Abstract

This paper deals with design and refinement criteria of erbium doped hole-assisted optical fiber amplifiers for applications in the third band of fiber optical communication. The amplifier performance is simulated via a model which takes into account the ion population rate equations and the optical power propagation. The electromagnetic field profile of the propagating modes is carried out by a finite element method solver. The effects of the number of cladding air holes on the amplifier performance are investigated. To this aim, four different erbium doped hole-assisted lightguide fiber amplifiers having a different number of cladding air holes are designed and compared. The simulated optimal gain, optimal length, and optimal noise fig. are discussed. The numerical results highlight that, by increasing the number of air holes, the gain can be improved, thus obtaining a shorter amplifier length. For the erbium concentration NEr=1.8×1024 ions/m3, the optimal gain G(Lopt) increases up to ≅ 2dB by increasing the number of the air holes from M=4 to M=10.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. C. R. Giles , E. Desrvire , J. R. Talman , J. R. Simpson , and P. C. Becker , “ 2-Gbit/s signal amplification at λ=1.53 μm in an erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifier ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 651 – 656 ( 1989 ).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. P. Blixt , J. Nilsson , T. Carlnas , and B. Jaskorzynska , “ Concentration dependent upconversion in Er 3+ -doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modelling ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   3 , 996 – 998 ( 1991 ).
    [Crossref]
  26. P. Myslinsky , D. Nguyen , and J. Chrostowski , “ Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 112 – 120 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  30. E. Desurvire , Erbium doped fiber amplifiers ( Wiley-Interscience Inc. , 1993 ) pp. 354 – 382 .

2005 (1)

2003 (4)

K. Saitoh , M. Koshiba , T. Hasegawa , and E. Sasaoka “ Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion ,” Opt. Express   11 , 843 – 852 ( 2003 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-843
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lǽgsgaard and A. Bjarklev , “ Doped photonic bandgap fibers for short-wavelength nonlinear devices ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 783 – 785 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. G. Hougaard , J. Broeng , and A. Bjarklev , “ Low pump power photonic crystal fibre amplifiers ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 599 – 600 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

2000 (3)

A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. C. Knight , W. J. Wadsworth , J. Arriaga , B. J. Mangan , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell “ Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1325 – 1327 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight , J. Arriaga , T. A. Birks , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , W. J. Wadsworth , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   12 , 807 – 809 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth , J. C. Knight , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. Arriaga , E. Silvestre , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Soliton effects in photonic crystal fiber at 850 nm ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 53 – 55 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan , “ Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Broeng , D. Mongilevstev , S. E. Barkou , and A. Bjarklev , “ Photonic crystal fibers: a new class of optical waveguide ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   4 , 305 – 330 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

B. P. Petreski , P. M. Farrell , and S. F. Collins , “ Optical amplification on the 3P0→3F2 transition in praseodymium-doped fluorozirconate fiber ,” Fiber Integr. Opt.   18 , 21 – 32 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , R. F. Cregan , P. St. J. Russel , and J. P. de Sandro , “ Large mode area photonic crystal fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1347 – 1348 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

T. Otami , K. Goto , T. Kawazawa , H. Abe , and M. Tanaka , “ Effect of span loss increase on the optically amplified communication system ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 737 – 742 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. St. J. Russel , “ Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 961 – 963 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Myslinsky , D. Nguyen , and J. Chrostowski , “ Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 112 – 120 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

G. J. Foschini and I. M. Habbab , “ Capacity of a broadcast channels in the near-future CATV architecture ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   13 , 507 – 513 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

O. Lumholt , J. H. Polvsen , K. Shusler , A. Bjarklev , S. D. Pedersen , T. Rasmussen , and K. Rottwitt , “ Quantum limited noise fig. operation of high gain erbium doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1344 – 1352 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

W. L Barnes , R. I. Laming , E. J. Tarbox , and P. R. Morkel , “ Absorption and emission cross section of Er 3+ doped silica fiber ”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1004 – 1010 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

P. Blixt , J. Nilsson , T. Carlnas , and B. Jaskorzynska , “ Concentration dependent upconversion in Er 3+ -doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modelling ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   3 , 996 – 998 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

C. R. Giles , E. Desrvire , J. R. Talman , J. R. Simpson , and P. C. Becker , “ 2-Gbit/s signal amplification at λ=1.53 μm in an erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifier ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 651 – 656 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

E. Desrvire , C. R. Giles , and J. R. Simpson , “ Gain saturation effects in high speed, multichannel erbium doped fiber amplifiers at λ=1.53 μm ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 2095 – 2104 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

Abe, H.

T. Otami , K. Goto , T. Kawazawa , H. Abe , and M. Tanaka , “ Effect of span loss increase on the optically amplified communication system ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 737 – 742 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Aktin, D. M.

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan , “ Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrés, M. V.

Andrés, P.

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight , J. Arriaga , T. A. Birks , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , W. J. Wadsworth , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   12 , 807 – 809 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth , J. C. Knight , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. Arriaga , E. Silvestre , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Soliton effects in photonic crystal fiber at 850 nm ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 53 – 55 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. C. Knight , W. J. Wadsworth , J. Arriaga , B. J. Mangan , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell “ Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1325 – 1327 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Barkou, S. E.

J. Broeng , D. Mongilevstev , S. E. Barkou , and A. Bjarklev , “ Photonic crystal fibers: a new class of optical waveguide ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   4 , 305 – 330 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L

W. L Barnes , R. I. Laming , E. J. Tarbox , and P. R. Morkel , “ Absorption and emission cross section of Er 3+ doped silica fiber ”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1004 – 1010 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Becker, P. C.

C. R. Giles , E. Desrvire , J. R. Talman , J. R. Simpson , and P. C. Becker , “ 2-Gbit/s signal amplification at λ=1.53 μm in an erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifier ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 651 – 656 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

P. C. Becker , N. A. Olsson , and J. R. Simpson , Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: fundamentals and technology ( Academic Press , 1999 ) pp. 140 – 144 .

Birks, T. A.

W. J. Wadsworth , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , C. Knight , T. A. Birks , T. P. Martin Man , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   19 , 2148 – 2155 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight , J. Arriaga , T. A. Birks , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , W. J. Wadsworth , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   12 , 807 – 809 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. C. Knight , W. J. Wadsworth , J. Arriaga , B. J. Mangan , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell “ Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1325 – 1327 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan , “ Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , R. F. Cregan , P. St. J. Russel , and J. P. de Sandro , “ Large mode area photonic crystal fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1347 – 1348 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. St. J. Russel , “ Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 961 – 963 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russel , and D. M. Aktin , “ All silica single mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 1547 – 1549 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

K. G. Hougaard , J. Broeng , and A. Bjarklev , “ Low pump power photonic crystal fibre amplifiers ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 599 – 600 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. Lǽgsgaard and A. Bjarklev , “ Doped photonic bandgap fibers for short-wavelength nonlinear devices ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 783 – 785 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Broeng , D. Mongilevstev , S. E. Barkou , and A. Bjarklev , “ Photonic crystal fibers: a new class of optical waveguide ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   4 , 305 – 330 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

O. Lumholt , J. H. Polvsen , K. Shusler , A. Bjarklev , S. D. Pedersen , T. Rasmussen , and K. Rottwitt , “ Quantum limited noise fig. operation of high gain erbium doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1344 – 1352 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Blixt, P.

P. Blixt , J. Nilsson , T. Carlnas , and B. Jaskorzynska , “ Concentration dependent upconversion in Er 3+ -doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modelling ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   3 , 996 – 998 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

K. G. Hougaard , J. Broeng , and A. Bjarklev , “ Low pump power photonic crystal fibre amplifiers ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 599 – 600 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. Broeng , D. Mongilevstev , S. E. Barkou , and A. Bjarklev , “ Photonic crystal fibers: a new class of optical waveguide ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   4 , 305 – 330 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Brown, T. G.

Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown , “ Multipole analysis of hole-assisted optical fibers ,” Opt. Commun.   206 , 333 – 339 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Carlnas, T.

P. Blixt , J. Nilsson , T. Carlnas , and B. Jaskorzynska , “ Concentration dependent upconversion in Er 3+ -doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modelling ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   3 , 996 – 998 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Chiasera, A.

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, J.

P. Myslinsky , D. Nguyen , and J. Chrostowski , “ Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 112 – 120 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Collins, S. F.

B. P. Petreski , P. M. Farrell , and S. F. Collins , “ Optical amplification on the 3P0→3F2 transition in praseodymium-doped fluorozirconate fiber ,” Fiber Integr. Opt.   18 , 21 – 32 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan , “ Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , R. F. Cregan , P. St. J. Russel , and J. P. de Sandro , “ Large mode area photonic crystal fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1347 – 1348 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

D’Orazio, A.

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

de Sandro, J. P.

J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , R. F. Cregan , P. St. J. Russel , and J. P. de Sandro , “ Large mode area photonic crystal fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1347 – 1348 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

De Sario, M.

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Desrvire, E.

E. Desrvire , C. R. Giles , and J. R. Simpson , “ Gain saturation effects in high speed, multichannel erbium doped fiber amplifiers at λ=1.53 μm ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 2095 – 2104 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

C. R. Giles , E. Desrvire , J. R. Talman , J. R. Simpson , and P. C. Becker , “ 2-Gbit/s signal amplification at λ=1.53 μm in an erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifier ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 651 – 656 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire , Erbium doped fiber amplifiers ( Wiley-Interscience Inc. , 1993 ) pp. 354 – 382 .

Farrell, P. M.

B. P. Petreski , P. M. Farrell , and S. F. Collins , “ Optical amplification on the 3P0→3F2 transition in praseodymium-doped fluorozirconate fiber ,” Fiber Integr. Opt.   18 , 21 – 32 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Ferrando, A.

Ferrari, M.

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Fleming, J. W.

Foschini, G. J.

G. J. Foschini and I. M. Habbab , “ Capacity of a broadcast channels in the near-future CATV architecture ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   13 , 507 – 513 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Furusawa, K.

Giles, C. R.

E. Desrvire , C. R. Giles , and J. R. Simpson , “ Gain saturation effects in high speed, multichannel erbium doped fiber amplifiers at λ=1.53 μm ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 2095 – 2104 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

C. R. Giles , E. Desrvire , J. R. Talman , J. R. Simpson , and P. C. Becker , “ 2-Gbit/s signal amplification at λ=1.53 μm in an erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifier ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 651 – 656 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

Goto, K.

T. Otami , K. Goto , T. Kawazawa , H. Abe , and M. Tanaka , “ Effect of span loss increase on the optically amplified communication system ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 737 – 742 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Habbab, I. M.

G. J. Foschini and I. M. Habbab , “ Capacity of a broadcast channels in the near-future CATV architecture ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   13 , 507 – 513 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, T.

Hougaard, K. G.

K. G. Hougaard , J. Broeng , and A. Bjarklev , “ Low pump power photonic crystal fibre amplifiers ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 599 – 600 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Jaskorzynska, B.

P. Blixt , J. Nilsson , T. Carlnas , and B. Jaskorzynska , “ Concentration dependent upconversion in Er 3+ -doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modelling ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   3 , 996 – 998 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Kawazawa, T.

T. Otami , K. Goto , T. Kawazawa , H. Abe , and M. Tanaka , “ Effect of span loss increase on the optically amplified communication system ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 737 – 742 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Knight, C.

Knight, J. C.

A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. C. Knight , W. J. Wadsworth , J. Arriaga , B. J. Mangan , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell “ Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1325 – 1327 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight , J. Arriaga , T. A. Birks , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , W. J. Wadsworth , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   12 , 807 – 809 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth , J. C. Knight , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. Arriaga , E. Silvestre , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Soliton effects in photonic crystal fiber at 850 nm ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 53 – 55 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan , “ Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , R. F. Cregan , P. St. J. Russel , and J. P. de Sandro , “ Large mode area photonic crystal fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1347 – 1348 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks , J. C. Knight , and P. St. J. Russel , “ Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 961 – 963 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russel , and D. M. Aktin , “ All silica single mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 1547 – 1549 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

L?gsgaard, J.

Laming, R. I.

W. L Barnes , R. I. Laming , E. J. Tarbox , and P. R. Morkel , “ Absorption and emission cross section of Er 3+ doped silica fiber ”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1004 – 1010 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Lumholt, O.

O. Lumholt , J. H. Polvsen , K. Shusler , A. Bjarklev , S. D. Pedersen , T. Rasmussen , and K. Rottwitt , “ Quantum limited noise fig. operation of high gain erbium doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1344 – 1352 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Malinowski, A. N.

Mangan, B. J.

A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. C. Knight , W. J. Wadsworth , J. Arriaga , B. J. Mangan , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell “ Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1325 – 1327 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan , “ Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin Man, T. P.

Mescia, L.

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Miret, J. J

Mongilevstev, D.

J. Broeng , D. Mongilevstev , S. E. Barkou , and A. Bjarklev , “ Photonic crystal fibers: a new class of optical waveguide ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   4 , 305 – 330 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Monro, T. M.

Montagna, M.

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Morkel, P. R.

W. L Barnes , R. I. Laming , E. J. Tarbox , and P. R. Morkel , “ Absorption and emission cross section of Er 3+ doped silica fiber ”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1004 – 1010 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Myslinsky, P.

P. Myslinsky , D. Nguyen , and J. Chrostowski , “ Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 112 – 120 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, D.

P. Myslinsky , D. Nguyen , and J. Chrostowski , “ Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 112 – 120 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, J.

Nishimura, M.

Olsson, N. A.

P. C. Becker , N. A. Olsson , and J. R. Simpson , Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: fundamentals and technology ( Academic Press , 1999 ) pp. 140 – 144 .

Onishi, M.

Ortisoga-Blanch, A.

W. J. Wadsworth , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , C. Knight , T. A. Birks , T. P. Martin Man , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   19 , 2148 – 2155 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. C. Knight , W. J. Wadsworth , J. Arriaga , B. J. Mangan , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell “ Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1325 – 1327 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight , J. Arriaga , T. A. Birks , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , W. J. Wadsworth , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   12 , 807 – 809 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth , J. C. Knight , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. Arriaga , E. Silvestre , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Soliton effects in photonic crystal fiber at 850 nm ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 53 – 55 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Otami, T.

T. Otami , K. Goto , T. Kawazawa , H. Abe , and M. Tanaka , “ Effect of span loss increase on the optically amplified communication system ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 737 – 742 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, S. D.

O. Lumholt , J. H. Polvsen , K. Shusler , A. Bjarklev , S. D. Pedersen , T. Rasmussen , and K. Rottwitt , “ Quantum limited noise fig. operation of high gain erbium doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1344 – 1352 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Petreski, B. P.

B. P. Petreski , P. M. Farrell , and S. F. Collins , “ Optical amplification on the 3P0→3F2 transition in praseodymium-doped fluorozirconate fiber ,” Fiber Integr. Opt.   18 , 21 – 32 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Petruzzelli, V.

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Polvsen, J. H.

O. Lumholt , J. H. Polvsen , K. Shusler , A. Bjarklev , S. D. Pedersen , T. Rasmussen , and K. Rottwitt , “ Quantum limited noise fig. operation of high gain erbium doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1344 – 1352 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Price, J. H. V.

Prudenzano, F.

F. Prudenzano , “ Erbium-doped hole-assisted optical fiber amplifier: design and optimization ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   23 , 330 – 340 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Rasmussen, T.

O. Lumholt , J. H. Polvsen , K. Shusler , A. Bjarklev , S. D. Pedersen , T. Rasmussen , and K. Rottwitt , “ Quantum limited noise fig. operation of high gain erbium doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1344 – 1352 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan , “ Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rottwitt, K.

O. Lumholt , J. H. Polvsen , K. Shusler , A. Bjarklev , S. D. Pedersen , T. Rasmussen , and K. Rottwitt , “ Quantum limited noise fig. operation of high gain erbium doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1344 – 1352 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Russel, P. St. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

W. J. Wadsworth , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , C. Knight , T. A. Birks , T. P. Martin Man , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   19 , 2148 – 2155 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight , J. Arriaga , T. A. Birks , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , W. J. Wadsworth , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   12 , 807 – 809 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. C. Knight , W. J. Wadsworth , J. Arriaga , B. J. Mangan , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell “ Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1325 – 1327 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth , J. C. Knight , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. Arriaga , E. Silvestre , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Soliton effects in photonic crystal fiber at 850 nm ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 53 – 55 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan , “ Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahu, J. K.

Saitoh, K.

Sasaoka, E.

Shusler, K.

O. Lumholt , J. H. Polvsen , K. Shusler , A. Bjarklev , S. D. Pedersen , T. Rasmussen , and K. Rottwitt , “ Quantum limited noise fig. operation of high gain erbium doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1344 – 1352 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Silvestre, E.

A. Ferrando , E. Silvestre , P. Andrés , J. J Miret , and M. V. Andrés , “ Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Express   9 , 687 – 697 ( 2001 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-687
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth , J. C. Knight , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. Arriaga , E. Silvestre , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Soliton effects in photonic crystal fiber at 850 nm ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 53 – 55 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Simpson, J. R.

C. R. Giles , E. Desrvire , J. R. Talman , J. R. Simpson , and P. C. Becker , “ 2-Gbit/s signal amplification at λ=1.53 μm in an erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifier ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 651 – 656 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

E. Desrvire , C. R. Giles , and J. R. Simpson , “ Gain saturation effects in high speed, multichannel erbium doped fiber amplifiers at λ=1.53 μm ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 2095 – 2104 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

P. C. Becker , N. A. Olsson , and J. R. Simpson , Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: fundamentals and technology ( Academic Press , 1999 ) pp. 140 – 144 .

Talman, J. R.

C. R. Giles , E. Desrvire , J. R. Talman , J. R. Simpson , and P. C. Becker , “ 2-Gbit/s signal amplification at λ=1.53 μm in an erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifier ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 651 – 656 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, M.

T. Otami , K. Goto , T. Kawazawa , H. Abe , and M. Tanaka , “ Effect of span loss increase on the optically amplified communication system ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 737 – 742 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Tarbox, E. J.

W. L Barnes , R. I. Laming , E. J. Tarbox , and P. R. Morkel , “ Absorption and emission cross section of Er 3+ doped silica fiber ”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1004 – 1010 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Tosello, C.

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Tsuji, Y.

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , C. Knight , T. A. Birks , T. P. Martin Man , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   19 , 2148 – 2155 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth , J. C. Knight , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. Arriaga , E. Silvestre , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Soliton effects in photonic crystal fiber at 850 nm ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 53 – 55 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. C. Knight , W. J. Wadsworth , J. Arriaga , B. J. Mangan , T. A. Birks , and P. St. J. Russell “ Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   25 , 1325 – 1327 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight , J. Arriaga , T. A. Birks , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , W. J. Wadsworth , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   12 , 807 – 809 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown , “ Multipole analysis of hole-assisted optical fibers ,” Opt. Commun.   206 , 333 – 339 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (3)

J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , R. F. Cregan , P. St. J. Russel , and J. P. de Sandro , “ Large mode area photonic crystal fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1347 – 1348 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

K. G. Hougaard , J. Broeng , and A. Bjarklev , “ Low pump power photonic crystal fibre amplifiers ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 599 – 600 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth , J. C. Knight , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , J. Arriaga , E. Silvestre , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Soliton effects in photonic crystal fiber at 850 nm ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 53 – 55 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

B. P. Petreski , P. M. Farrell , and S. F. Collins , “ Optical amplification on the 3P0→3F2 transition in praseodymium-doped fluorozirconate fiber ,” Fiber Integr. Opt.   18 , 21 – 32 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. L Barnes , R. I. Laming , E. J. Tarbox , and P. R. Morkel , “ Absorption and emission cross section of Er 3+ doped silica fiber ”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   27 , 1004 – 1010 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett. (2)

P. Blixt , J. Nilsson , T. Carlnas , and B. Jaskorzynska , “ Concentration dependent upconversion in Er 3+ -doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modelling ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   3 , 996 – 998 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight , J. Arriaga , T. A. Birks , A. Ortisoga-Blanch , W. J. Wadsworth , and P. St. J. Russell , “ Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber ,” IEEE Photon. Techonol. Lett.   12 , 807 – 809 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

G. J. Foschini and I. M. Habbab , “ Capacity of a broadcast channels in the near-future CATV architecture ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   13 , 507 – 513 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

T. Otami , K. Goto , T. Kawazawa , H. Abe , and M. Tanaka , “ Effect of span loss increase on the optically amplified communication system ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 737 – 742 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

C. R. Giles , E. Desrvire , J. R. Talman , J. R. Simpson , and P. C. Becker , “ 2-Gbit/s signal amplification at λ=1.53 μm in an erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifier ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 651 – 656 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

E. Desrvire , C. R. Giles , and J. R. Simpson , “ Gain saturation effects in high speed, multichannel erbium doped fiber amplifiers at λ=1.53 μm ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   7 , 2095 – 2104 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

O. Lumholt , J. H. Polvsen , K. Shusler , A. Bjarklev , S. D. Pedersen , T. Rasmussen , and K. Rottwitt , “ Quantum limited noise fig. operation of high gain erbium doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1344 – 1352 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

P. Myslinsky , D. Nguyen , and J. Chrostowski , “ Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   15 , 112 – 120 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

F. Prudenzano , “ Erbium-doped hole-assisted optical fiber amplifier: design and optimization ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   23 , 330 – 340 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Crystalline Solids (1)

A. D’Orazio , M. De Sario , L. Mescia , V. Petruzzelli , F. Prudenzano , A. Chiasera , M. Montagna , C. Tosello , and M. Ferrari , “ Design of Er 3+ doped SiO 2 -TiO 2 planar waveguide amplifier ,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids   322 , 278 – 283 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown , “ Multipole analysis of hole-assisted optical fibers ,” Opt. Commun.   206 , 333 – 339 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Broeng , D. Mongilevstev , S. E. Barkou , and A. Bjarklev , “ Photonic crystal fibers: a new class of optical waveguide ,” Opt. Fiber Technol.   4 , 305 – 330 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

R. F. Cregan , B. J. Mangan , J. C. Knight , T. A. Birks , P. St. J. Russell , P. J. Roberts , and D. C. Allan , “ Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air ,” Science   285 , 1537 – 1539 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. C. Becker , N. A. Olsson , and J. R. Simpson , Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: fundamentals and technology ( Academic Press , 1999 ) pp. 140 – 144 .

E. Desurvire , Erbium doped fiber amplifiers ( Wiley-Interscience Inc. , 1993 ) pp. 354 – 382 .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of the HALF sections

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effective mode area Aeff versus wavelength λ for different number of air holes: M=4 (full curve), M=6 (broken curve), M=8 (dot curve), M=10 (dash-dot curve). Hole diameter dhole=0-8 μm, core diameter dcore= 5.2 μm, core to hole distance R=4 μ m.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Optimal gain G(Lopt), (b) optimal length Lopt, (c) optimal noise fig. F(Lopt) versus erbium concentration NEr for different number of holes M=4 (full curve), M=6 (broken curve), M=8 (dot curve), M=10 (dash-dot curve). Input signal power Ps(0)=-40 dBm and input pump power Pp(0)=30 mW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Gain coefficient αp, (b) optimal length Lopt, (c) optimal noise fig. F(Lopt) versus input pump power Pp(0) for different number of holes M=4 (full curve), M=6 (broken curve), M=8 (dot curve), M=10 (dash-dot curve). Input signal power Ps(0)=-40 dBm and erbium concentration NEr=1.8×1024 ions/m3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Optimal signal gain G(Lopt), (b) optimal length Lopt, (c) optimal noise fig. F(Lopt) versus the output signal power Ps(Lopt) for different number of holes M=4 (full curve), M=6 (broken curve), M=8 (dot curve), M=10 (dash-dot curve). Input pump power Pp(0)=30 mW and erbium concentration NEr=1.8×1024 ions/m3.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Optimal signal gain G(Lopt), (b) optimal length Lopt, (c) optimal noise fig. F(Lopt) versus the dopant confinement ratio dd/dcore for different number of holes M=4 (full curve), M=6 (broken curve), M=8 (dot curve), M=10 (dash-dot curve). Input pump power Pp(0)=30 mW, input signal power Ps(0)=-40 dBm, erbium concentration NEr=1.8×1024 ions/m3.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Overlap integrals and effective mode area for different numbers of air holes.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N 1 t = W 13 N 1 + W 21 N 2 + N 2 τ 21 W 12 N 1 C 14 N 1 N 4 + C u p N 2 2 + C up N 3 2
N 2 t = W 12 N 1 W 21 N 2 + N 3 τ 32 N 2 τ 21 + 2 C 14 N 1 N 4 2 C u p N 2 2
N 3 t = W 13 N 1 N 3 τ 32 + N 4 τ 43 2 C u p N 3 2
N Er = N 1 + N 2 + N 3 + N 4
W 13 ( r , ϑ , z ) = σ 13 ( ν p ) h ν p P p ( z ) Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν p )
W 12 ( r , ϑ , z ) = σ 12 ( ν s ) h ν s P s ( z ) Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν s ) + 0 + σ 12 ( ν ) h ν [ S ASE + ( z , ν ) + S ASE ( z , ν ) ] Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν ) d ν
W 21 ( r , ϑ , z ) = σ 21 ( ν s ) h ν s P s ( z ) Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν s ) + 0 + σ 21 ( ν ) h ν [ S ASE + ( z , ν ) + S ASE ( z , ν ) ] Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν ) d ν
0 2 π 0 + Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν ) rdrd ϑ = Re { 0 2 π 0 + E ( r , ϑ , ν ) × H * ( r , ϑ , ν ) z ̂ rdrd ϑ } = 1
d P p ( z ) dz = P p ( z ) [ A σ 13 ( ν p ) N 1 ( r , ϑ , z ) Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν p ) rdrd ϑ + α ( ν p ) ]
d P s ( z ) dz = P s ( z ) [ A [ σ 21 ( ν s ) N 2 ( r , ϑ , z ) σ 12 ( ν s ) N 1 ( r , ϑ , z ) ] Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν s ) rdrd ϑ + α ( ν s ) ]
d P ASE ± ( z , ν ) dz = ± P ASE ± ( z , ν ) A [ σ 21 ( ν ) N 2 ( r , ϑ , z ) σ 12 ( ν ) N 1 ( r , ϑ , z ) ] Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν ) rdrd ϑ
± m P 0 ( ν ) σ 21 ( ν ) A σ 21 ( ν ) N 2 ( r , ϑ , z ) rdrd ϑ α ( ν ) P ASE ± ( z , ν )
F = 1 G + P ASE + ( L , ν s ) G h ν s Δ ν s
A eff ( λ ) = ( 0 2 π 0 + E ( r , ϑ , λ ) 2 r d r d ϑ ) 2 0 2 π 0 + E ( r , ϑ , λ ) 4 r d r d ϑ
Γ p = 0 2 π 0 R core Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν p ) rdrd ϑ
Γ s = 0 2 π 0 R core Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν s ) rdrd ϑ
Γ p , s = 0 2 π 0 R core Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν p ) Ψ ( r , ϑ , ν s ) rdrd ϑ

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