Abstract

A two- and three-dimensional swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system, which uses a ready-to-ship scanning light source, is demonstrated. The light source has a center wavelength of 1.31 μm, -3 dB wavelength range of 110 nm, scanning rate of 20 KHz, and high linearity in frequency scanning. This paper presents a simple calibration method using a fringe analysis technique for spectral rescaling. This SS-OCT system is capable of realtime display of two-dimensional OCT and can obtain three-dimensional OCT with a measurement time of 2 s. In vivo human anterior eye segments are investigated two- and three-dimensionally. The system sensitivity is experimentally determined to be 112 dB. The three-dimensional OCT volumes reveal the structures of the anterior eye segments, which are difficult to observe in two-dimensional OCT images. A two dimensional tomographic movie shows a dynamic motion of a human iris.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005 (8)

Michael A. Choma , Kevin Hsu , and Joseph A. Izatt , “ Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 044009 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Anjul M. Davis , Michael A. Choma , and Joseph A. Izatt , “ Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 064005 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Jun Zhang , J. Stuart Nelson , and Zhongping Chen , “ Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 147 – 149 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erich Götzinger , Michael Pircher , Rainer A. Leitgeb , and Christoph K. Hitzenberger , “ High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   13 , 583 – 594 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-583 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marinko V. Sarunic , Michael A. Choma , Changhuei Yang , and Joseph A. Izatt , “ Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3x3 fiber couplers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 957 – 967 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-957 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber , M. Wojtkowski , K. Taira , J. G. Fujimoto , and K. Hsu , “ Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles ,” Opt. Express   13 3513 – 3528 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc , S. H. Yun , J. F. de Boer , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5483 – 5493 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-14-5483 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun Zhang and Zhongping Chen , “ In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography ,” Opt. Express   13 , 7449 – 7457 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-19-7449 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (8)

R. A. Leitgeb , W. Drexler , A. Unterhuber , B. Hermann , T. Bajraszewski , T. Le , A. Stingl , and A. F. Fercher , “ Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   12 , 2156 – 2165 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2156 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maciej Wojtkowski , Vivek J. Srinivasan , Tony H. Ko , James G. Fujimoto , Andrzej Kowal-czyk , and Jay S. Duker , “ Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation ,” Opt. Express   12 , 2404 – 2422 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry Cense , Nader A. Nassif , Teresa C. Chen , Mark C. Pierce , Seok-Hyun Yun , B. Hyle Park , Brett E. Bouma , Guillermo J. Tearney , and Johannes F. de Boer , “ Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express ,   12 , 2435 – 2447 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , and B. E. Bouma , “ Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging ,” Opt. Express   12 , 2977 – 2998 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , and B. E. Bouma , “ Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4822 – 4828 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4822 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun Zhang , Woonggyu Jung , J. Stuart Nelson , and Zhongping Chen , Full range polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography , Opt. Express   12 , 6033 – 6039 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-6033 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Hiroshi Sumimura , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6184 – 6191 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6184 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif , B. Cense , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , S. H. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tear-ney , T. C. Chen , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve ,” Opt. Express   12 , 367 – 376 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-367 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (7)

Michael A. Choma , Marinko V. Sarunic , Changhuei Yang , and Joseph A. Izatt , “ Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2183 – 2189 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb , C. K. Hitzenberger , and A. F. Fercher , ” Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 889 – 894 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maciej Wojtkowski , Tomasz Bajraszewski , Piotr Targowski , and Andrzej Kowalczyk , “ Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1745 – 1747 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , C. Boudoux , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1981 – 1983 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johannes F. de Boer , Barry Cense , B. Hyle Park , Mark C. Pierce , Guillermo J. Tearney , and Brett E. Bouma , “ Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2067 – 2069 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rainer A. Leitgeb , Christoph K. Hitzenberger , Adolf F. Fercher , and Tomasz Bajraszewski , “ Phase-shifting algorithm to achieve high-speed long-depth-range probing by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2201 – 2203 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , N. Iftimia , and B. E. Bouma , “ High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2953 – 2963 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

Gerd Häusler Walter and Michael Lindner , “ “Coherence radar” and “spectral radar” —New tools for dermato-logical diagnosis ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   3 , 21 – 31 ( 1998 ).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher , C. K. Hitzenberger , G. Kamp , and S. Y. El-Zaiat , “ Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry ,” Opt. Commun.   117 , 43 – 48 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

Aoki, Gouki

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Hiroshi Sumimura , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6184 – 6191 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6184 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for realtime full-range Fourier domain opticall coherence tomography ,” Appl. Opt. (accepted to publication).
[PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

Bajraszewski, T.

Bajraszewski, Tomasz

Belabas, Nadia

Bizheva, K.

Boppart, S. A.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc , S. H. Yun , J. F. de Boer , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5483 – 5493 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-14-5483 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , and B. E. Bouma , “ Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging ,” Opt. Express   12 , 2977 – 2998 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , and B. E. Bouma , “ Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4822 – 4828 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4822 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif , B. Cense , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , S. H. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tear-ney , T. C. Chen , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve ,” Opt. Express   12 , 367 – 376 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-367 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , C. Boudoux , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1981 – 1983 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , N. Iftimia , and B. E. Bouma , “ High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2953 – 2963 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, Brett E.

Cense, B.

Cense, Barry

Chang, W.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Teresa C.

Chen, Zhongping

Chinn, S. R.

Choma, Michael A.

Davis, Anjul M.

Anjul M. Davis , Michael A. Choma , and Joseph A. Izatt , “ Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 064005 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

de Boer, Johannes F.

Dorrer, Christophe

Drexler, W.

Duker, Jay S.

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher , C. K. Hitzenberger , G. Kamp , and S. Y. El-Zaiat , “ Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry ,” Opt. Commun.   117 , 43 – 48 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Endo, Takashi

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Hiroshi Sumimura , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6184 – 6191 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6184 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for realtime full-range Fourier domain opticall coherence tomography ,” Appl. Opt. (accepted to publication).
[PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Fercher, Adolf F.

Rainer A. Leitgeb , Christoph K. Hitzenberger , Adolf F. Fercher , and Tomasz Bajraszewski , “ Phase-shifting algorithm to achieve high-speed long-depth-range probing by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2201 – 2203 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maciej Wojtkowski , Rainer Leitgeb , Andrzej Kowalczyk , Tomasz Bajraszewski , and Adolf F. Fercher , “ In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   7 , 457 – 463 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fujimoto, James G.

Götzinger, Erich

Gregory, K.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häusler Walter, Gerd

Gerd Häusler Walter and Michael Lindner , “ “Coherence radar” and “spectral radar” —New tools for dermato-logical diagnosis ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   3 , 21 – 31 ( 1998 ).

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. A. Leitgeb , C. K. Hitzenberger , and A. F. Fercher , ” Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 889 – 894 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher , C. K. Hitzenberger , G. Kamp , and S. Y. El-Zaiat , “ Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry ,” Opt. Commun.   117 , 43 – 48 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

Hsu, K.

Hsu, Kevin

Michael A. Choma , Kevin Hsu , and Joseph A. Izatt , “ Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 044009 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Hyle Park, B.

Iftimia, N.

Ina, Hideki

Ippen, E. P.

Itoh, Masahide

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Hiroshi Sumimura , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6184 – 6191 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6184 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for realtime full-range Fourier domain opticall coherence tomography ,” Appl. Opt. (accepted to publication).
[PubMed]

Izatt, Joseph A.

Joffre, Manuel

Jung, Woonggyu

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher , C. K. Hitzenberger , G. Kamp , and S. Y. El-Zaiat , “ Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry ,” Opt. Commun.   117 , 43 – 48 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

Knight, J. C.

Ko, Tony H.

Kobayashi, Seiji

Kowalczyk, A.

Kowalczyk, Andrzej

Maciej Wojtkowski , Tomasz Bajraszewski , Piotr Targowski , and Andrzej Kowalczyk , “ Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1745 – 1747 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maciej Wojtkowski , Rainer Leitgeb , Andrzej Kowalczyk , Tomasz Bajraszewski , and Adolf F. Fercher , “ In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   7 , 457 – 463 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowal-czyk, Andrzej

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leitgeb, Rainer

Maciej Wojtkowski , Rainer Leitgeb , Andrzej Kowalczyk , Tomasz Bajraszewski , and Adolf F. Fercher , “ In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   7 , 457 – 463 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, Rainer A.

Li, X. D.

Likforman, Jean-Pierre

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, Michael

Gerd Häusler Walter and Michael Lindner , “ “Coherence radar” and “spectral radar” —New tools for dermato-logical diagnosis ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   3 , 21 – 31 ( 1998 ).

Makita, Shuichi

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Hiroshi Sumimura , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6184 – 6191 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6184 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for realtime full-range Fourier domain opticall coherence tomography ,” Appl. Opt. (accepted to publication).
[PubMed]

Mitsui, Takahisa

Takahisa Mitsui , “ Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   38 , 6133 – 6137 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Nassif, N. A.

Nassif, Nader A.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pierce, Mark C.

Pircher, Michael

Pitris, C.

Povazay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sarunic, Marinko V.

Sattmann, H.

Scherzer, E.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, Vivek J.

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuart Nelson, J.

Sumimura, Hiroshi

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn , E. A. Swanson , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 340 – 342 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

Takeda, Mitsuo

Targowski, Piotr

Tearney, G. J.

Tearney, Guillermo J.

Tear-ney, G. J.

Unterhuber, A.

Vakoc, B. J.

Vetterlein, M.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wojtkowski, Maciej

Yang, Changhuei

Yasuno, Yoshiaki

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Hiroshi Sumimura , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6184 – 6191 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6184 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for realtime full-range Fourier domain opticall coherence tomography ,” Appl. Opt. (accepted to publication).
[PubMed]

Yatagai, Toyohiko

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Hiroshi Sumimura , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6184 – 6191 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6184 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for realtime full-range Fourier domain opticall coherence tomography ,” Appl. Opt. (accepted to publication).
[PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

B. J. Vakoc , S. H. Yun , J. F. de Boer , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5483 – 5493 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-14-5483 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , and B. E. Bouma , “ Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging ,” Opt. Express   12 , 2977 – 2998 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , and B. E. Bouma , “ Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4822 – 4828 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4822 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif , B. Cense , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , S. H. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tear-ney , T. C. Chen , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve ,” Opt. Express   12 , 367 – 376 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-367 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , C. Boudoux , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1981 – 1983 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , N. Iftimia , and B. E. Bouma , “ High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2953 – 2963 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, Seok-Hyun

Zhang, Jun

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

Gerd Häusler Walter and Michael Lindner , “ “Coherence radar” and “spectral radar” —New tools for dermato-logical diagnosis ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   3 , 21 – 31 ( 1998 ).

Maciej Wojtkowski , Rainer Leitgeb , Andrzej Kowalczyk , Tomasz Bajraszewski , and Adolf F. Fercher , “ In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   7 , 457 – 463 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael A. Choma , Kevin Hsu , and Joseph A. Izatt , “ Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 044009 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Anjul M. Davis , Michael A. Choma , and Joseph A. Izatt , “ Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 064005 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Takahisa Mitsui , “ Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   38 , 6133 – 6137 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher , C. K. Hitzenberger , G. Kamp , and S. Y. El-Zaiat , “ Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry ,” Opt. Commun.   117 , 43 – 48 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (16)

Erich Götzinger , Michael Pircher , Rainer A. Leitgeb , and Christoph K. Hitzenberger , “ High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   13 , 583 – 594 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-583 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marinko V. Sarunic , Michael A. Choma , Changhuei Yang , and Joseph A. Izatt , “ Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3x3 fiber couplers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 957 – 967 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-957 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber , M. Wojtkowski , K. Taira , J. G. Fujimoto , and K. Hsu , “ Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles ,” Opt. Express   13 3513 – 3528 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc , S. H. Yun , J. F. de Boer , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5483 – 5493 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-14-5483 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun Zhang and Zhongping Chen , “ In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography ,” Opt. Express   13 , 7449 – 7457 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-19-7449 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , N. Iftimia , and B. E. Bouma , “ High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2953 – 2963 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif , B. Cense , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , S. H. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tear-ney , T. C. Chen , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve ,” Opt. Express   12 , 367 – 376 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-367 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael A. Choma , Marinko V. Sarunic , Changhuei Yang , and Joseph A. Izatt , “ Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2183 – 2189 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb , W. Drexler , A. Unterhuber , B. Hermann , T. Bajraszewski , T. Le , A. Stingl , and A. F. Fercher , “ Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   12 , 2156 – 2165 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2156 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maciej Wojtkowski , Vivek J. Srinivasan , Tony H. Ko , James G. Fujimoto , Andrzej Kowal-czyk , and Jay S. Duker , “ Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation ,” Opt. Express   12 , 2404 – 2422 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry Cense , Nader A. Nassif , Teresa C. Chen , Mark C. Pierce , Seok-Hyun Yun , B. Hyle Park , Brett E. Bouma , Guillermo J. Tearney , and Johannes F. de Boer , “ Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express ,   12 , 2435 – 2447 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , and B. E. Bouma , “ Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging ,” Opt. Express   12 , 2977 – 2998 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , G. J. Tearney , J. F. de Boer , and B. E. Bouma , “ Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4822 – 4828 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4822 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun Zhang , Woonggyu Jung , J. Stuart Nelson , and Zhongping Chen , Full range polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography , Opt. Express   12 , 6033 – 6039 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-6033 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Hiroshi Sumimura , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6184 – 6191 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6184 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb , C. K. Hitzenberger , and A. F. Fercher , ” Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 889 – 894 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (9)

Maciej Wojtkowski , Tomasz Bajraszewski , Piotr Targowski , and Andrzej Kowalczyk , “ Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1745 – 1747 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun , C. Boudoux , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 1981 – 1983 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johannes F. de Boer , Barry Cense , B. Hyle Park , Mark C. Pierce , Guillermo J. Tearney , and Brett E. Bouma , “ Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2067 – 2069 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rainer A. Leitgeb , Christoph K. Hitzenberger , Adolf F. Fercher , and Tomasz Bajraszewski , “ Phase-shifting algorithm to achieve high-speed long-depth-range probing by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2201 – 2203 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski , A. Kowalczyk , R. Leitgeb , and A. F. Fercher , “ Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1415 – 1417 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

B. Povazay , K. Bizheva , A. Unterhuber , B. Hermann , H. Sattmann , A. F. Fercher , W. Drexler , A. Apolonski , W. J. Wadsworth , J. C. Knight , P. St. J. Russell , M. Vetterlein , and E. Scherzer , “ Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1800 – 1802 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Jun Zhang , J. Stuart Nelson , and Zhongping Chen , “ Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 147 – 149 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Chinn , E. A. Swanson , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 340 – 342 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler , U. Morgner , F. X. Kartner , C. Pitris , S. A. Boppart , X. D. Li , E. P. Ippen , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 1221 – 1223 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Puliafito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Yoshiaki Yasuno , Shuichi Makita , Takashi Endo , Gouki Aoki , Masahide Itoh , and Toyohiko Yatagai , “ Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for realtime full-range Fourier domain opticall coherence tomography ,” Appl. Opt. (accepted to publication).
[PubMed]

American National Standards institute, “ American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2000 ,” American National Standards institute, New York ( 2000 ).

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: AVI (1822 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1948 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (1611 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (2229 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (1974 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (5313 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The optical scheme of SS-OCT. HSL: high-speed wavelength scanning light source, C: circulator, RM: reference mirror, OL: objective, and BR: balanced photo receiver.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The instantaneous output power (red curve) and wavelength (blue curve) of the light source. Since the light output duty cycle is 50%, the light emits for 25 μs, then is suppressed for 25 μs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Point spread functions obtained at several different depth positions. Blue and red curves represent point spread functions with and without rescaling respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A representative of point spread functions at the depth of 1 mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The depth dependence of longitudinal resolution.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Two-dimensional tomographies of human anterior eye segments in vivo. SL: sclera, IS: iris stroma, IPE: iris pigment epithelium, CL: crystalline lens, SS: scleral spur, TM: trabecular meshwork, SC: Schlemm’s canal, CB: ciliary body, CE: corneal epithelium, CS: corneal stroma, and ICA: iridocorneal angle opening. The shadowing lines on the right side of image (a) are because of eyelashes.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Three-dimensional tomographies of the human anterior eye segments in vivo. (a) sclera and iris (1.8MB), (b) Palpebras and cornea (1.9MB), (c) iridocorneal angle opening (1.6MB), and (d) Iris, crystalline lens, and zonules of Zinn (2.2MB). IR: iris, NL: nucleus lentis, and ZZ: zonules of Zinn.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

B-scan images of human anterior eye chamber in dark room (upper) and bright room (lower). A tomographic movie shows contructing motion of the iris (1.9MB version and 5.2MB version).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ z = N λ c 2 / 4 δ λ
i m ( t ) = 2 η Γ ( z 0 ) P r ( t ) P p ( t ) cos { 4 π c z 0 ν ( t ) }
𝔉 [ i m ( t ) ] = η Γ ( z 0 ) 𝔉 [ P r ( t ) P p ( t ) ]
* { 𝔉 [ exp ( i 4 π c z 0 ν Ω ( t ) ) ] * δ ( μ 2 c z 0 ν 1 )
+ 𝔉 [ exp ( i 4 π c z 0 ν Ω ( t ) ) ] * δ ( μ + 2 c z 0 ν 1 ) }
i m ( t ) = η Γ ( z 0 ) P r ( t ) P p ( t ) exp { i 4 π z 0 ν ( t ) / c } .
ν ( t j ) = c 4 π z 0 ϕ m ( t j ) .
t ( ν ) a 0 + a 1 ν + a 2 ν 2 + a 3 ν 3 .

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