.B. Bianchi, D.R. Roop, W.K. Hong, C.J. Conti, and T.J. Slaga, “Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Cancer Res. 50, 4441–4445 (1990).
[PubMed]

Econo. Letter (1)

A. Bera and C. Jarque, “Efficient tests for normality, heteroskedasticity and serial independence of regression residuals: Monte Carlo evidence,” Econo. Letter 7: 313–318 (1981).
[Crossref]

Endoscopy (1)

H. Stepp, R. Sroka, and R. Baumgartner, “Fluorescence endoscopy of gastrointestinal diseases: basic principles, techniques, and clinical experience,” Endoscopy 30, 379–86 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

S.K. Chang, M. Follen, A. Malpica, U. Utzinger, S. Gtaerkel, D. Cox, N. Atkinson, C. MacAulay, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal excitation wavelengths for discrimination of cervical neoplasia.,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1102–1111 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

F. Maes, A. Collignon, D. Vandermeulen, G. Marchal, and P. Seutens, “Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science (1)

B.W. Fei, Z.H. Lee, D.T. Boll, J.L. Duerk, D.B. Sodee, J.S. Lewin, and D.L. Wilson, “Registration and fusion of SPECT, high-resolution MRI, and interventional MRI for thermal ablation of prostate cancer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl, Science 51: 177–183 Part 1(2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

R. Hsu, M. Abdel-Mottaleb, and A. K. Jain, “Face detection in color images,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell. 24: 696–706 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2)

C.T. Chen, H.K. Chiang, S.N. Chow, C.Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, J.C. Tsai, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence in normal and malignant human oral tissues and in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470–474 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.Y. Wang, T. Tsai, H.C. Chen, S.C. Chang, C.T. Chen, and C.P. Chiang, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 32, 18–24 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laryngoscope (1)

J.K. Dhingra, X. Zahng, K. McMillan, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M.S. Feld, and S.M. Sharpshay, “Diagnosis of head and neck precancerous lesions in an animal model using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Laryngoscope 108, 471–475 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

A. Agrawal, U. Utzinger, C. Brookner, C. Pitris, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix: influence of acetic acid, cervical mucus, and vaginal medications,” Lasers Surg. Med.,  25, 237–49 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, C. Brookner, A. Zuluaga, I. Gimenez-Conti, and M. Follen-Mitchell, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of epithelial tissue throughtout the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in an animal model: spectroscopic changes precede morphologic changes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 29,1–10 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Carcinog. (1)

J.C. Zenklusen, S.L. Stockman, S.M. Fischer SM, C.J. Conti, and I.B. Gimenez-Conti, “Transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in Syrian hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis,” Mol. Carcinog. 9, 10–16 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

S.B. Cantor, M. Follen-Mitchell, G. Tortolero-Luna, C. Bratka, D. Bodurka, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and management of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions,” Obstet. Gynecol. 91, 270–277 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

L. Coghlan, U. Utzinger, R. Drezek, D. Heintzelman, A. Zuluaga, C. Brookner, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epitthelial neoplasia:results from an animal model,” Opt. Express 7, 436:445 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.M. Benavides, S. Chang, S.Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. MacKinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, “Multispectral digital colposcopy for the in vivo detection of cervical cancer”, Opt. Express 11, 1223:1236(2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (3)

D.L. Heintzelman and U. Utzinger, et al., “Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103–113 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–32 (1998).
[PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. Follen-Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A.R. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A.K. El-Naggar, J.L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. Follen-Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol., 1251–1258 (1998).

V. Bhaskaran and K. Konstantinides, Image and video compression standards algorithms and architectures (Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA, 1999).

O.D. Richard, E.H. Peter, and G.S. David, Pattern Classification (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) System diagram and (b) a photograph of the MDM system

Table 1.
Table 1.

Overview of the study design. DMBA weekly treatment frequency is indicated by the number in ach cell; cells without a number indicate no DMBA treatment. Cells are color coded to indicate image acquisition and tissue classification. Different colors represent different tissue classifications: cyan for normal, green for intermediate, and red for neoplastic.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time course of RGB images for a representative DMBA treated hamster : 1st week, b) 5th week, c) 7th week d) 11th week, and e) 13th week (left: white light reflectance images, middle: 345 nm excited fluorescence images and right: 440 nm excited autofluorescence images).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relative frequency histograms of the mean intensity of pixels randomly chosen from fluorescence images at (a) 345 nm and (b) 440 nm excitation in the normal and neoplastic groups. The left column shows data from the red channel, the middle column from the green channel and the right column from the blue channel.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Two dimensional scatter plots of the statistical parameters from pixels randomly chosen from fluorescence images at 345 nm excitation vs the same parameters at 440 nm excitation, including (a) mean intensity, (b) standard deviation, (c) skewness and (d) kurtosis. The left column shows data from the red channel, the middle column from the green channel and the right column from the blue channel. A data point is shown for each hamster at each time point in the normal, intermediate and neoplastic groups.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relative frequency histograms of the mean intensity of pixels randomly chosen from fluorescence images at (a) 345 nm and (b) 440 nm excitation in the normal and neoplastic groups. The left column shows data from the Y channel, the middle column from the Cb channel and the right column from the Cr channel.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Two dimensional scatter plots of the statistical parameters from pixels randomly chosen from fluorescence images at 345 nm excitation vs the same parameters at 440 nm excitation, including (a) mean intensity, (b) standard deviation, (c) skewness and (d) kurtosis. The left column shows data from the Y channel, the middle column from the Cb channel and the right column from the Cr channel. A data point is shown for each hamster at each time point in the normal, intermediate and neoplastic groups.

Table 2.
Table 2.

Classification results using the input data from images in the YCbCr color space for each hamster at each time point. Colored cells indicate time points at which images were acquired. The cells are color-coded to indicate which group the images were assigned to as in Table 1. The results of the classification algorithm are represented by the letter in the cell, where N indicates the measurement was classified as normal and A indicates the measurement was classified as neoplastic. Circled letters indicate misclassifications for hamsters in the normal and neoplastic groups.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Y = c 1 R + c 2 G + c 3 B ,
C b = B Y 2 2 c 3 ,
C r = R Y 2 2 c 1 ,

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