Abstract

Saturated absorption is studied in overtone transitions of C2H2 and H13CN molecules confined in the hollow core of a photonic bandgap fiber. The dynamics of filling and venting the fiber is markedly different for the two molecules owing to the presence of a permanent dipole moment in one of them. Saturation is observed for input power down to 10 mW, and well resolved Lamb dips limited by transit time broadening across the 10 μm core diameter are observed with a counter-propagating probe beam.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan ,“ Single-Mode Photonic Bandgap Guidance of Light in Air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. P. J. Roberts , F. Couny , H. Sabert , B. J. Mangan , D. P. Williams , L. Farr , M. W. Mason , A. Tomlinson , T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 236 – 244 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ritari , J. Tuominen , H. Ludvigsen , J. C. Petersen , T. Sørensen , T. P. Hansen , and H. R. Simonsen ,“ Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4080 – 4087 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Tuominen , T. Ritari , H. Ludvigsen , and J. C. Petersen ,“‘ Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references ,” Opt. Commun.   255 , 272 – 277 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Benabid , F. Couny , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 )
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Ghosh , J. E. Sharping , D. G. Ouzounov , and A. L. Gaeta ,“ Resonant Optical Interactions with Molecules Confined in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 093902 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. F. Benabid , P. S. Light , F. Couny , and P. S. Russell ,“ Electromagnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5694 – 5703 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Faheem , R. Thapa , and K. L. Corwin ,“ Spectral hole burning of acetylene gas inside a photonic bandgap optical fiber ,” Conference of Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO 2005, Long Beach Calif., May 2005 .
  9. http://www.crystal-fibre.com .
  10. K. Nakagawa , M. de Labachelerie , Y. Awaji , and M. Kourogi ,“ Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5- μ m bands of acetylene ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.   B 13 , 2708 – 2714 ( 1996 ).
  11. A. Yariv , Quantum Electronics ( John Wiley & sons , 1988 ), Chap. 8.
  12. K. Saitoh , N. A. Mortensen , and M. Koshiba ,“ Air-core photonic band-gap fibers: the impact of surface modes ,” Opt. Express   12 , 394 – 400 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. A. West , C. M. Smith , N. F. Borrelli , D. C. Allan , and K. W. Koch ,“ Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1485 – 1496 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert ,“ Line centers, pressure shift and pressure broadening of 1530-1560 nm hydrogen cyanide wavelength calibration lines ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B ,   22 , 1749 – 1756 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. Mitsuhiro Kusaba and Jes Henningsen ,“ The v 1 + v 3 and the v 1 + v 2 + ν41 + ν5−1 combination bands of 13 C 2 H 2 . Linestrengths, broadening parameters and pressure shifts ,” J. Mol. Spectrosc   209 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. Shimoda , High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy , K. Shimoda Ed. ( Springer, New York , 1976 ) pp 11 – 49 , Chap. 2.
    [Crossref]

2005 (6)

J. Tuominen , T. Ritari , H. Ludvigsen , and J. C. Petersen ,“‘ Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references ,” Opt. Commun.   255 , 272 – 277 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh , J. E. Sharping , D. G. Ouzounov , and A. L. Gaeta ,“ Resonant Optical Interactions with Molecules Confined in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 093902 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts , F. Couny , H. Sabert , B. J. Mangan , D. P. Williams , L. Farr , M. W. Mason , A. Tomlinson , T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 236 – 244 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert ,“ Line centers, pressure shift and pressure broadening of 1530-1560 nm hydrogen cyanide wavelength calibration lines ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B ,   22 , 1749 – 1756 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

F. Benabid , P. S. Light , F. Couny , and P. S. Russell ,“ Electromagnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5694 – 5703 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2001 (1)

Mitsuhiro Kusaba and Jes Henningsen ,“ The v 1 + v 3 and the v 1 + v 2 + ν41 + ν5−1 combination bands of 13 C 2 H 2 . Linestrengths, broadening parameters and pressure shifts ,” J. Mol. Spectrosc   209 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan ,“ Single-Mode Photonic Bandgap Guidance of Light in Air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

K. Nakagawa , M. de Labachelerie , Y. Awaji , and M. Kourogi ,“ Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5- μ m bands of acetylene ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.   B 13 , 2708 – 2714 ( 1996 ).

Allan, D. C.

J. A. West , C. M. Smith , N. F. Borrelli , D. C. Allan , and K. W. Koch ,“ Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1485 – 1496 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan ,“ Single-Mode Photonic Bandgap Guidance of Light in Air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Awaji, Y.

K. Nakagawa , M. de Labachelerie , Y. Awaji , and M. Kourogi ,“ Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5- μ m bands of acetylene ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.   B 13 , 2708 – 2714 ( 1996 ).

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid , P. S. Light , F. Couny , and P. S. Russell ,“ Electromagnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5694 – 5703 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts , F. Couny , H. Sabert , B. J. Mangan , D. P. Williams , L. Farr , M. W. Mason , A. Tomlinson , T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 236 – 244 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan ,“ Single-Mode Photonic Bandgap Guidance of Light in Air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borrelli, N. F.

Corwin, K. L.

M. Faheem , R. Thapa , and K. L. Corwin ,“ Spectral hole burning of acetylene gas inside a photonic bandgap optical fiber ,” Conference of Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO 2005, Long Beach Calif., May 2005 .

Couny, F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan ,“ Single-Mode Photonic Bandgap Guidance of Light in Air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Labachelerie, M.

K. Nakagawa , M. de Labachelerie , Y. Awaji , and M. Kourogi ,“ Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5- μ m bands of acetylene ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.   B 13 , 2708 – 2714 ( 1996 ).

Faheem, M.

M. Faheem , R. Thapa , and K. L. Corwin ,“ Spectral hole burning of acetylene gas inside a photonic bandgap optical fiber ,” Conference of Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO 2005, Long Beach Calif., May 2005 .

Farr, L.

Gaeta, A. L.

S. Ghosh , J. E. Sharping , D. G. Ouzounov , and A. L. Gaeta ,“ Resonant Optical Interactions with Molecules Confined in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 093902 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh , J. E. Sharping , D. G. Ouzounov , and A. L. Gaeta ,“ Resonant Optical Interactions with Molecules Confined in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 093902 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilbert, S. L.

Hansen, T. P.

Henningsen, Jes

Mitsuhiro Kusaba and Jes Henningsen ,“ The v 1 + v 3 and the v 1 + v 2 + ν41 + ν5−1 combination bands of 13 C 2 H 2 . Linestrengths, broadening parameters and pressure shifts ,” J. Mol. Spectrosc   209 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts , F. Couny , H. Sabert , B. J. Mangan , D. P. Williams , L. Farr , M. W. Mason , A. Tomlinson , T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 236 – 244 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan ,“ Single-Mode Photonic Bandgap Guidance of Light in Air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, K. W.

Koshiba, M.

Kourogi, M.

K. Nakagawa , M. de Labachelerie , Y. Awaji , and M. Kourogi ,“ Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5- μ m bands of acetylene ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.   B 13 , 2708 – 2714 ( 1996 ).

Kusaba, Mitsuhiro

Mitsuhiro Kusaba and Jes Henningsen ,“ The v 1 + v 3 and the v 1 + v 2 + ν41 + ν5−1 combination bands of 13 C 2 H 2 . Linestrengths, broadening parameters and pressure shifts ,” J. Mol. Spectrosc   209 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Light, P. S.

Ludvigsen, H.

J. Tuominen , T. Ritari , H. Ludvigsen , and J. C. Petersen ,“‘ Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references ,” Opt. Commun.   255 , 272 – 277 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ritari , J. Tuominen , H. Ludvigsen , J. C. Petersen , T. Sørensen , T. P. Hansen , and H. R. Simonsen ,“ Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4080 – 4087 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

P. J. Roberts , F. Couny , H. Sabert , B. J. Mangan , D. P. Williams , L. Farr , M. W. Mason , A. Tomlinson , T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 236 – 244 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan ,“ Single-Mode Photonic Bandgap Guidance of Light in Air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mason, M. W.

Mortensen, N. A.

Nakagawa, K.

K. Nakagawa , M. de Labachelerie , Y. Awaji , and M. Kourogi ,“ Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5- μ m bands of acetylene ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.   B 13 , 2708 – 2714 ( 1996 ).

Ouzounov, D. G.

S. Ghosh , J. E. Sharping , D. G. Ouzounov , and A. L. Gaeta ,“ Resonant Optical Interactions with Molecules Confined in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 093902 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petersen, J. C.

J. Tuominen , T. Ritari , H. Ludvigsen , and J. C. Petersen ,“‘ Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references ,” Opt. Commun.   255 , 272 – 277 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ritari , J. Tuominen , H. Ludvigsen , J. C. Petersen , T. Sørensen , T. P. Hansen , and H. R. Simonsen ,“ Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4080 – 4087 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritari, T.

J. Tuominen , T. Ritari , H. Ludvigsen , and J. C. Petersen ,“‘ Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references ,” Opt. Commun.   255 , 272 – 277 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ritari , J. Tuominen , H. Ludvigsen , J. C. Petersen , T. Sørensen , T. P. Hansen , and H. R. Simonsen ,“ Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4080 – 4087 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. J.

P. J. Roberts , F. Couny , H. Sabert , B. J. Mangan , D. P. Williams , L. Farr , M. W. Mason , A. Tomlinson , T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 236 – 244 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan ,“ Single-Mode Photonic Bandgap Guidance of Light in Air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. J. Roberts , F. Couny , H. Sabert , B. J. Mangan , D. P. Williams , L. Farr , M. W. Mason , A. Tomlinson , T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   13 , 236 – 244 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan ,“ Single-Mode Photonic Bandgap Guidance of Light in Air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabert, H.

Saitoh, K.

Sharping, J. E.

S. Ghosh , J. E. Sharping , D. G. Ouzounov , and A. L. Gaeta ,“ Resonant Optical Interactions with Molecules Confined in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 093902 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda , High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy , K. Shimoda Ed. ( Springer, New York , 1976 ) pp 11 – 49 , Chap. 2.
[Crossref]

Simonsen, H. R.

Smith, C. M.

Sørensen, T.

Swann, W. C.

Thapa, R.

M. Faheem , R. Thapa , and K. L. Corwin ,“ Spectral hole burning of acetylene gas inside a photonic bandgap optical fiber ,” Conference of Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO 2005, Long Beach Calif., May 2005 .

Tomlinson, A.

Tuominen, J.

J. Tuominen , T. Ritari , H. Ludvigsen , and J. C. Petersen ,“‘ Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references ,” Opt. Commun.   255 , 272 – 277 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ritari , J. Tuominen , H. Ludvigsen , J. C. Petersen , T. Sørensen , T. P. Hansen , and H. R. Simonsen ,“ Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4080 – 4087 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, J. A.

Williams, D. P.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv , Quantum Electronics ( John Wiley & sons , 1988 ), Chap. 8.

J. Mol. Spectrosc (1)

Mitsuhiro Kusaba and Jes Henningsen ,“ The v 1 + v 3 and the v 1 + v 2 + ν41 + ν5−1 combination bands of 13 C 2 H 2 . Linestrengths, broadening parameters and pressure shifts ,” J. Mol. Spectrosc   209 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

K. Nakagawa , M. de Labachelerie , Y. Awaji , and M. Kourogi ,“ Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5- μ m bands of acetylene ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.   B 13 , 2708 – 2714 ( 1996 ).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

F. Benabid , F. Couny , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell ,“ Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers ,” Nature   434 , 488 – 491 ( 2005 )
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Tuominen , T. Ritari , H. Ludvigsen , and J. C. Petersen ,“‘ Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references ,” Opt. Commun.   255 , 272 – 277 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ghosh , J. E. Sharping , D. G. Ouzounov , and A. L. Gaeta ,“ Resonant Optical Interactions with Molecules Confined in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 093902 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan ,“ Single-Mode Photonic Bandgap Guidance of Light in Air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. Faheem , R. Thapa , and K. L. Corwin ,“ Spectral hole burning of acetylene gas inside a photonic bandgap optical fiber ,” Conference of Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO 2005, Long Beach Calif., May 2005 .

http://www.crystal-fibre.com .

A. Yariv , Quantum Electronics ( John Wiley & sons , 1988 ), Chap. 8.

K. Shimoda , High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy , K. Shimoda Ed. ( Springer, New York , 1976 ) pp 11 – 49 , Chap. 2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental configuration for pump-probe configuration with two polarizing beamsplitters PBS1 and PBS2, a chopper CH inserted in the pump beam, a vacuum box with sapphire windows W1 and W2, a thin film beamsplitter BS, and two Ge detectors D1 and D2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Average pressure in the fiber during filling and venting with acetylene. Left: Initial filling of 1.39 m fiber to 8.5 Pa, further filling to 149 Pa, and venting. Right: Filling of 6.35 m fiber to 20 Pa and venting.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Filling with hydrogen cyanide. Filled squares indicate the pressure external to the fiber with gas admitted in four steps. Open circles show the absorbance which represents the average pressure in the core of the fiber.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Peak absorbance for the 6.35 m fiber at 10 Pa (upper) and corresponding saturation power (lower) as a function of the exit power away from the absorption line.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Lamb dips in acetylene and hydrogen cyanide at an average power in the fiber of 30 mW. The insert shows from above the line center region at an average power of 6 mW, 20 mW, and 30 mW. The background structure is attributed to surface modes.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pump absorption (upper graph), and Lamb dip (lower graph) in pump-probe configuration. The bottom trace shows the residual of a Lorentz fit.

Equations (5)

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I ( L ) = I ( 0 ) exp ( αL )
α = N S g ( ν ν 0 ) = p k T S g ( ν ν 0 )
d I d z = α I = α 0 I 1 + I I s
α 0 L = 2 ( 1 + I 0 / I s 1 + I L / I s ) + ln ( 1 + I L / I s + 1 ) ( 1 + I 0 / I s 1 ) ( 1 + I L / I s 1 ) ( 1 + I 0 / I s + 1 )
Δ ν = 0.444 u L

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