Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique for cross-sectional imaging, originally developed for biological structures. When OCT is employed for material investigation, high-resolution and short measurement times are required, and for many applications, only transversal (en-face) scans yield substantial information which cannot be obtained from cross-sectional images oriented perpendicularly to the sample surface alone. In this work, we combine transversal with ultra-high resolution OCT: a broadband femto-second laser is used as a light source in combination with acousto-optic modulators for heterodyne signal generation and detection. With our setup we are able to scan areas as large as 3 x 3 mm2 with a sensitivity of 100 dB, representing areas 100 times larger compared to other high-resolution en-face OCT systems (full field). We demonstrate the benefits of en-face scanning for different applications in materials investigation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  29. L. Jian, Y.M.Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, R. Degen: "SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography / LIGA,�?? SPIE 4797, 394 (2003).

Appl. Opt.

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, C. Boccara, "Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,�?? Appl. Opt. 43, 2847 (2004).

Appl. Phys. A

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, "Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping,�?? Appl. Phys. A 76, 947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. S. Neugschwandtner, R. Schwödiauer, M Vieytes, S. Bauer- Gogonea, S. Bauer, J. Hillenbrand, R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler, M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, "Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Archaeometry

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C.C. Yang, "The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades,�?? Archaeometry 46, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caries Res.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, F. Fercher, W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,�?? Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).

Circulation

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,�?? Circulation 107, 113-119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.

C. Wirbelauer, J. Winkler, G. O. Bastian, H. Häberle, D. T. Pham, "Histopathological correlation of corneal disease with optical coherence tomography,�?? Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 727-734 (2002).

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,�?? J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, C. Le, "Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618-627 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94-102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, F. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Med. Biol.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,�?? J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).

Ophthalmology

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217- 229 (1995).

Opt. Express

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P.-W. Lo, Q. Zhou, "Three dimensional imaging of the human retina by high speed optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2753 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger: "Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,�?? Opt. Express 12, 3236-3244 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236.
[CrossRef]

T. Xie, Z. Wang, Y. Pan, "High-speed optical coherence tomography using fiberoptic acousto-optic phase modulation,�?? Opt. Express 24, 3210 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3210.

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, J. Reintjes, "Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Express 13, 540 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-13-540.

Opt. Laser Eng.

J.P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, R.S. Parnas, "The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,�?? Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kaerntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 2112 (1999).

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G.Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, "High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,�?? Opt. Lett. 17, 152 (1992).

M. Baskansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. Lewis III, J. Reintjes, "Subsurface defect detection in ceramics by high-speed high-resolution optical coherent tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 22, 61 (1997).

Physics Today

S. Bauer, R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, G. M. Sessler, "Ferroelectrets: Soft electroactive foams for transducers,�?? Physics Today 58, 37 (2004).

Proc. SPIE

A. De Martino, D. Carrara, B. Drevillon, L. Schwartz, "Full field OCT with thermal light,�?? Proc. SPIE 4431, 38 (2001).

Rep. Progr. Phys.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,�?? Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239-303, (2003).

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography,�?? Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney (Eds.), Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York 2002).

L. J. Gibson, M. F. Ashby, Cellular solids: structure and properties, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, (1997).

L. Jian, Y.M.Desta, J. Goettert, M. Bednarzik, B. Loechel, J. Yoonyoung, G. Aigeldinger, V. Singh, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, R. Ruhmann, R. Degen: "SU-8 based deep X.ray lithography / LIGA,�?? SPIE 4797, 394 (2003).

Aaron L. Brody, "Modified Atmosphere Packaging,�?? in Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering, ed.: Dennis R. Heldman, Marcel Dekker Inc., ISBN: 0-8247-4266-4, (2003).

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