Abstract

In this paper we evaluate the cut-off properties of holey fibers (HFs) with a triangular lattice of air holes and the core formed by the removal of a single (HF1) or more air holes (HF3 and HF7). With the aid of finite-element simulations we determine the single-mode and multi-mode phases and also find the air hole diameters limiting the endlessly single-mode regime. From calculations of V and W parameters we find that in general HF1 is less susceptible to longitudinal non-uniformities compared to the other designs for equivalent effective areas. As an example we illustrate this general property for the particular case of a macro-bending induced loss.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. S. Russell , and D. M. Atkin , “ All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 1547 – 1549 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. S. Russell , “ Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 961 – 963 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , and N. A. Mortensen , “ Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm 2 and low bending loss ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1802 – 1803 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. D. Nielsen , N. A. Mortensen , M. Albertsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Bjarklev , and D. Bonacinni , “ Predicting macrobending loss for large-mode area photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1775 – 1779 ( 2004 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , N. A. Mortensen , and A. Bjarklev , “ Bandwidth comparison of photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 430 – 435 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , N. A. Mortensen , C. Jakobsen , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Express   12 , 956 – 960 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , and C. Jakobsen , “ Broadband single-polarization photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1446 – 1448 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. N. A. Mortensen , M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Petersson , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 393 – 395 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Limpert , A. Liem , M. Reich , T. Schreiber , S. Nolte , H. Zellmer , A. Tünnermann , J. Broeng , A. Petersson , and C. Jakobsen , “ Low-nonlinearity single-transverse-mode ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1313 – 1319 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. N. A. Mortensen , “ Effective area of photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   10 , 341 – 348 ( 2002 ).
    [PubMed]
  11. B. T. Kuhlmey , R. C. Mcphedran , and C. M. de sterke , “ Modal cutoff in microstructured optical ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1684 – 1686 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba , “ Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   38 , 927 – 933 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Brechet , J. Marcou , D. Pagnoux , and P. Roy , “ Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   6 , 181 – 191 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Koshiba , “ Full-vector analysis of photonic crystal fibers using the finite element method ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   85-C , 881 – 888 ( 2002 ).
  15. G. Renversez , F. Bordas , and B.T. Kuhlmey , “ Second mode transition in microstructured optical fibers: determination of the critical geometrical parameter and study of the matrix refractive index and effects of cladding size ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1264 – 1266 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. N. A. Mortensen , J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , and K. P. Hansen , “ Modal cutoff and the V parameter in photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1879 – 1881 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. D. Nielsen and N. A. Mortensen , “ Photonic crystal fiber design based on the V-parameter ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2762 – 2768 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh , “ Applicability of classical optical fiber theories to holey fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 1739 – 1741 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba , “ Empirical relations for simple design of photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 267 – 274 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh , “ Simple evaluation of confinement losses in holey fibers ,” Opt. Commun.   253 , 95 – 98 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  21. N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg , “ Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 163 – 167 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Tsuchida , K. Saitoh , and M. Koshiba , “ Design and characterization of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4770 – 4779 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. Riishede , N. A. Mortensen , and J. Lægsgaard , “ A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modelling micro-structured optical fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 534 – 538 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  24. N. A. Mortensen , “ Semianalytical approach to short-wavelength dispersion and modal properties of photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1455 – 1457 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Olszewski , M. Szpulak , and W. Urbańczyk , “ Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 6015 – 6022 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

2004 (5)

2003 (6)

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg , “ Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 163 – 167 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

N. A. Mortensen , J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , and K. P. Hansen , “ Modal cutoff and the V parameter in photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1879 – 1881 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen and N. A. Mortensen , “ Photonic crystal fiber design based on the V-parameter ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2762 – 2768 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen , M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Petersson , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 393 – 395 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , and N. A. Mortensen , “ Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm 2 and low bending loss ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1802 – 1803 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. Riishede , N. A. Mortensen , and J. Lægsgaard , “ A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modelling micro-structured optical fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 534 – 538 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

M. Koshiba , “ Full-vector analysis of photonic crystal fibers using the finite element method ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   85-C , 881 – 888 ( 2002 ).

N. A. Mortensen , “ Effective area of photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   10 , 341 – 348 ( 2002 ).
[PubMed]

B. T. Kuhlmey , R. C. Mcphedran , and C. M. de sterke , “ Modal cutoff in microstructured optical ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1684 – 1686 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba , “ Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   38 , 927 – 933 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

F. Brechet , J. Marcou , D. Pagnoux , and P. Roy , “ Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   6 , 181 – 191 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

Albertsen, M.

Atkin, D. M.

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

Bonacinni, D.

Bordas, F.

Brechet, F.

F. Brechet , J. Marcou , D. Pagnoux , and P. Roy , “ Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   6 , 181 – 191 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

de sterke, C. M.

Folkenberg, J. R.

J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , and C. Jakobsen , “ Broadband single-polarization photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1446 – 1448 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , N. A. Mortensen , C. Jakobsen , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Express   12 , 956 – 960 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , N. A. Mortensen , and A. Bjarklev , “ Bandwidth comparison of photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 430 – 435 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , N. A. Mortensen , M. Albertsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Bjarklev , and D. Bonacinni , “ Predicting macrobending loss for large-mode area photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1775 – 1779 ( 2004 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , and N. A. Mortensen , “ Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm 2 and low bending loss ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1802 – 1803 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

N. A. Mortensen , M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Petersson , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 393 – 395 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen , J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , and K. P. Hansen , “ Modal cutoff and the V parameter in photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1879 – 1881 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg , “ Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 163 – 167 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Hansen, K. P.

Jakobsen, C.

Knight, J. C.

Koshiba, M.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba , “ Empirical relations for simple design of photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 267 – 274 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh , “ Simple evaluation of confinement losses in holey fibers ,” Opt. Commun.   253 , 95 – 98 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Tsuchida , K. Saitoh , and M. Koshiba , “ Design and characterization of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4770 – 4779 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh , “ Applicability of classical optical fiber theories to holey fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 1739 – 1741 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba , “ Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   38 , 927 – 933 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

M. Koshiba , “ Full-vector analysis of photonic crystal fibers using the finite element method ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   85-C , 881 – 888 ( 2002 ).

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Kuhlmey, B.T.

Lægsgaard, J.

J. Riishede , N. A. Mortensen , and J. Lægsgaard , “ A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modelling micro-structured optical fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 534 – 538 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Marcou, J.

F. Brechet , J. Marcou , D. Pagnoux , and P. Roy , “ Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   6 , 181 – 191 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Mcphedran, R. C.

Mortensen, N. A.

N. A. Mortensen , “ Semianalytical approach to short-wavelength dispersion and modal properties of photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1455 – 1457 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , N. A. Mortensen , M. Albertsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Bjarklev , and D. Bonacinni , “ Predicting macrobending loss for large-mode area photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1775 – 1779 ( 2004 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , N. A. Mortensen , C. Jakobsen , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Express   12 , 956 – 960 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , N. A. Mortensen , and A. Bjarklev , “ Bandwidth comparison of photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 430 – 435 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , and N. A. Mortensen , “ Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm 2 and low bending loss ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1802 – 1803 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

N. A. Mortensen , M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Petersson , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 393 – 395 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen , J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , and K. P. Hansen , “ Modal cutoff and the V parameter in photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1879 – 1881 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen and N. A. Mortensen , “ Photonic crystal fiber design based on the V-parameter ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2762 – 2768 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg , “ Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 163 – 167 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. Riishede , N. A. Mortensen , and J. Lægsgaard , “ A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modelling micro-structured optical fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 534 – 538 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

N. A. Mortensen , “ Effective area of photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   10 , 341 – 348 ( 2002 ).
[PubMed]

Nielsen, M. D.

J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , and C. Jakobsen , “ Broadband single-polarization photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1446 – 1448 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , N. A. Mortensen , C. Jakobsen , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Express   12 , 956 – 960 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , N. A. Mortensen , M. Albertsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Bjarklev , and D. Bonacinni , “ Predicting macrobending loss for large-mode area photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1775 – 1779 ( 2004 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , N. A. Mortensen , and A. Bjarklev , “ Bandwidth comparison of photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 430 – 435 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , and N. A. Mortensen , “ Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm 2 and low bending loss ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1802 – 1803 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

N. A. Mortensen , M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Petersson , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 393 – 395 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen and N. A. Mortensen , “ Photonic crystal fiber design based on the V-parameter ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2762 – 2768 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen , J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , and K. P. Hansen , “ Modal cutoff and the V parameter in photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1879 – 1881 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolte, S.

Olszewski, J.

Pagnoux, D.

F. Brechet , J. Marcou , D. Pagnoux , and P. Roy , “ Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   6 , 181 – 191 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Petersson, A.

Reich, M.

Renversez, G.

Riishede, J.

J. Riishede , N. A. Mortensen , and J. Lægsgaard , “ A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modelling micro-structured optical fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 534 – 538 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Roy, P.

F. Brechet , J. Marcou , D. Pagnoux , and P. Roy , “ Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   6 , 181 – 191 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S.

Saitoh, K.

Schreiber, T.

Simonsen, H. R.

Szpulak, M.

Tsuchida, Y.

Tünnermann, A.

Urbanczyk, W.

Zellmer, H.

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , and N. A. Mortensen , “ Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm 2 and low bending loss ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1802 – 1803 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba , “ Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   38 , 927 – 933 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Koshiba , “ Full-vector analysis of photonic crystal fibers using the finite element method ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   85-C , 881 – 888 ( 2002 ).

J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg , “ Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 163 – 167 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. Riishede , N. A. Mortensen , and J. Lægsgaard , “ A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modelling micro-structured optical fibres ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.   5 , 534 – 538 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh , “ Simple evaluation of confinement losses in holey fibers ,” Opt. Commun.   253 , 95 – 98 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba , “ Empirical relations for simple design of photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 267 – 274 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen and N. A. Mortensen , “ Photonic crystal fiber design based on the V-parameter ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2762 – 2768 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , N. A. Mortensen , M. Albertsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Bjarklev , and D. Bonacinni , “ Predicting macrobending loss for large-mode area photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1775 – 1779 ( 2004 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , N. A. Mortensen , and A. Bjarklev , “ Bandwidth comparison of photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 430 – 435 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , N. A. Mortensen , C. Jakobsen , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Express   12 , 956 – 960 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Limpert , A. Liem , M. Reich , T. Schreiber , S. Nolte , H. Zellmer , A. Tünnermann , J. Broeng , A. Petersson , and C. Jakobsen , “ Low-nonlinearity single-transverse-mode ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1313 – 1319 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen , “ Effective area of photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   10 , 341 – 348 ( 2002 ).
[PubMed]

Y. Tsuchida , K. Saitoh , and M. Koshiba , “ Design and characterization of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4770 – 4779 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Olszewski , M. Szpulak , and W. Urbańczyk , “ Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 6015 – 6022 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

F. Brechet , J. Marcou , D. Pagnoux , and P. Roy , “ Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   6 , 181 – 191 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (9)

G. Renversez , F. Bordas , and B.T. Kuhlmey , “ Second mode transition in microstructured optical fibers: determination of the critical geometrical parameter and study of the matrix refractive index and effects of cladding size ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1264 – 1266 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen , J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , and K. P. Hansen , “ Modal cutoff and the V parameter in photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1879 – 1881 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh , “ Applicability of classical optical fiber theories to holey fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 1739 – 1741 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Kuhlmey , R. C. Mcphedran , and C. M. de sterke , “ Modal cutoff in microstructured optical ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1684 – 1686 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. S. Russell , and D. M. Atkin , “ All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 1547 – 1549 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. S. Russell , “ Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 961 – 963 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Folkenberg , M. D. Nielsen , and C. Jakobsen , “ Broadband single-polarization photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1446 – 1448 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen , M. D. Nielsen , J. R. Folkenberg , A. Petersson , and H. R. Simonsen , “ Improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 393 – 395 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen , “ Semianalytical approach to short-wavelength dispersion and modal properties of photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1455 – 1457 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cut-off properties in a λ c /Λ versus d/Λ phase-diagram for HF1, HF3, and HF7. The open data points are the FEM results while the solid curves show the predictions from Eq. (1) with V c )=2.405.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Impact of the number of air-hole rings on the value of Δn=neff (2nd mode)-nFSM , where neff (2nd mode) is the effective index of the second order mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of the V and W parameters versus Aeff 2 for air-hole diameters corresponding to the endlessly single-mode limit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Macro-bending loss for HF1 and HF3 with equivalent effective area of Aeff = 200 μm2 at λ = 1.55 μm. The structural parameters are Λ = 12.4 μm and d/Λ = 0.424 for HF1 and Λ = 7.0 μm and d/Λ = 0.165 for HF3, respectively. Macro-bending loss for HF3 with Λ = 7.25 μm and d/Λ = 0.25 is also plotted.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Table of central fiber parameters.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V = k a eff n co 2 n FSM 2 ,
W = k a eff n eff 2 n FSM 2 .

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