Abstract

We report the first time optical planar waveguide fabricated in vanadate laser crystal Nd:LuVO4 by 3.0 MeV oxygen ion implantation with the dose of 6×1014 ions/cm2 at room temperature. After the implantation, an enhanced ordinary refractive index region was formed with a width of about 2.1 µm beneath the sample surface to act as a waveguide structure. The modes were observed at 633 nm, while only one mode was observed at 1539 nm after annealing at 300 °C for 60 min in air. The changes of ordinary refractive index in the guiding region were about 4.42% and 4.07% before and after annealing.

©2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Terada, K. Shimamura, V. V. Kochurikhim, L. V. Barashov, M. A. Ivanov, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and optical properties of ErVO4 and LuVO4 single crystal,” J. Crystal Growth. 167, 369–372 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3745 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, D. Y. Shen, and R. Nie, “Planar optical waveguides in β-BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457–1459 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Zhang, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta. 33, 127–142 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. C. Davis, Laser and Electro-Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996).
  10. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985)

2004 (2)

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, D. Y. Shen, and R. Nie, “Planar optical waveguides in β-BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457–1459 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3745 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Y. Terada, K. Shimamura, V. V. Kochurikhim, L. V. Barashov, M. A. Ivanov, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and optical properties of ErVO4 and LuVO4 single crystal,” J. Crystal Growth. 167, 369–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta. 33, 127–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

Barashov, L. V.

Y. Terada, K. Shimamura, V. V. Kochurikhim, L. V. Barashov, M. A. Ivanov, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and optical properties of ErVO4 and LuVO4 single crystal,” J. Crystal Growth. 167, 369–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Biesack, J. P.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985)

Chandler, P. J.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta. 33, 127–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, D. Y. Shen, and R. Nie, “Planar optical waveguides in β-BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457–1459 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3745 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X. F.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Davis, C. C.

C. C. Davis, Laser and Electro-Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996).

Du, C. L.

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fu, G.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, T.

Y. Terada, K. Shimamura, V. V. Kochurikhim, L. V. Barashov, M. A. Ivanov, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and optical properties of ErVO4 and LuVO4 single crystal,” J. Crystal Growth. 167, 369–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gao, L.

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. B.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. A.

Y. Terada, K. Shimamura, V. V. Kochurikhim, L. V. Barashov, M. A. Ivanov, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and optical properties of ErVO4 and LuVO4 single crystal,” J. Crystal Growth. 167, 369–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M. H.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M. J.

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kochurikhim, V. V.

Y. Terada, K. Shimamura, V. V. Kochurikhim, L. V. Barashov, M. A. Ivanov, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and optical properties of ErVO4 and LuVO4 single crystal,” J. Crystal Growth. 167, 369–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kong, H. K.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lama, F. L.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta. 33, 127–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, S. L.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
[Crossref]

Littmark, U.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985)

Liu, J. H.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lu, Q. M.

X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, D. Y. Shen, and R. Nie, “Planar optical waveguides in β-BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457–1459 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3745 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nie, R.

X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, D. Y. Shen, and R. Nie, “Planar optical waveguides in β-BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457–1459 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shao, Z. S.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, D. Y.

X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, D. Y. Shen, and R. Nie, “Planar optical waveguides in β-BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457–1459 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3745 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shimamura, K.

Y. Terada, K. Shimamura, V. V. Kochurikhim, L. V. Barashov, M. A. Ivanov, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and optical properties of ErVO4 and LuVO4 single crystal,” J. Crystal Growth. 167, 369–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Terada, Y.

Y. Terada, K. Shimamura, V. V. Kochurikhim, L. V. Barashov, M. A. Ivanov, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and optical properties of ErVO4 and LuVO4 single crystal,” J. Crystal Growth. 167, 369–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Zhang, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. Y.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, K. M.

X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, D. Y. Shen, and R. Nie, “Planar optical waveguides in β-BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457–1459 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3745 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. L.

X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, D. Y. Shen, and R. Nie, “Planar optical waveguides in β-BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457–1459 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3745 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. Q.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. P.

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Zhang, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P. J.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Zhang, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S. R.

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3745 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, D. Y. Shen, and R. Nie, “Planar optical waveguides in β-BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457–1459 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Crystal Growth. (2)

Y. Terada, K. Shimamura, V. V. Kochurikhim, L. V. Barashov, M. A. Ivanov, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and optical properties of ErVO4 and LuVO4 single crystal,” J. Crystal Growth. 167, 369–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, H. K. Kong, S. R. Zhao, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, Z. P. Wang, L. Gao, C. L. Du, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, and M. J. Jiang, “Growth of new laser crystal LuVO4 by Czochralski method,” J. Crystal Growth. 256, 292–297 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Inst. Meth. B (1)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, “Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO4 crystal,” Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 194, 355–358 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta. (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta. 33, 127–142 (1986).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. R. Zhao, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, H. K. Kong, X. F. Cheng, J. H. Liu, J. Li, X. B. Hu, X. Q. Wang, Z. S. Shao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of new laser crystal Nd:LuVO4,” Opt. Mater. 26, 319–325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

C. C. Davis, Laser and Electro-Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996).

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Zhang, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Measured relative intensity of the light (TE polarized) reflected from the prism vs. the effective refractive index of the incident light in the Nd:LuVO4 waveguide formed by 3.0 MeV oxygen ions implantation with the dose of 6×1014 ions/cm2 before and after annealing. The measurement wavelength was 633 nm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Reconstructed ordinary refractive index profiles (n o for TE mode at 633 nm) of 3.0 MeV oxygen ions implanted Nd:LuVO4 waveguide with the dose of 6×1014 ions/cm2 at room temperature and after annealing.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured relative intensity of the light at 1539 nm (TE polarized) reflected from the prism vs. the effective refractive index of the incident light in the Nd:LuVO4 waveguide formed by 3.0 MeV oxygen ion implantation after annealing.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Normalized energy deposition and ion range distribution vs. penetration depth of the 3.0 MeV oxygen ions in the Nd:LuVO4 crystal simulated by TRIM’98.

Equations (1)

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V = 2 π d λ n 1 2 n 2 2

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