Abstract

We report on time-resolved measurements of the plasma evolution during metal ablation with ultrashort laser pulses in the range from 200 fs to 3.3 ps. The plasma transmission exhibits two distinctive minima. Almost total attenuation is observed a few nanoseconds after the ablation pulse, while a second decrease of the transmission to approximately 50% is observed after about 150 ns. Images taken with a gated ICCD-camera confirm these data and allow determining the expansion velocity of the plasma plume. The attenuation in the first nanoseconds can be attributed to electrons and sublimated mass emitted from the target surface, while attenuation after several 10 ns is due to particles and droplets after a thermal boiling process. The possibility of a normal or an explosive boiling process, also called phase explosion, is discussed. Despite of the physical insight into the ablation process, these data provide valuable information for scaling the speed of ultrashort pulse laser materials processing in a fluence regime of several J/cm2 since they allow estimating the maximum usable pulse repetition rate.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Dausinger , F. Lichter , and H. Lubatschowski , Femtosecond Technology for Technical and Medical Applications , ( Springer, Heidelberg , 2004 )
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Bäuerle , Laser Processing and Chemistry , 3rd ed. ( Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg , 2000 )
  3. R. E. Russo , X. L. Mao , H. C. Liu , J. H. Yoo , and S. S. Mao , “ Time-resolved plasma diagnostics and mass removal during single-pulse laser ablation ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S887 – S894 ( 1999 )
    [Crossref]
  4. S. S. Mao , X. Mao , R. Greif , and R. E. Russo , “ Initation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 2464 – 2466 ( 2000 )
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Salle , O. Gobert , P. Meynadier , M. Perdrix , G. Petite , and A. Semerok , “ Femtosecond and picosecond laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S381 – S383 ( 1999 )
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , M. Boing , H. Schüler , and D. von der Linde , “ Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced abaltion from solid surfaces ,” in High-Power Laser Ablation , C. R. Phipps , ed., Proc. SPIE   3343 , 46 – 57 ( 1998 )
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , M. Boing , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Bulk phase explosion and surface boiling during short pulse laser ablation of semiconductors ,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference ( OSA Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, Washington, DC , 1999 ) pp. 231 – 232
  8. B. Rethfeld , K. Sokolowski-Tinten , V. V. Temnov , S. I. Kudryashov , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Ablation dynamics of solids heated by femtosecond laser pulses ,” in Nonresonant Laser-Matter Interaction , M. N. Libenson , ed., Proc. SPIE   4423 , 186 – 196 ( 2001 )
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Kelly and A. Miotello , “ Contribution of vaporization and boiling to thermal-spike sputtering by ions or laser pulses ,” Phys. Rev. E   60 , 2616 – 2625 ( 1999 )
    [Crossref]
  10. X. Xu and D. A. Willis , “ Non-Equilibrium Phase Change in Metal Induced by Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Irradiation ,” J. Heat Transfer   124 , 293 – 298 ( 2002 )
    [Crossref]
  11. B.N. Chichkov , C. Momma , S. Nolte , F. von Alvensleben , and A. Tünnermann , “ Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. A   63 , 109 – 115 ( 1996 )
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Nolte , C. Momma , H. Jacobs , A. Tünnermann , B. N. Chichkov , B. Wellegehausen , and H. Welling , “ Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   14 , 2716 – 2722 ( 1997 )
    [Crossref]
  13. S. I. Anisimov and B. S. Luk’yanchuk , “ Selected problems of laser ablation theory ,” Physics-Uspekhi 45   3 , 293 – 324 ( 2002 )
    [Crossref]
  14. V. P. Carey , Liquid-Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena , ( Hemisphere, Washington , 1992 )
  15. N. M. Bulgakova and A. V. Bulgakov , “ Pulsed laser ablation of solids: transition from normal vaporization to phase explosion ,” Appl. Phys. A   73 , 199 – 208 ( 2001 )
    [Crossref]
  16. B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
    [Crossref]
  17. C. J. Nonhoff , Material Processing with Nd-Lasers , ( Electrochemical Publications Lim., Ayr , 1998 )
  18. W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
    [Crossref]
  19. V. Craciun , N. Bassim , R. K. Singh , D. Craiciun , J. Hermann , and C. Boulmer-Leborgne , “ Laser-induced explosive boiling during nanosecond laser abaltion of silicon ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   186 , 288 – 292 ( 2002 )
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Yoshida , “ Critical phenomenon analysis of surface tension of liquid metals ,” J. Jpn. Inst. Met.   58 , 1161 – 1168 ( 1994 )

2004 (1)

B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

S. I. Anisimov and B. S. Luk’yanchuk , “ Selected problems of laser ablation theory ,” Physics-Uspekhi 45   3 , 293 – 324 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

V. Craciun , N. Bassim , R. K. Singh , D. Craiciun , J. Hermann , and C. Boulmer-Leborgne , “ Laser-induced explosive boiling during nanosecond laser abaltion of silicon ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   186 , 288 – 292 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

X. Xu and D. A. Willis , “ Non-Equilibrium Phase Change in Metal Induced by Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Irradiation ,” J. Heat Transfer   124 , 293 – 298 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

B. Rethfeld , K. Sokolowski-Tinten , V. V. Temnov , S. I. Kudryashov , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Ablation dynamics of solids heated by femtosecond laser pulses ,” in Nonresonant Laser-Matter Interaction , M. N. Libenson , ed., Proc. SPIE   4423 , 186 – 196 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

N. M. Bulgakova and A. V. Bulgakov , “ Pulsed laser ablation of solids: transition from normal vaporization to phase explosion ,” Appl. Phys. A   73 , 199 – 208 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. S. Mao , X. Mao , R. Greif , and R. E. Russo , “ Initation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 2464 – 2466 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

1999 (4)

B. Salle , O. Gobert , P. Meynadier , M. Perdrix , G. Petite , and A. Semerok , “ Femtosecond and picosecond laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S381 – S383 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

R. Kelly and A. Miotello , “ Contribution of vaporization and boiling to thermal-spike sputtering by ions or laser pulses ,” Phys. Rev. E   60 , 2616 – 2625 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

R. E. Russo , X. L. Mao , H. C. Liu , J. H. Yoo , and S. S. Mao , “ Time-resolved plasma diagnostics and mass removal during single-pulse laser ablation ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S887 – S894 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , M. Boing , H. Schüler , and D. von der Linde , “ Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced abaltion from solid surfaces ,” in High-Power Laser Ablation , C. R. Phipps , ed., Proc. SPIE   3343 , 46 – 57 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Nolte , C. Momma , H. Jacobs , A. Tünnermann , B. N. Chichkov , B. Wellegehausen , and H. Welling , “ Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   14 , 2716 – 2722 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

B.N. Chichkov , C. Momma , S. Nolte , F. von Alvensleben , and A. Tünnermann , “ Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. A   63 , 109 – 115 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Yoshida , “ Critical phenomenon analysis of surface tension of liquid metals ,” J. Jpn. Inst. Met.   58 , 1161 – 1168 ( 1994 )

Anisimov, S. I.

S. I. Anisimov and B. S. Luk’yanchuk , “ Selected problems of laser ablation theory ,” Physics-Uspekhi 45   3 , 293 – 324 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Barthelemy, O.

B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Bassim, N.

V. Craciun , N. Bassim , R. K. Singh , D. Craiciun , J. Hermann , and C. Boulmer-Leborgne , “ Laser-induced explosive boiling during nanosecond laser abaltion of silicon ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   186 , 288 – 292 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Bäuerle, D.

D. Bäuerle , Laser Processing and Chemistry , 3rd ed. ( Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg , 2000 )

Bialkowski, J.

B. Rethfeld , K. Sokolowski-Tinten , V. V. Temnov , S. I. Kudryashov , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Ablation dynamics of solids heated by femtosecond laser pulses ,” in Nonresonant Laser-Matter Interaction , M. N. Libenson , ed., Proc. SPIE   4423 , 186 – 196 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , M. Boing , H. Schüler , and D. von der Linde , “ Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced abaltion from solid surfaces ,” in High-Power Laser Ablation , C. R. Phipps , ed., Proc. SPIE   3343 , 46 – 57 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , M. Boing , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Bulk phase explosion and surface boiling during short pulse laser ablation of semiconductors ,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference ( OSA Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, Washington, DC , 1999 ) pp. 231 – 232

Boing, M.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , M. Boing , H. Schüler , and D. von der Linde , “ Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced abaltion from solid surfaces ,” in High-Power Laser Ablation , C. R. Phipps , ed., Proc. SPIE   3343 , 46 – 57 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , M. Boing , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Bulk phase explosion and surface boiling during short pulse laser ablation of semiconductors ,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference ( OSA Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, Washington, DC , 1999 ) pp. 231 – 232

Boulmer-Leborgne, C.

V. Craciun , N. Bassim , R. K. Singh , D. Craiciun , J. Hermann , and C. Boulmer-Leborgne , “ Laser-induced explosive boiling during nanosecond laser abaltion of silicon ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   186 , 288 – 292 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Bulgakov, A. V.

N. M. Bulgakova and A. V. Bulgakov , “ Pulsed laser ablation of solids: transition from normal vaporization to phase explosion ,” Appl. Phys. A   73 , 199 – 208 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

Bulgakova, N. M.

N. M. Bulgakova and A. V. Bulgakov , “ Pulsed laser ablation of solids: transition from normal vaporization to phase explosion ,” Appl. Phys. A   73 , 199 – 208 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

Carey, V. P.

V. P. Carey , Liquid-Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena , ( Hemisphere, Washington , 1992 )

Cavalleri, A.

B. Rethfeld , K. Sokolowski-Tinten , V. V. Temnov , S. I. Kudryashov , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Ablation dynamics of solids heated by femtosecond laser pulses ,” in Nonresonant Laser-Matter Interaction , M. N. Libenson , ed., Proc. SPIE   4423 , 186 – 196 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , M. Boing , H. Schüler , and D. von der Linde , “ Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced abaltion from solid surfaces ,” in High-Power Laser Ablation , C. R. Phipps , ed., Proc. SPIE   3343 , 46 – 57 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , M. Boing , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Bulk phase explosion and surface boiling during short pulse laser ablation of semiconductors ,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference ( OSA Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, Washington, DC , 1999 ) pp. 231 – 232

Chaker, M.

B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Chichkov, B. N.

S. Nolte , C. Momma , H. Jacobs , A. Tünnermann , B. N. Chichkov , B. Wellegehausen , and H. Welling , “ Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   14 , 2716 – 2722 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

Chichkov, B.N.

B.N. Chichkov , C. Momma , S. Nolte , F. von Alvensleben , and A. Tünnermann , “ Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. A   63 , 109 – 115 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

Craciun, V.

V. Craciun , N. Bassim , R. K. Singh , D. Craiciun , J. Hermann , and C. Boulmer-Leborgne , “ Laser-induced explosive boiling during nanosecond laser abaltion of silicon ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   186 , 288 – 292 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Craiciun, D.

V. Craciun , N. Bassim , R. K. Singh , D. Craiciun , J. Hermann , and C. Boulmer-Leborgne , “ Laser-induced explosive boiling during nanosecond laser abaltion of silicon ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   186 , 288 – 292 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Dausinger, F.

F. Dausinger , F. Lichter , and H. Lubatschowski , Femtosecond Technology for Technical and Medical Applications , ( Springer, Heidelberg , 2004 )
[Crossref]

F., Vidal

B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Fehr, R.

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Gericke, D. O.

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Gobert, O.

B. Salle , O. Gobert , P. Meynadier , M. Perdrix , G. Petite , and A. Semerok , “ Femtosecond and picosecond laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S381 – S383 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Greif, R.

S. S. Mao , X. Mao , R. Greif , and R. E. Russo , “ Initation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 2464 – 2466 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

Häßner, R.

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Hermann, J.

V. Craciun , N. Bassim , R. K. Singh , D. Craiciun , J. Hermann , and C. Boulmer-Leborgne , “ Laser-induced explosive boiling during nanosecond laser abaltion of silicon ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   186 , 288 – 292 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Jacobs, H.

S. Nolte , C. Momma , H. Jacobs , A. Tünnermann , B. N. Chichkov , B. Wellegehausen , and H. Welling , “ Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   14 , 2716 – 2722 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

Johnson, T. W.

B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Kelly, R.

R. Kelly and A. Miotello , “ Contribution of vaporization and boiling to thermal-spike sputtering by ions or laser pulses ,” Phys. Rev. E   60 , 2616 – 2625 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Kingham, R.

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Kraeft, W.-D.

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Kudryashov, S. I.

B. Rethfeld , K. Sokolowski-Tinten , V. V. Temnov , S. I. Kudryashov , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Ablation dynamics of solids heated by femtosecond laser pulses ,” in Nonresonant Laser-Matter Interaction , M. N. Libenson , ed., Proc. SPIE   4423 , 186 – 196 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

Laville, S.

B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Le Drogoff, B.

B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Lichter, F.

F. Dausinger , F. Lichter , and H. Lubatschowski , Femtosecond Technology for Technical and Medical Applications , ( Springer, Heidelberg , 2004 )
[Crossref]

Liu, H. C.

R. E. Russo , X. L. Mao , H. C. Liu , J. H. Yoo , and S. S. Mao , “ Time-resolved plasma diagnostics and mass removal during single-pulse laser ablation ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S887 – S894 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Lubatschowski, H.

F. Dausinger , F. Lichter , and H. Lubatschowski , Femtosecond Technology for Technical and Medical Applications , ( Springer, Heidelberg , 2004 )
[Crossref]

Luk’yanchuk, B. S.

S. I. Anisimov and B. S. Luk’yanchuk , “ Selected problems of laser ablation theory ,” Physics-Uspekhi 45   3 , 293 – 324 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Mao, S. S.

S. S. Mao , X. Mao , R. Greif , and R. E. Russo , “ Initation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 2464 – 2466 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

R. E. Russo , X. L. Mao , H. C. Liu , J. H. Yoo , and S. S. Mao , “ Time-resolved plasma diagnostics and mass removal during single-pulse laser ablation ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S887 – S894 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Mao, X.

S. S. Mao , X. Mao , R. Greif , and R. E. Russo , “ Initation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 2464 – 2466 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

Mao, X. L.

R. E. Russo , X. L. Mao , H. C. Liu , J. H. Yoo , and S. S. Mao , “ Time-resolved plasma diagnostics and mass removal during single-pulse laser ablation ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S887 – S894 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Margot, J.

B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Meynadier, P.

B. Salle , O. Gobert , P. Meynadier , M. Perdrix , G. Petite , and A. Semerok , “ Femtosecond and picosecond laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S381 – S383 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Miotello, A.

R. Kelly and A. Miotello , “ Contribution of vaporization and boiling to thermal-spike sputtering by ions or laser pulses ,” Phys. Rev. E   60 , 2616 – 2625 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Momma, C.

S. Nolte , C. Momma , H. Jacobs , A. Tünnermann , B. N. Chichkov , B. Wellegehausen , and H. Welling , “ Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   14 , 2716 – 2722 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

B.N. Chichkov , C. Momma , S. Nolte , F. von Alvensleben , and A. Tünnermann , “ Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. A   63 , 109 – 115 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte , C. Momma , H. Jacobs , A. Tünnermann , B. N. Chichkov , B. Wellegehausen , and H. Welling , “ Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   14 , 2716 – 2722 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

B.N. Chichkov , C. Momma , S. Nolte , F. von Alvensleben , and A. Tünnermann , “ Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. A   63 , 109 – 115 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

Nonhoff, C. J.

C. J. Nonhoff , Material Processing with Nd-Lasers , ( Electrochemical Publications Lim., Ayr , 1998 )

Perdrix, M.

B. Salle , O. Gobert , P. Meynadier , M. Perdrix , G. Petite , and A. Semerok , “ Femtosecond and picosecond laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S381 – S383 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Petite, G.

B. Salle , O. Gobert , P. Meynadier , M. Perdrix , G. Petite , and A. Semerok , “ Femtosecond and picosecond laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S381 – S383 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Rethfeld, B.

B. Rethfeld , K. Sokolowski-Tinten , V. V. Temnov , S. I. Kudryashov , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Ablation dynamics of solids heated by femtosecond laser pulses ,” in Nonresonant Laser-Matter Interaction , M. N. Libenson , ed., Proc. SPIE   4423 , 186 – 196 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

Russo, R. E.

S. S. Mao , X. Mao , R. Greif , and R. E. Russo , “ Initation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 2464 – 2466 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

R. E. Russo , X. L. Mao , H. C. Liu , J. H. Yoo , and S. S. Mao , “ Time-resolved plasma diagnostics and mass removal during single-pulse laser ablation ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S887 – S894 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Sabsabi, M.

B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Salle, B.

B. Salle , O. Gobert , P. Meynadier , M. Perdrix , G. Petite , and A. Semerok , “ Femtosecond and picosecond laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S381 – S383 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Sauerbrey, R.

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Schlanges, M.

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Schüler, H.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , M. Boing , H. Schüler , and D. von der Linde , “ Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced abaltion from solid surfaces ,” in High-Power Laser Ablation , C. R. Phipps , ed., Proc. SPIE   3343 , 46 – 57 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

Semerok, A.

B. Salle , O. Gobert , P. Meynadier , M. Perdrix , G. Petite , and A. Semerok , “ Femtosecond and picosecond laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S381 – S383 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Singh, R. K.

V. Craciun , N. Bassim , R. K. Singh , D. Craiciun , J. Hermann , and C. Boulmer-Leborgne , “ Laser-induced explosive boiling during nanosecond laser abaltion of silicon ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   186 , 288 – 292 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

B. Rethfeld , K. Sokolowski-Tinten , V. V. Temnov , S. I. Kudryashov , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Ablation dynamics of solids heated by femtosecond laser pulses ,” in Nonresonant Laser-Matter Interaction , M. N. Libenson , ed., Proc. SPIE   4423 , 186 – 196 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , M. Boing , H. Schüler , and D. von der Linde , “ Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced abaltion from solid surfaces ,” in High-Power Laser Ablation , C. R. Phipps , ed., Proc. SPIE   3343 , 46 – 57 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , M. Boing , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Bulk phase explosion and surface boiling during short pulse laser ablation of semiconductors ,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference ( OSA Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, Washington, DC , 1999 ) pp. 231 – 232

Temnov, V. V.

B. Rethfeld , K. Sokolowski-Tinten , V. V. Temnov , S. I. Kudryashov , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Ablation dynamics of solids heated by femtosecond laser pulses ,” in Nonresonant Laser-Matter Interaction , M. N. Libenson , ed., Proc. SPIE   4423 , 186 – 196 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

Theobald, W.

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Nolte , C. Momma , H. Jacobs , A. Tünnermann , B. N. Chichkov , B. Wellegehausen , and H. Welling , “ Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   14 , 2716 – 2722 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

B.N. Chichkov , C. Momma , S. Nolte , F. von Alvensleben , and A. Tünnermann , “ Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. A   63 , 109 – 115 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

von Alvensleben, F.

B.N. Chichkov , C. Momma , S. Nolte , F. von Alvensleben , and A. Tünnermann , “ Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. A   63 , 109 – 115 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

von der Linde, D.

B. Rethfeld , K. Sokolowski-Tinten , V. V. Temnov , S. I. Kudryashov , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Ablation dynamics of solids heated by femtosecond laser pulses ,” in Nonresonant Laser-Matter Interaction , M. N. Libenson , ed., Proc. SPIE   4423 , 186 – 196 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , M. Boing , H. Schüler , and D. von der Linde , “ Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced abaltion from solid surfaces ,” in High-Power Laser Ablation , C. R. Phipps , ed., Proc. SPIE   3343 , 46 – 57 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , M. Boing , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Bulk phase explosion and surface boiling during short pulse laser ablation of semiconductors ,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference ( OSA Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, Washington, DC , 1999 ) pp. 231 – 232

Wellegehausen, B.

S. Nolte , C. Momma , H. Jacobs , A. Tünnermann , B. N. Chichkov , B. Wellegehausen , and H. Welling , “ Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   14 , 2716 – 2722 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

Welling, H.

S. Nolte , C. Momma , H. Jacobs , A. Tünnermann , B. N. Chichkov , B. Wellegehausen , and H. Welling , “ Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   14 , 2716 – 2722 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

Willis, D. A.

X. Xu and D. A. Willis , “ Non-Equilibrium Phase Change in Metal Induced by Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Irradiation ,” J. Heat Transfer   124 , 293 – 298 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

X. Xu and D. A. Willis , “ Non-Equilibrium Phase Change in Metal Induced by Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Irradiation ,” J. Heat Transfer   124 , 293 – 298 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Yoo, J. H.

R. E. Russo , X. L. Mao , H. C. Liu , J. H. Yoo , and S. S. Mao , “ Time-resolved plasma diagnostics and mass removal during single-pulse laser ablation ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S887 – S894 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Yoshida, A.

A. Yoshida , “ Critical phenomenon analysis of surface tension of liquid metals ,” J. Jpn. Inst. Met.   58 , 1161 – 1168 ( 1994 )

Appl. Phys. A (4)

R. E. Russo , X. L. Mao , H. C. Liu , J. H. Yoo , and S. S. Mao , “ Time-resolved plasma diagnostics and mass removal during single-pulse laser ablation ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S887 – S894 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

B. Salle , O. Gobert , P. Meynadier , M. Perdrix , G. Petite , and A. Semerok , “ Femtosecond and picosecond laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion ,” Appl. Phys. A   69 , S381 – S383 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

B.N. Chichkov , C. Momma , S. Nolte , F. von Alvensleben , and A. Tünnermann , “ Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. A   63 , 109 – 115 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

N. M. Bulgakova and A. V. Bulgakov , “ Pulsed laser ablation of solids: transition from normal vaporization to phase explosion ,” Appl. Phys. A   73 , 199 – 208 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. S. Mao , X. Mao , R. Greif , and R. E. Russo , “ Initation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 2464 – 2466 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

V. Craciun , N. Bassim , R. K. Singh , D. Craiciun , J. Hermann , and C. Boulmer-Leborgne , “ Laser-induced explosive boiling during nanosecond laser abaltion of silicon ,” Appl. Surf. Sci.   186 , 288 – 292 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

J. Heat Transfer (1)

X. Xu and D. A. Willis , “ Non-Equilibrium Phase Change in Metal Induced by Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Irradiation ,” J. Heat Transfer   124 , 293 – 298 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

J. Jpn. Inst. Met. (1)

A. Yoshida , “ Critical phenomenon analysis of surface tension of liquid metals ,” J. Jpn. Inst. Met.   58 , 1161 – 1168 ( 1994 )

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

S. Nolte , C. Momma , H. Jacobs , A. Tünnermann , B. N. Chichkov , B. Wellegehausen , and H. Welling , “ Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   14 , 2716 – 2722 ( 1997 )
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

W. Theobald , R. Häβner , R. Kingham , R. Sauerbrey , R. Fehr , D. O. Gericke , M. Schlanges , W.-D. Kraeft, and K. Ishikawa , “ Electron densities, temperatures, and the dielectric function of femtosecond-laser-produced plasmas ,” Phys. Rev. E   59 , 3544 – 3553 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

R. Kelly and A. Miotello , “ Contribution of vaporization and boiling to thermal-spike sputtering by ions or laser pulses ,” Phys. Rev. E   60 , 2616 – 2625 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Physics-Uspekhi 45 (1)

S. I. Anisimov and B. S. Luk’yanchuk , “ Selected problems of laser ablation theory ,” Physics-Uspekhi 45   3 , 293 – 324 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Le Drogoff , J. Margot , Vidal F. , S. Laville , M. Chaker , M. Sabsabi , T. W. Johnson , and O. Barthelemy , “ Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties ,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.   13 , 223 – 230 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

B. Rethfeld , K. Sokolowski-Tinten , V. V. Temnov , S. I. Kudryashov , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Ablation dynamics of solids heated by femtosecond laser pulses ,” in Nonresonant Laser-Matter Interaction , M. N. Libenson , ed., Proc. SPIE   4423 , 186 – 196 ( 2001 )
[Crossref]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , A. Cavalleri , M. Boing , H. Schüler , and D. von der Linde , “ Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced abaltion from solid surfaces ,” in High-Power Laser Ablation , C. R. Phipps , ed., Proc. SPIE   3343 , 46 – 57 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

Other (5)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten , J. Bialkowski , M. Boing , A. Cavalleri , and D. von der Linde , “ Bulk phase explosion and surface boiling during short pulse laser ablation of semiconductors ,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference ( OSA Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, Washington, DC , 1999 ) pp. 231 – 232

F. Dausinger , F. Lichter , and H. Lubatschowski , Femtosecond Technology for Technical and Medical Applications , ( Springer, Heidelberg , 2004 )
[Crossref]

D. Bäuerle , Laser Processing and Chemistry , 3rd ed. ( Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg , 2000 )

C. J. Nonhoff , Material Processing with Nd-Lasers , ( Electrochemical Publications Lim., Ayr , 1998 )

V. P. Carey , Liquid-Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena , ( Hemisphere, Washington , 1992 )

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic experimental diagram of time-resolved plasma attenuation measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temporal evolution of the plasma luminescence in horizontal and vertical direction for the ablation of C75 steel with a pulse duration of 200 fs and a fluence of 20 J/cm2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Transmission through the plasma 4 ns after the ablation pulse at a probe wavelength of 400 nm. (b): Transmission through the plasma 90 ns after the ablation pulse at a probe wavelength of 525 nm. The shock wave front is marked with a red dotted line on the left side of the image. Both Images were taken with a gated ICCD-Camera during the ablation of C75 steel with 200 fs pulses at an energy density of 20 J/cm2. The target surface is marked with a white line.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Expansion of shock wave and vapor front during the ablation of C75 steel using a pulse duration of 200 fs and an energy density of 20 J/cm2. Expansion of the shock wave is plotted in blue colors, dark blue for vertical, i.e. normal to surface, and light blue for horizontal directions. Expansion of the second ablation front is plotted in red colors.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Temporal transmission of probe pulses with a wavelength of 400 nm for the ablation of Aluminum with 200 fs pulses at a fluence of 17 J/cm2. (b): Temporal transmission of probe pulses with a wavelength of 1050 nm for ablation with 3.3 ps pulses at 18 J/cm2. Data for copper are marked red, data for steel (1.00344) blue. In both graphs the experimental data are plotted in dots, while results of simulations are shown as lines.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Temporal transmission of probe pulses with a wavelength of 1050 nm in a steel (1.00344) plasma ablated with 3.3 ps pulse duration. The fluence was changed from 0.4 J/cm2 (green dots), 4 J/cm2 (red dots), 11 J/cm2 (blue dots) to 18 J/cm2 (black dots). (b): Attenuation curves for different probe wavelengths of 525 nm (green) and 1050 nm (red). Calculations are plotted as lines.

Equations (6)

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J hn ( t ) = N l 3 χ π·m exp ( 16 πχ 3 k B T l ( t ) ( p ve ( T l ) p l ( T l ) ) ) exp ( τ hn ( T l ) t )
linear expansion similar to vacuum 0 < t < ( M 5 ρ g 2 E sw 3 ) 1 6 R ( t ) ( E sw ζ g M v ) 1 2 ·t
expansion in gases ( M v 5 ρ g 2 E sw 3 ) 1 6 < t < ( E sw 2 ρ g 3 p g 5 ) 1 6 R ( t ) ξ sw ( E sw ρ g · t 2 ) n
α IB [ cm 1 ] 1.37 · 10 35 λ [ μm ] 3 N e [ cm 3 ] 2 T e [ K ] { 1 exp ( ħω k B T e ) }
N e = N e 0 · l opt ( l opt + R ( t ) )
T e = T e 0 · ( l opt ( l opt + R ( t ) ) ) 5 3 1

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