Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique for cross-sectional imaging, originally developed for biological structures. When OCT is employed for material investigation, high-resolution and short measurement times are required, and for many applications, only transversal (en-face) scans yield substantial information which cannot be obtained from cross-sectional images oriented perpendicularly to the sample surface alone. In this work, we combine transversal with ultra-high resolution OCT: a broadband femto-second laser is used as a light source in combination with acousto-optic modulators for heterodyne signal generation and detection. With our setup we are able to scan areas as large as 3×3 mm2 with a sensitivity of 100 dB, representing areas 100 times larger compared to other high-resolution en-face OCT systems (full field). We demonstrate the benefits of en-face scanning for different applications in materials investigation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
Related Articles
Transversal ultrahigh-resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for strain mapping in materials

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, and D. Stifter
Opt. Express 14(13) 5945-5953 (2006)

Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using optical demultiplexers imaging at 60,000,000 lines/s

Donghak Choi, Hideaki Hiro-Oka, Hiroyuki Furukawa, Reiko Yoshimura, Motoi Nakanishi, Kimiya Shimizu, and Kohji Ohbayashi
Opt. Lett. 33(12) 1318-1320 (2008)

Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Maciej Szkulmowski, Ireneusz Grulkowski, Daniel Szlag, Anna Szkulmowska, Andrzej Kowalczyk, and Maciej Wojtkowski
Opt. Express 17(16) 14281-14297 (2009)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  3. C. Wirbelauer, J. Winkler, G. O. Bastian, H. Häberle, and D. T. Pham, “Histopathological correlation of corneal disease with optical coherence tomography,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 727–734 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger“Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Baskansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis III, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in ceramics by high-speed high-resolution optical coherent tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13, 540 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-13-540.
    [Crossref]
  12. J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 947 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, “The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades,” Archaeometry 46, 171 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney (Eds.), Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York2002).
  16. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303, (2003).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P.-W. Lo, and Q. Zhou, “Three dimensional imaging of the human retina by high speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 2753 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, “Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2847 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. De Martino, D. Carrara, B. Drevillon, and L. Schwartz, “Full field OCT with thermal light,” Proc. SPIE 4431, 38 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Xie, Z. Wang, and Y. Pan, “High-speed optical coherence tomography using fiberoptic acousto-optic phase modulation,” Opt. Express 24, 3210 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3210.
    [Crossref]
  24. E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 152 (1992).
  25. Aaron L. Brody, “Modified Atmosphere Packaging,” in Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering, ed.: Dennis R. Heldman, Marcel Dekker Inc., ISBN: 0-8247-4266-4, (2003).
  26. S. Bauer, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, and G. M. Sessler, “Ferroelectrets: Soft electroactive foams for transducers,” Physics Today 58, 37 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  28. L. J. Gibson and M. F. Ashby, Cellular solids: structure and properties, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, (1997).
  29. L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
    [Crossref]

2004 (6)

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger“Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, “The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades,” Archaeometry 46, 171 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, “Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2847 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Bauer, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, and G. M. Sessler, “Ferroelectrets: Soft electroactive foams for transducers,” Physics Today 58, 37 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (6)

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

T. Xie, Z. Wang, and Y. Pan, “High-speed optical coherence tomography using fiberoptic acousto-optic phase modulation,” Opt. Express 24, 3210 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3210.
[Crossref]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303, (2003).
[Crossref]

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P.-W. Lo, and Q. Zhou, “Three dimensional imaging of the human retina by high speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 2753 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 947 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wirbelauer, J. Winkler, G. O. Bastian, H. Häberle, and D. T. Pham, “Histopathological correlation of corneal disease with optical coherence tomography,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 727–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. De Martino, D. Carrara, B. Drevillon, and L. Schwartz, “Full field OCT with thermal light,” Proc. SPIE 4431, 38 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13, 540 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-13-540.
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

M. Baskansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis III, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in ceramics by high-speed high-resolution optical coherent tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 152 (1992).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahrens, G.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Aigeldinger, G.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Aretz, H. T.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashby, M. F.

L. J. Gibson and M. F. Ashby, Cellular solids: structure and properties, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, (1997).

Bashkansky, M.

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13, 540 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-13-540.
[Crossref]

Baskansky, M.

Bastian, G. O.

C. Wirbelauer, J. Winkler, G. O. Bastian, H. Häberle, and D. T. Pham, “Histopathological correlation of corneal disease with optical coherence tomography,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 727–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bauer, S.

S. Bauer, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, and G. M. Sessler, “Ferroelectrets: Soft electroactive foams for transducers,” Physics Today 58, 37 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bauer-Gogonea, S.

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, A.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bednarzik, M.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Birngruber, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref]

Boccara, C.

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, “Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2847 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S. A.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breunig, T. M.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brody, Aaron L.

Aaron L. Brody, “Modified Atmosphere Packaging,” in Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering, ed.: Dennis R. Heldman, Marcel Dekker Inc., ISBN: 0-8247-4266-4, (2003).

Burgholzer, P.

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 947 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carrara, D.

A. De Martino, D. Carrara, B. Drevillon, and L. Schwartz, “Full field OCT with thermal light,” Proc. SPIE 4431, 38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Martino, A.

A. De Martino, D. Carrara, B. Drevillon, and L. Schwartz, “Full field OCT with thermal light,” Proc. SPIE 4431, 38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Degen, R.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Desta, Y.M.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Dichtl, S.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dobre, G. M.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

Drevillon, B.

A. De Martino, D. Carrara, B. Drevillon, and L. Schwartz, “Full field OCT with thermal light,” Proc. SPIE 4431, 38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303, (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dubois, A.

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, “Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2847 (2004).
[Crossref]

Duker, J. S.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Duncan, M. D.

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13, 540 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-13-540.
[Crossref]

M. Baskansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis III, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in ceramics by high-speed high-resolution optical coherent tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dunkers, J.P.

J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
[Crossref]

Engelhardt, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref]

Everett, M. J.

J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
[Crossref]

Featherstone, J. D. B.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303, (2003).
[Crossref]

Fercher, F.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fitzke, F.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fried, D.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 152 (1992).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerhard-Multhaupt, R.

S. Bauer, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, and G. M. Sessler, “Ferroelectrets: Soft electroactive foams for transducers,” Physics Today 58, 37 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gibson, L. J.

L. J. Gibson and M. F. Ashby, Cellular solids: structure and properties, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, (1997).

Goettert, J.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[Crossref]

Götzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger“Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 947 (2003).
[Crossref]

Green, W. H.

J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grieve, K.

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, “Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2847 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gruetzner, G.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Häberle, H.

C. Wirbelauer, J. Winkler, G. O. Bastian, H. Häberle, and D. T. Pham, “Histopathological correlation of corneal disease with optical coherence tomography,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 727–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

Halpern, E. F.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 152 (1992).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, J.

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger“Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P.-W. Lo, and Q. Zhou, “Three dimensional imaging of the human retina by high speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 2753 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 947 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303, (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
[Crossref]

Höglinger, O.

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 947 (2003).
[Crossref]

Houser, S. L.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, I.-J.

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, “The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades,” Archaeometry 46, 171 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 152 (1992).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunston, D. L.

J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
[Crossref]

Izatt, J. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Jackson, D. A.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jang, I. K.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jian, L.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Kaerntner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kahn, M.

Kauffman, C. R.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kressmann, R.

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lankenau, E.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303, (2003).
[Crossref]

Le, C.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lecaque, R.

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, “Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2847 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger“Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lekkala, J.

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lewis III, D.

Li, X. D.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. P.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 152 (1992).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, P.-W.

Loechel, B.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Lu, C.-W.

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, “The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades,” Archaeometry 46, 171 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moneron, G.

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, “Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2847 (2004).
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
[Crossref]

Moritz, A.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
[Crossref]

Neugschwandtner, G. S.

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Paajanen, M.

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

T. Xie, Z. Wang, and Y. Pan, “High-speed optical coherence tomography using fiberoptic acousto-optic phase modulation,” Opt. Express 24, 3210 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3210.
[Crossref]

Parnas, R.S.

J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pham, D. T.

C. Wirbelauer, J. Winkler, G. O. Bastian, H. Häberle, and D. T. Pham, “Histopathological correlation of corneal disease with optical coherence tomography,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 727–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phela, F. R.

J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pircher, M.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger“Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
[Crossref]

Podoleanu, A. G.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 152 (1992).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Reintjes, J.

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13, 540 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-13-540.
[Crossref]

M. Baskansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis III, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in ceramics by high-speed high-resolution optical coherent tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).
[Crossref]

Robl, B.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ruhmann, R.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Sanders, D.P.

J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sattmann, H.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schlendorf, K. H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, L.

A. De Martino, D. Carrara, B. Drevillon, and L. Schwartz, “Full field OCT with thermal light,” Proc. SPIE 4431, 38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schwödiauer, R.

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Seeger, M.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sessler, G. M.

S. Bauer, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, and G. M. Sessler, “Ferroelectrets: Soft electroactive foams for transducers,” Physics Today 58, 37 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shafi, S.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, V.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Sperr, W.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sticker, M.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stifter, D.

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 947 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 152 (1992).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trost, P.

Vabre, L.

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, “Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2847 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vieytes, M

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

T. Xie, Z. Wang, and Y. Pan, “High-speed optical coherence tomography using fiberoptic acousto-optic phase modulation,” Opt. Express 24, 3210 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3210.
[Crossref]

Webb, D. J.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

Welzel, J.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref]

Winkler, J.

C. Wirbelauer, J. Winkler, G. O. Bastian, H. Häberle, and D. T. Pham, “Histopathological correlation of corneal disease with optical coherence tomography,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 727–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wirbelauer, C.

C. Wirbelauer, J. Winkler, G. O. Bastian, H. Häberle, and D. T. Pham, “Histopathological correlation of corneal disease with optical coherence tomography,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 727–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, T.

T. Xie, Z. Wang, and Y. Pan, “High-speed optical coherence tomography using fiberoptic acousto-optic phase modulation,” Opt. Express 24, 3210 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3210.
[Crossref]

Yabushita, H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.C.

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, “The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades,” Archaeometry 46, 171 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, M.-L.

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, “The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades,” Archaeometry 46, 171 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoonyoung, J.

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, “Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2847 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 947 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, and J. Lekkala, “Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[Crossref]

Archaeometry (1)

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, “The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades,” Archaeometry 46, 171 (2004).
[Crossref]

Caries Res. (1)

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34, 59–69 (2000).
[Crossref]

Circulation (1)

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. Wirbelauer, J. Winkler, G. O. Bastian, H. Häberle, and D. T. Pham, “Histopathological correlation of corneal disease with optical coherence tomography,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 727–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmology (1)

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P.-W. Lo, and Q. Zhou, “Three dimensional imaging of the human retina by high speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 2753 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger“Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Xie, Z. Wang, and Y. Pan, “High-speed optical coherence tomography using fiberoptic acousto-optic phase modulation,” Opt. Express 24, 3210 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3210.
[Crossref]

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13, 540 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-13-540.
[Crossref]

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 152 (1992).

M. Baskansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis III, and J. Reintjes, “Subsurface defect detection in ceramics by high-speed high-resolution optical coherent tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).
[Crossref]

Physics Today (1)

S. Bauer, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, and G. M. Sessler, “Ferroelectrets: Soft electroactive foams for transducers,” Physics Today 58, 37 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. De Martino, D. Carrara, B. Drevillon, and L. Schwartz, “Full field OCT with thermal light,” Proc. SPIE 4431, 38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rep. Progr. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303, (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

SPIE (1)

L. Jian, Y.M. Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, and R. Degen “SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography/LIGA,” SPIE 4797, 394 (2003)
[Crossref]

Other (3)

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney (Eds.), Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York2002).

L. J. Gibson and M. F. Ashby, Cellular solids: structure and properties, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, (1997).

Aaron L. Brody, “Modified Atmosphere Packaging,” in Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering, ed.: Dennis R. Heldman, Marcel Dekker Inc., ISBN: 0-8247-4266-4, (2003).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (879 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic OCT setup based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The light source is a femtosecond (fs-) Ti:sapphire broadband laser. In the reference arm, two acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) are placed. The laser-beam is scanned over the sample by an xy-galvanometer scanner. Abbreviations: SMF-single mode fiber; NPBS-non-polarizing beamsplitter; DAQ-data acquisition.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized spectra (vertically shifted) of the Ti:sapphire fs-laser directly ex-fiber from the laser (green), in the reference arm after passing the AOMs and after coupling into the single mode fibers of the two detectors of the balanced receiver (blue). The shape and width of the original spectrum is nearly sustained. Insert: Demodulated interferogram (from a single depth- or A-scan) directly from the lock-in amplifier with a mirror as sample. For full second order dispersion compensation, a FWHM and axial resolution of 2.95 µm (in air) is obtained.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross-sectional OCT image (composed of three individual scans) of two welded polyester and polyethylene composite foils as used in the food packaging industry. Clearly, the multi-layered structure of the foils is revealed, with eight layers for the upper and four layers for the lower foil with a thermally damaged region on the left side of the image (arrow).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Cross-sectional and (b) 3×3 mm2 en-face scan of a laminate floor panel with ceramic particles within the resin layer, recorded at an increased x-scanning frequency of 500 Hz. From the en-face scan, the lateral distribution of the particles at a depth indicated by the dashed line in (a) can be determined.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Cross-sectional scan and (b) (0.9 MB) movie of 3×3 mm2 en-face scans of a polyolefin foam specimen recorded at different depths in steps of 40 µm, starting close to the surface (larger thickness of the cell walls). Not only the evolution of single cells with increasing depth can be tracked, but also the three-dimensional structure of the voids can be obtained.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Cross-sectional scan and schematic drawing of a mould for a micro mechanical wheel in a 1.3 mm thick photoresist layer on a gold coated wafer; (b)–(d) 3×3 mm2 en-face scans of the structure. In (a), only the surfaces of the bare resist and the wafer, and the resist-wafer interface can be distinguished. In (b)–(d), the full geometric information of the structure at these levels is obtained. In (b) the resist surface is imaged, (c) and (d) were recorded at depth positions of the optical path length corresponding to the bare wafer surface and the resist-wafer interface (as shown in (a)), respectively. Design of the wheel structures: Micromotion GmbH, Mainz (Germany).

Metrics