Abstract

Thin films of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2, 0≤x≤0.4, were fabricated via the sol-gel technique. Many applications of optics and photonics can benefit from the knowledge of the optical dispersion relationship of this ubiquitous binary ceramic material. The optical properties of the homogeneous and amorphous silica-based films were derived by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) with a multi-sample and multi-angle technique. The physical model used in SE has been rigorously verified. A simple, yet reliable, method is described to produce a dispersion-composition surface for visualizing, and hence, predicting refractive indices of the films. The Sellmeier model was effectively used to describe the optical dispersion properties of the GeO2:SiO2 films for a range of wavelengths from 210 to 1700 nm. Dispersion parameters were determined to evaluate the change in the compositional-dependent dispersion characteristics. In addition, the material dispersion coefficient and zero-dispersion wavelength were found to vary with x.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Busacca and D. Faccio, "Electro-optic dynamics in thermally poled Ge core doped silica fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 28-9 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Matsumoto, T. Fujiwara and A. J. Ikushima, "Large second-order optical nonlinearity in Ge-doped silica glass," Opt. Mater. 18, 19-22 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin and M. Guglielmi, "Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides," Thin Solid Films 326, 99-105 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo and S. Takahashi, "Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183-188 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo and S. Takahashi, "Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasmaenhanced chemical vapor deposition," Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534-538 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan and E. H. Li, "Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors," Mat. Sci. Eng. R 38, 237-293 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam and W. Paulson, "Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323-3336 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez and Y. Campidelli, "Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80-88 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple and C. K. Williams, "Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860-3871 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D.-G. Chen, B. G. Potter and J. H. Simmons, "GeO2-SiO2 thin films for planar waveguide applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 178, 135-47 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar and P. C. Schultz, "Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 27, 29-37 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo and C. H. Kam, "Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass," presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2-4, 2003.
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Scholze, Glass : nature, structure, and properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991).
  17. R. R. A. Syms and A. S. Holmes, "Deposition of thick silica-titania sol-gel films on Si substrates," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 170, 223-33 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw and C. H. Kam, "Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography," presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN '99), Yokohama, Japan, 16-18 June, 1999.

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo and S. Takahashi, "Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183-188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo and S. Takahashi, "Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasmaenhanced chemical vapor deposition," Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534-538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo and C. H. Kam, "Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. C. Busacca and D. Faccio, "Electro-optic dynamics in thermally poled Ge core doped silica fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 28-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. P. Mukherjee and S. K. Sharma, "Structural studies of gels and gel-glasses in the SiO2-GeO2 system using vibrational spectroscopy," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 69, 806-10 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam and W. Paulson, "Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323-3336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple and C. K. Williams, "Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860-3871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids. (4)

D.-G. Chen, B. G. Potter and J. H. Simmons, "GeO2-SiO2 thin films for planar waveguide applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 178, 135-47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar and P. C. Schultz, "Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 27, 29-37 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. R. A. Syms and A. S. Holmes, "Deposition of thick silica-titania sol-gel films on Si substrates," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 170, 223-33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez and Y. Campidelli, "Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80-88 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mat. Sci. Eng. R (1)

A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan and E. H. Li, "Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors," Mat. Sci. Eng. R 38, 237-293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Matsumoto, T. Fujiwara and A. J. Ikushima, "Large second-order optical nonlinearity in Ge-doped silica glass," Opt. Mater. 18, 19-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin and M. Guglielmi, "Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides," Thin Solid Films 326, 99-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo and C. H. Kam, "Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass," presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2-4, 2003.
[PubMed]

H. Scholze, Glass : nature, structure, and properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991).

W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw and C. H. Kam, "Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography," presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN '99), Yokohama, Japan, 16-18 June, 1999.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Film structure model for ellipsometer analysis. (b) TEM micrograph showing a 40 mol% Ge film after annealing of 1000°C for 15 mins.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The RI-composition contour map showing the Sellmeier dispersion interpolated for a Ge content 0≤x≤0.4. (b) Linearity of RIs with variation in composition. The dash line represents the linear regression of the n(He-Ne) data from this work.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Change in dispersion parameters versus Ge content. The solid line represents an extrapolated linear fit of the DFC values without the data point at x=0.4. (b) Spectral material dispersion coefficient, DMAT , and the zero-dispersion wavelengths (inset) are shown for the different compositions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Sellmeier dispersion parameters for films of varying Ge content. (* taken from thermal oxide in Ref. [7])

Equations (2)

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n 2 = ε = ε offset + a λ 2 λ 2 b 2 + c λ 2 ,
D MAT = λ c 2 n λ 2

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