Abstract

Thin films of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2, 0≤x≤0.4, were fabricated via the sol-gel technique. Many applications of optics and photonics can benefit from the knowledge of the optical dispersion relationship of this ubiquitous binary ceramic material. The optical properties of the homogeneous and amorphous silica-based films were derived by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) with a multi-sample and multi-angle technique. The physical model used in SE has been rigorously verified. A simple, yet reliable, method is described to produce a dispersion-composition surface for visualizing, and hence, predicting refractive indices of the films. The Sellmeier model was effectively used to describe the optical dispersion properties of the GeO2:SiO2 films for a range of wavelengths from 210 to 1700 nm. Dispersion parameters were determined to evaluate the change in the compositional-dependent dispersion characteristics. In addition, the material dispersion coefficient and zero-dispersion wavelength were found to vary with x.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. S. Matsumoto, T. Fujiwara, and A. J. Ikushima, “Large second-order optical nonlinearity in Ge-doped silica glass,” Opt. Mater. 18, 19–22 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 326, 99–105 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183–188 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534–538 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan, and E. H. Li, “Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R 38, 237–293 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323–3336 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96–8 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez, and Y. Campidelli, “Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80–88 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple, and C. K. Williams, “Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860–3871 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. D.-G. Chen, B. G. Potter, and J. H. Simmons, “GeO2-SiO2 thin films for planar waveguide applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 178, 135–47 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, “Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 27, 29–37 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass,” presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2–4, 2003.
    [PubMed]
  15. S. P. Mukherjee and S. K. Sharma, “Structural studies of gels and gel-glasses in the SiO2-GeO2 system using vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 69, 806–10 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Scholze, Glass : nature, structure, and properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991).
  17. R. R. A. Syms and A. S. Holmes, “Deposition of thick silica-titania sol-gel films on Si substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 170, 223–33 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw, and C. H. Kam, “Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography,” presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN ’99), Yokohama, Japan, 16–18 June, 1999.

2004 (2)

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

A. C. Busacca and D. Faccio, “Electro-optic dynamics in thermally poled Ge core doped silica fibre,” Electron. Lett. 39, 28–9 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534–538 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan, and E. H. Li, “Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R 38, 237–293 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Matsumoto, T. Fujiwara, and A. J. Ikushima, “Large second-order optical nonlinearity in Ge-doped silica glass,” Opt. Mater. 18, 19–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez, and Y. Campidelli, “Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80–88 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple, and C. K. Williams, “Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860–3871 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 326, 99–105 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

D.-G. Chen, B. G. Potter, and J. H. Simmons, “GeO2-SiO2 thin films for planar waveguide applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 178, 135–47 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. R. A. Syms and A. S. Holmes, “Deposition of thick silica-titania sol-gel films on Si substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 170, 223–33 (1994).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

S. P. Mukherjee and S. K. Sharma, “Structural studies of gels and gel-glasses in the SiO2-GeO2 system using vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 69, 806–10 (1986).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, “Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 27, 29–37 (1978).
[Crossref]

Alibert, G.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beguin, A.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bellman, R. A.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bourdon, G.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brusatin, G.

C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 326, 99–105 (1998).
[Crossref]

Busacca, A. C.

A. C. Busacca and D. Faccio, “Electro-optic dynamics in thermally poled Ge core doped silica fibre,” Electron. Lett. 39, 28–9 (2003).
[Crossref]

Busani, T.

T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez, and Y. Campidelli, “Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80–88 (1999).
[Crossref]

Campidelli, Y.

T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez, and Y. Campidelli, “Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80–88 (1999).
[Crossref]

Capecchi, S.

C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 326, 99–105 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chan, Y.

A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan, and E. H. Li, “Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R 38, 237–293 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chan, Y. C.

W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw, and C. H. Kam, “Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography,” presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN ’99), Yokohama, Japan, 16–18 June, 1999.

Chen, D.-G.

D.-G. Chen, B. G. Potter, and J. H. Simmons, “GeO2-SiO2 thin films for planar waveguide applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 178, 135–47 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. W.

W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw, and C. H. Kam, “Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography,” presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN ’99), Yokohama, Japan, 16–18 June, 1999.

Croswell, R. T.

D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple, and C. K. Williams, “Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860–3871 (1999).
[Crossref]

Devine, R. A. B.

T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez, and Y. Campidelli, “Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80–88 (1999).
[Crossref]

Djie, H. S.

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Djurisic, A. B.

A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan, and E. H. Li, “Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R 38, 237–293 (2002).
[Crossref]

Faccio, D.

A. C. Busacca and D. Faccio, “Electro-optic dynamics in thermally poled Ge core doped silica fibre,” Electron. Lett. 39, 28–9 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fick, J.

C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 326, 99–105 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, T.

S. Matsumoto, T. Fujiwara, and A. J. Ikushima, “Large second-order optical nonlinearity in Ge-doped silica glass,” Opt. Mater. 18, 19–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

Guglielmi, M.

C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 326, 99–105 (1998).
[Crossref]

Guiot, E.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guiziou, L.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gwee, D. C. L.

C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass,” presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2–4, 2003.
[PubMed]

Hernandez, C.

T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez, and Y. Campidelli, “Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80–88 (1999).
[Crossref]

Herzinger, C. M.

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. K. F.

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass,” presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2–4, 2003.
[PubMed]

Holmes, A. S.

R. R. A. Syms and A. S. Holmes, “Deposition of thick silica-titania sol-gel films on Si substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 170, 223–33 (1994).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, “Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 27, 29–37 (1978).
[Crossref]

Ikushima, A. J.

S. Matsumoto, T. Fujiwara, and A. J. Ikushima, “Large second-order optical nonlinearity in Ge-doped silica glass,” Opt. Mater. 18, 19–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

Johs, B.

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kam, C. H.

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534–538 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass,” presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2–4, 2003.
[PubMed]

W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw, and C. H. Kam, “Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography,” presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN ’99), Yokohama, Japan, 16–18 June, 1999.

Lam, Y. L.

W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw, and C. H. Kam, “Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography,” presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN ’99), Yokohama, Japan, 16–18 June, 1999.

LeGuen, E.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lehuede, P.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, E. H.

A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan, and E. H. Li, “Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R 38, 237–293 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liaw, C. Y.

W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw, and C. H. Kam, “Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography,” presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN ’99), Yokohama, Japan, 16–18 June, 1999.

Martucci, A.

C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 326, 99–105 (1998).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, S.

S. Matsumoto, T. Fujiwara, and A. J. Ikushima, “Large second-order optical nonlinearity in Ge-doped silica glass,” Opt. Mater. 18, 19–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

McGahan, W. A.

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, S. P.

S. P. Mukherjee and S. K. Sharma, “Structural studies of gels and gel-glasses in the SiO2-GeO2 system using vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 69, 806–10 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ng, S. L.

W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw, and C. H. Kam, “Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography,” presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN ’99), Yokohama, Japan, 16–18 June, 1999.

Ngo, N. Q.

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass,” presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2–4, 2003.
[PubMed]

Paulson, W.

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pita, K.

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534–538 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass,” presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2–4, 2003.
[PubMed]

Plantier, H.

T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez, and Y. Campidelli, “Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80–88 (1999).
[Crossref]

Potter, B. G.

D.-G. Chen, B. G. Potter, and J. H. Simmons, “GeO2-SiO2 thin films for planar waveguide applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 178, 135–47 (1994).
[Crossref]

Que, W.

W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw, and C. H. Kam, “Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography,” presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN ’99), Yokohama, Japan, 16–18 June, 1999.

Rajni,

C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass,” presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2–4, 2003.
[PubMed]

Reisman, A.

D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple, and C. K. Williams, “Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860–3871 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sarkar, A.

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, “Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 27, 29–37 (1978).
[Crossref]

Scholze, H.

H. Scholze, Glass : nature, structure, and properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991).

Schultz, P. C.

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, “Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 27, 29–37 (1978).
[Crossref]

Sharma, S. K.

S. P. Mukherjee and S. K. Sharma, “Structural studies of gels and gel-glasses in the SiO2-GeO2 system using vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 69, 806–10 (1986).
[Crossref]

Simmons, J. H.

D.-G. Chen, B. G. Potter, and J. H. Simmons, “GeO2-SiO2 thin films for planar waveguide applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 178, 135–47 (1994).
[Crossref]

Simpson, D. L.

D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple, and C. K. Williams, “Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860–3871 (1999).
[Crossref]

Simpson, L. B.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Strohhofer, C.

C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 326, 99–105 (1998).
[Crossref]

Syms, R. R. A.

R. R. A. Syms and A. S. Holmes, “Deposition of thick silica-titania sol-gel films on Si substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 170, 223–33 (1994).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534–538 (2003).
[Crossref]

Temple, D.

D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple, and C. K. Williams, “Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860–3871 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tjin, S. C.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534–538 (2003).
[Crossref]

Williams, C. K.

D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple, and C. K. Williams, “Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860–3871 (1999).
[Crossref]

Woollam, J. A.

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534–538 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw, and C. H. Kam, “Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography,” presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN ’99), Yokohama, Japan, 16–18 June, 1999.

Zuo, L. P.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534–538 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, “Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534–538 (2003).
[Crossref]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. C. Busacca and D. Faccio, “Electro-optic dynamics in thermally poled Ge core doped silica fibre,” Electron. Lett. 39, 28–9 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. P. Mukherjee and S. K. Sharma, “Structural studies of gels and gel-glasses in the SiO2-GeO2 system using vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 69, 806–10 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple, and C. K. Williams, “Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860–3871 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541–G547 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids. (4)

D.-G. Chen, B. G. Potter, and J. H. Simmons, “GeO2-SiO2 thin films for planar waveguide applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 178, 135–47 (1994).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, “Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 27, 29–37 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. R. A. Syms and A. S. Holmes, “Deposition of thick silica-titania sol-gel films on Si substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 170, 223–33 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez, and Y. Campidelli, “Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80–88 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mat. Sci. Eng. R (1)

A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan, and E. H. Li, “Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R 38, 237–293 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Matsumoto, T. Fujiwara, and A. J. Ikushima, “Large second-order optical nonlinearity in Ge-doped silica glass,” Opt. Mater. 18, 19–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 326, 99–105 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass,” presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2–4, 2003.
[PubMed]

H. Scholze, Glass : nature, structure, and properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991).

W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw, and C. H. Kam, “Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography,” presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN ’99), Yokohama, Japan, 16–18 June, 1999.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Film structure model for ellipsometer analysis. (b) TEM micrograph showing a 40 mol% Ge film after annealing of 1000°C for 15 mins.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The RI-composition contour map showing the Sellmeier dispersion interpolated for a Ge content 0≤x≤0.4. (b) Linearity of RIs with variation in composition. The dash line represents the linear regression of the n(He-Ne) data from this work.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Change in dispersion parameters versus Ge content. The solid line represents an extrapolated linear fit of the DFC values without the data point at x=0.4. (b) Spectral material dispersion coefficient, DMAT , and the zero-dispersion wavelengths (inset) are shown for the different compositions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Sellmeier dispersion parameters for films of varying Ge content. (* taken from thermal oxide in Ref. [7])

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 = ε = ε offset + a λ 2 λ 2 b 2 + c λ 2 ,
D MAT = λ c 2 n λ 2

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