Abstract

We have fabricated quasi-phase-matched AlGaAs waveguides for continuous-wave second-harmonic generation (SHG) pumped around 1.55 μm. We find that the losses, which limit the conversion efficiency of this type of waveguide, are resulted from two corrugations—the initial template corrugation and the regrowth-induced domain-boundary corrugations. We are able to reduce the waveguide loss by improving the growth conditions. The waveguide loss is 6–7 dB/cm at 1.55 μm, measured using the Fabry-Perot method. A record internal SHG conversion efficiency of 23 %W-1 for AlGaAs waveguides is achieved using a 5-mm-long waveguide with a pump wavelength of 1.568 μm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. M. Fejer , G. A. Magel , D. H. Jundt , and R. L. Byer , “ Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation:tuning and tolerances ,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.   QE-28 , 2631 – 2654 ( 1992 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Fiore , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , P. Bravetti , and J. Nagle , “ Phasematching using an isotropic nonlinearoptical material ,” Nature   391 , 463 – 466 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , and M. Ebrahimzadeh , “ Nonlinear frequency conversion insemiconductor optical waveguides using birefringent, modal and quasi-phase-matching techniques ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.   6 , 569 – 584 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , V. Berger , M. Calligaro , and V. Ortiz , “ Efficient second-harmonic generation in birefringently phase-matched GaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1785 – 1787 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 620 – 622 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Ducci , L. Lanco , V. Berger , A. De Rossi , V. Ortiz , and M. Calligaro , “ Continuous-wave second-harmonicgeneration in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2974 – 2976 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. J. B. Yoo , R. Bhat , C. Caneau , and M. A. Koza , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation inAlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   66 , 3410 – 3412 ( 1995 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. J. B. Yoo , C. Caneau , R. Bhat , M. A. Koza , A. Rajhel , and N. Antoniades , “ Wavelength conversion bydifference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   68 , 2609 – 2611 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Q. Xu , K. Takemasa , K. Nakamura , K. Shinozaki , H. Okayama , and T. Kamijoh , “ Device length dependence of optical second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs quasiphase matched waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 1554 – 1556 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Koh , T. Kondo , Y. Shiraka , and R. Ito , “ GaAs/Ge/GaAs sublattice reversal epitaxy and its application to nonlinear optical devices ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   227/228 , 183 – 192 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. Yu , L. Scaccabarozzi , O. Levi , T. J. Pinguet , M. M. Fejer , and J. S. Harris , “ Template design and fabrication for low loss orientation-patterned nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides pumped at 1.55 μm ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   251 , 794 – 799 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. A much higher value is reported for pulsed operation but a pulse duty cycle factor has to be multiplied in order to convert a pulsed SHG efficiency to a CW SHG efficiency.
  16. H. Kroemer , “ Sublattice allocation and antiphase domain suppression in polar-on-nonpolar nucleation ,” J Vac. Sci. Tech. B.   5 , 1150 – 1154 ( 1987 ).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. S. Williams , M. J. Ashwin , T. S. Jonesa , and J. H. Neave , “ Ridge structure transformation by group-IIIspecies modification during the growth of .Al,Ga.As on patterned substrates ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 0449051 – 0449055 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. Gil-Lafon , J. Napierala , D. Castelluci , A. Pimpinelli , R. Cadoret , and B. Gérard , “ Selective growth ofGaAs by HVPE: keys for accurate control of the growth morphologies ,” J. Cryst. Growth   222 , 482 – 496 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. T. Feuchter and C. Thirstrup . “ High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   6 , 1244 – 1247 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. S. Williams , M. J. Ashwin , T. S. Jonesa , and J. H. Neave , “ Ridge structure transformation by group-IIIspecies modification during the growth of .Al,Ga.As on patterned substrates ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 0449051 – 0449055 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , and M. Ebrahimzadeh , “ Nonlinear frequency conversion insemiconductor optical waveguides using birefringent, modal and quasi-phase-matching techniques ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.   6 , 569 – 584 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

S. Ducci , L. Lanco , V. Berger , A. De Rossi , V. Ortiz , and M. Calligaro , “ Continuous-wave second-harmonicgeneration in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2974 – 2976 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

X. Yu , L. Scaccabarozzi , O. Levi , T. J. Pinguet , M. M. Fejer , and J. S. Harris , “ Template design and fabrication for low loss orientation-patterned nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides pumped at 1.55 μm ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   251 , 794 – 799 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 620 – 622 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , V. Berger , M. Calligaro , and V. Ortiz , “ Efficient second-harmonic generation in birefringently phase-matched GaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1785 – 1787 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

S. Koh , T. Kondo , Y. Shiraka , and R. Ito , “ GaAs/Ge/GaAs sublattice reversal epitaxy and its application to nonlinear optical devices ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   227/228 , 183 – 192 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

E. Gil-Lafon , J. Napierala , D. Castelluci , A. Pimpinelli , R. Cadoret , and B. Gérard , “ Selective growth ofGaAs by HVPE: keys for accurate control of the growth morphologies ,” J. Cryst. Growth   222 , 482 – 496 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. Fiore , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , P. Bravetti , and J. Nagle , “ Phasematching using an isotropic nonlinearoptical material ,” Nature   391 , 463 – 466 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. Q. Xu , K. Takemasa , K. Nakamura , K. Shinozaki , H. Okayama , and T. Kamijoh , “ Device length dependence of optical second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs quasiphase matched waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 1554 – 1556 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo , C. Caneau , R. Bhat , M. A. Koza , A. Rajhel , and N. Antoniades , “ Wavelength conversion bydifference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   68 , 2609 – 2611 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo , R. Bhat , C. Caneau , and M. A. Koza , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation inAlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   66 , 3410 – 3412 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. T. Feuchter and C. Thirstrup . “ High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   6 , 1244 – 1247 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer , G. A. Magel , D. H. Jundt , and R. L. Byer , “ Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation:tuning and tolerances ,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.   QE-28 , 2631 – 2654 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

H. Kroemer , “ Sublattice allocation and antiphase domain suppression in polar-on-nonpolar nucleation ,” J Vac. Sci. Tech. B.   5 , 1150 – 1154 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Antoniades, N.

S. J. B. Yoo , C. Caneau , R. Bhat , M. A. Koza , A. Rajhel , and N. Antoniades , “ Wavelength conversion bydifference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   68 , 2609 – 2611 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Ashwin, M. J.

R. S. Williams , M. J. Ashwin , T. S. Jonesa , and J. H. Neave , “ Ridge structure transformation by group-IIIspecies modification during the growth of .Al,Ga.As on patterned substrates ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 0449051 – 0449055 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Becouarn, L.

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Berger, V.

S. Ducci , L. Lanco , V. Berger , A. De Rossi , V. Ortiz , and M. Calligaro , “ Continuous-wave second-harmonicgeneration in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2974 – 2976 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 620 – 622 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , V. Berger , M. Calligaro , and V. Ortiz , “ Efficient second-harmonic generation in birefringently phase-matched GaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1785 – 1787 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

A. Fiore , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , P. Bravetti , and J. Nagle , “ Phasematching using an isotropic nonlinearoptical material ,” Nature   391 , 463 – 466 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

S. J. B. Yoo , C. Caneau , R. Bhat , M. A. Koza , A. Rajhel , and N. Antoniades , “ Wavelength conversion bydifference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   68 , 2609 – 2611 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

S. J. B. Yoo , R. Bhat , C. Caneau , and M. A. Koza , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation inAlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   66 , 3410 – 3412 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Bravetti, P.

A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

A. Fiore , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , P. Bravetti , and J. Nagle , “ Phasematching using an isotropic nonlinearoptical material ,” Nature   391 , 463 – 466 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer , G. A. Magel , D. H. Jundt , and R. L. Byer , “ Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation:tuning and tolerances ,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.   QE-28 , 2631 – 2654 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Cadoret, R.

E. Gil-Lafon , J. Napierala , D. Castelluci , A. Pimpinelli , R. Cadoret , and B. Gérard , “ Selective growth ofGaAs by HVPE: keys for accurate control of the growth morphologies ,” J. Cryst. Growth   222 , 482 – 496 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Calligaro, M.

S. Ducci , L. Lanco , V. Berger , A. De Rossi , V. Ortiz , and M. Calligaro , “ Continuous-wave second-harmonicgeneration in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2974 – 2976 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 620 – 622 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , V. Berger , M. Calligaro , and V. Ortiz , “ Efficient second-harmonic generation in birefringently phase-matched GaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1785 – 1787 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Caneau, C.

S. J. B. Yoo , C. Caneau , R. Bhat , M. A. Koza , A. Rajhel , and N. Antoniades , “ Wavelength conversion bydifference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   68 , 2609 – 2611 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

S. J. B. Yoo , R. Bhat , C. Caneau , and M. A. Koza , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation inAlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   66 , 3410 – 3412 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Castelluci, D.

E. Gil-Lafon , J. Napierala , D. Castelluci , A. Pimpinelli , R. Cadoret , and B. Gérard , “ Selective growth ofGaAs by HVPE: keys for accurate control of the growth morphologies ,” J. Cryst. Growth   222 , 482 – 496 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

De Rossi, A.

S. Ducci , L. Lanco , V. Berger , A. De Rossi , V. Ortiz , and M. Calligaro , “ Continuous-wave second-harmonicgeneration in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2974 – 2976 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 620 – 622 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , V. Berger , M. Calligaro , and V. Ortiz , “ Efficient second-harmonic generation in birefringently phase-matched GaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1785 – 1787 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Delobel, L.

A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Ducci, S.

S. Ducci , L. Lanco , V. Berger , A. De Rossi , V. Ortiz , and M. Calligaro , “ Continuous-wave second-harmonicgeneration in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2974 – 2976 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Ebert, C. B.

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , and M. Ebrahimzadeh , “ Nonlinear frequency conversion insemiconductor optical waveguides using birefringent, modal and quasi-phase-matching techniques ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.   6 , 569 – 584 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 620 – 622 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , V. Berger , M. Calligaro , and V. Ortiz , “ Efficient second-harmonic generation in birefringently phase-matched GaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1785 – 1787 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Eyres, L. A.

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

X. Yu , L. Scaccabarozzi , O. Levi , T. J. Pinguet , M. M. Fejer , and J. S. Harris , “ Template design and fabrication for low loss orientation-patterned nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides pumped at 1.55 μm ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   251 , 794 – 799 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

M. M. Fejer , G. A. Magel , D. H. Jundt , and R. L. Byer , “ Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation:tuning and tolerances ,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.   QE-28 , 2631 – 2654 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Feuchter, R. T.

R. T. Feuchter and C. Thirstrup . “ High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   6 , 1244 – 1247 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Fiore, A.

A. Fiore , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , P. Bravetti , and J. Nagle , “ Phasematching using an isotropic nonlinearoptical material ,” Nature   391 , 463 – 466 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Gerard, B.

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Gérard, B.

E. Gil-Lafon , J. Napierala , D. Castelluci , A. Pimpinelli , R. Cadoret , and B. Gérard , “ Selective growth ofGaAs by HVPE: keys for accurate control of the growth morphologies ,” J. Cryst. Growth   222 , 482 – 496 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Gil-Lafon, E.

E. Gil-Lafon , J. Napierala , D. Castelluci , A. Pimpinelli , R. Cadoret , and B. Gérard , “ Selective growth ofGaAs by HVPE: keys for accurate control of the growth morphologies ,” J. Cryst. Growth   222 , 482 – 496 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Gintz, G.

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

X. Yu , L. Scaccabarozzi , O. Levi , T. J. Pinguet , M. M. Fejer , and J. S. Harris , “ Template design and fabrication for low loss orientation-patterned nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides pumped at 1.55 μm ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   251 , 794 – 799 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Ito, R.

S. Koh , T. Kondo , Y. Shiraka , and R. Ito , “ GaAs/Ge/GaAs sublattice reversal epitaxy and its application to nonlinear optical devices ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   227/228 , 183 – 192 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Jonesa, T. S.

R. S. Williams , M. J. Ashwin , T. S. Jonesa , and J. H. Neave , “ Ridge structure transformation by group-IIIspecies modification during the growth of .Al,Ga.As on patterned substrates ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 0449051 – 0449055 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer , G. A. Magel , D. H. Jundt , and R. L. Byer , “ Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation:tuning and tolerances ,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.   QE-28 , 2631 – 2654 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Kamijoh, T.

C. Q. Xu , K. Takemasa , K. Nakamura , K. Shinozaki , H. Okayama , and T. Kamijoh , “ Device length dependence of optical second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs quasiphase matched waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 1554 – 1556 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Koh, S.

S. Koh , T. Kondo , Y. Shiraka , and R. Ito , “ GaAs/Ge/GaAs sublattice reversal epitaxy and its application to nonlinear optical devices ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   227/228 , 183 – 192 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Kondo, T.

S. Koh , T. Kondo , Y. Shiraka , and R. Ito , “ GaAs/Ge/GaAs sublattice reversal epitaxy and its application to nonlinear optical devices ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   227/228 , 183 – 192 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Koza, M. A.

S. J. B. Yoo , C. Caneau , R. Bhat , M. A. Koza , A. Rajhel , and N. Antoniades , “ Wavelength conversion bydifference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   68 , 2609 – 2611 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

S. J. B. Yoo , R. Bhat , C. Caneau , and M. A. Koza , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation inAlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   66 , 3410 – 3412 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Kroemer, H.

H. Kroemer , “ Sublattice allocation and antiphase domain suppression in polar-on-nonpolar nucleation ,” J Vac. Sci. Tech. B.   5 , 1150 – 1154 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Lallier, E.

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Lanco, L.

S. Ducci , L. Lanco , V. Berger , A. De Rossi , V. Ortiz , and M. Calligaro , “ Continuous-wave second-harmonicgeneration in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2974 – 2976 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Levi, O.

X. Yu , L. Scaccabarozzi , O. Levi , T. J. Pinguet , M. M. Fejer , and J. S. Harris , “ Template design and fabrication for low loss orientation-patterned nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides pumped at 1.55 μm ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   251 , 794 – 799 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer , G. A. Magel , D. H. Jundt , and R. L. Byer , “ Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation:tuning and tolerances ,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.   QE-28 , 2631 – 2654 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Moutzouris, K.

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , and M. Ebrahimzadeh , “ Nonlinear frequency conversion insemiconductor optical waveguides using birefringent, modal and quasi-phase-matching techniques ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.   6 , 569 – 584 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 620 – 622 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , V. Berger , M. Calligaro , and V. Ortiz , “ Efficient second-harmonic generation in birefringently phase-matched GaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1785 – 1787 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Nagle, J.

A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

A. Fiore , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , P. Bravetti , and J. Nagle , “ Phasematching using an isotropic nonlinearoptical material ,” Nature   391 , 463 – 466 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, K.

C. Q. Xu , K. Takemasa , K. Nakamura , K. Shinozaki , H. Okayama , and T. Kamijoh , “ Device length dependence of optical second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs quasiphase matched waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 1554 – 1556 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Napierala, J.

E. Gil-Lafon , J. Napierala , D. Castelluci , A. Pimpinelli , R. Cadoret , and B. Gérard , “ Selective growth ofGaAs by HVPE: keys for accurate control of the growth morphologies ,” J. Cryst. Growth   222 , 482 – 496 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Neave, J. H.

R. S. Williams , M. J. Ashwin , T. S. Jonesa , and J. H. Neave , “ Ridge structure transformation by group-IIIspecies modification during the growth of .Al,Ga.As on patterned substrates ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 0449051 – 0449055 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Okayama, H.

C. Q. Xu , K. Takemasa , K. Nakamura , K. Shinozaki , H. Okayama , and T. Kamijoh , “ Device length dependence of optical second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs quasiphase matched waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 1554 – 1556 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Ortiz, V.

S. Ducci , L. Lanco , V. Berger , A. De Rossi , V. Ortiz , and M. Calligaro , “ Continuous-wave second-harmonicgeneration in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2974 – 2976 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 620 – 622 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , V. Berger , M. Calligaro , and V. Ortiz , “ Efficient second-harmonic generation in birefringently phase-matched GaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1785 – 1787 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Pimpinelli, A.

E. Gil-Lafon , J. Napierala , D. Castelluci , A. Pimpinelli , R. Cadoret , and B. Gérard , “ Selective growth ofGaAs by HVPE: keys for accurate control of the growth morphologies ,” J. Cryst. Growth   222 , 482 – 496 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T. J.

X. Yu , L. Scaccabarozzi , O. Levi , T. J. Pinguet , M. M. Fejer , and J. S. Harris , “ Template design and fabrication for low loss orientation-patterned nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides pumped at 1.55 μm ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   251 , 794 – 799 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Rajhel, A.

S. J. B. Yoo , C. Caneau , R. Bhat , M. A. Koza , A. Rajhel , and N. Antoniades , “ Wavelength conversion bydifference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   68 , 2609 – 2611 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Rosencher, E.

A. Fiore , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , P. Bravetti , and J. Nagle , “ Phasematching using an isotropic nonlinearoptical material ,” Nature   391 , 463 – 466 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Scaccabarozzi, L.

X. Yu , L. Scaccabarozzi , O. Levi , T. J. Pinguet , M. M. Fejer , and J. S. Harris , “ Template design and fabrication for low loss orientation-patterned nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides pumped at 1.55 μm ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   251 , 794 – 799 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Shinozaki, K.

C. Q. Xu , K. Takemasa , K. Nakamura , K. Shinozaki , H. Okayama , and T. Kamijoh , “ Device length dependence of optical second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs quasiphase matched waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 1554 – 1556 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Shiraka, Y.

S. Koh , T. Kondo , Y. Shiraka , and R. Ito , “ GaAs/Ge/GaAs sublattice reversal epitaxy and its application to nonlinear optical devices ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   227/228 , 183 – 192 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Takemasa, K.

C. Q. Xu , K. Takemasa , K. Nakamura , K. Shinozaki , H. Okayama , and T. Kamijoh , “ Device length dependence of optical second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs quasiphase matched waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 1554 – 1556 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Thirstrup, C.

R. T. Feuchter and C. Thirstrup . “ High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   6 , 1244 – 1247 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Tourreau, P. J.

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

van der Meer, P.

A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Venugopal Rao, S.

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , and M. Ebrahimzadeh , “ Nonlinear frequency conversion insemiconductor optical waveguides using birefringent, modal and quasi-phase-matching techniques ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.   6 , 569 – 584 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 620 – 622 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , V. Berger , M. Calligaro , and V. Ortiz , “ Efficient second-harmonic generation in birefringently phase-matched GaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1785 – 1787 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. S.

R. S. Williams , M. J. Ashwin , T. S. Jonesa , and J. H. Neave , “ Ridge structure transformation by group-IIIspecies modification during the growth of .Al,Ga.As on patterned substrates ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 0449051 – 0449055 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Xu, C. Q.

C. Q. Xu , K. Takemasa , K. Nakamura , K. Shinozaki , H. Okayama , and T. Kamijoh , “ Device length dependence of optical second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs quasiphase matched waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 1554 – 1556 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo , C. Caneau , R. Bhat , M. A. Koza , A. Rajhel , and N. Antoniades , “ Wavelength conversion bydifference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   68 , 2609 – 2611 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

S. J. B. Yoo , R. Bhat , C. Caneau , and M. A. Koza , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation inAlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   66 , 3410 – 3412 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

X. Yu , L. Scaccabarozzi , O. Levi , T. J. Pinguet , M. M. Fejer , and J. S. Harris , “ Template design and fabrication for low loss orientation-patterned nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides pumped at 1.55 μm ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   251 , 794 – 799 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Moutzouris , S. Venugopal Rao , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 620 – 622 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

S. Ducci , L. Lanco , V. Berger , A. De Rossi , V. Ortiz , and M. Calligaro , “ Continuous-wave second-harmonicgeneration in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2974 – 2976 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

S. J. B. Yoo , R. Bhat , C. Caneau , and M. A. Koza , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation inAlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   66 , 3410 – 3412 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

S. J. B. Yoo , C. Caneau , R. Bhat , M. A. Koza , A. Rajhel , and N. Antoniades , “ Wavelength conversion bydifference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   68 , 2609 – 2611 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Xu , K. Takemasa , K. Nakamura , K. Shinozaki , H. Okayama , and T. Kamijoh , “ Device length dependence of optical second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs quasiphase matched waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 1554 – 1556 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

L. A. Eyres , P. J. Tourreau , T. J. Pinguet , C. B. Ebert , J. S. Harris , M. M. Fejer , L. Becouarn , B. Gerard , and E. Lallier , “ All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 904 – 906 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

A. Fiore , S. Janz , L. Delobel , P. van der Meer , P. Bravetti , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , and J. Nagle “ Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al 2 O 3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   72 , 2942 – 2944 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer , G. A. Magel , D. H. Jundt , and R. L. Byer , “ Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation:tuning and tolerances ,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.   QE-28 , 2631 – 2654 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. T. Feuchter and C. Thirstrup . “ High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   6 , 1244 – 1247 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

J Vac. Sci. Tech. B. (1)

H. Kroemer , “ Sublattice allocation and antiphase domain suppression in polar-on-nonpolar nucleation ,” J Vac. Sci. Tech. B.   5 , 1150 – 1154 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. S. Williams , M. J. Ashwin , T. S. Jonesa , and J. H. Neave , “ Ridge structure transformation by group-IIIspecies modification during the growth of .Al,Ga.As on patterned substrates ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 0449051 – 0449055 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

E. Gil-Lafon , J. Napierala , D. Castelluci , A. Pimpinelli , R. Cadoret , and B. Gérard , “ Selective growth ofGaAs by HVPE: keys for accurate control of the growth morphologies ,” J. Cryst. Growth   222 , 482 – 496 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth. (2)

S. Koh , T. Kondo , Y. Shiraka , and R. Ito , “ GaAs/Ge/GaAs sublattice reversal epitaxy and its application to nonlinear optical devices ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   227/228 , 183 – 192 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

X. Yu , L. Scaccabarozzi , O. Levi , T. J. Pinguet , M. M. Fejer , and J. S. Harris , “ Template design and fabrication for low loss orientation-patterned nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides pumped at 1.55 μm ,” J. Cryst. Growth.   251 , 794 – 799 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , and M. Ebrahimzadeh , “ Nonlinear frequency conversion insemiconductor optical waveguides using birefringent, modal and quasi-phase-matching techniques ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.   6 , 569 – 584 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Fiore , V. Berger , E. Rosencher , P. Bravetti , and J. Nagle , “ Phasematching using an isotropic nonlinearoptical material ,” Nature   391 , 463 – 466 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Venugopal Rao , K. Moutzouris , M. Ebrahimzadeh , A. De Rossi , G. Gintz , M. Calligaro , V. Ortiz , and V. Berger , “ Measurements of optical loss in GaAs/Al 2 O 3 nonlinear waveguides in the infrared using femtosecond scattering technique ,” Opt. Commun.   213 , 223 – 228 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

A much higher value is reported for pulsed operation but a pulse duty cycle factor has to be multiplied in order to convert a pulsed SHG efficiency to a CW SHG efficiency.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

QPM waveguide structures grown on an-orientation patterned GaAs template. Corrugations are undesired artifacts of the growth process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-section SEM of as-cleaved QPM waveguides under two different growth temperatures. Domain boundaries close to the surfaces are highlighted. (a) 725°C; (b) 665°C. Higher growth temperature results in large v-shape grooves at the domain boundaries while the low-temperature growth shows negligible waveguide corrugation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Relationship between SHG output power and fundamental input power. (b) SHG output power vs tuning of the fundamental wavelength. The input power is measured at 4.25mW in front of the input facet. Fringes are due to Fabry-Perot resonances at the pump wavelength.

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