Abstract

We have investigated the possibility of a multimode fiber link for a quantum channel. Transmission of light in an extremely underfilled mode distribution promises a single-mode–like behavior in the multimode fiber. To demonstrate the performance of the fiber link we performed quantum key distribution, on the basis of the BB84 four-state protocol, over 550 m of an installed multimode optical fiber local area network, and the quantum-bit-error rate of 1.09 % was achieved.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard , “ Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 1984 ), pp. 175 – 179 .
  2. C. H. Bennett , F. Bessette , G. Brassard , L. Salvail , and J. Smolin , “ Experimental quantum cryptography ,” J. Crtptol.   5 , 3 – 28 ( 1992 ).
  3. A. Muller , T. Huttner , W. Tittel , H. Zbinden , and N. Gisin , “ ‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 793 – 795 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Ribordy , J. D. Gautier , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , and H. Zbinden , “ Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 2116 – 2117 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Bethune and W. Risk , “ An autocompensation fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   36 , 340 – 347 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Yoshizawa and H. Tuchida , “ A 1550 nm single-photon detector using a thermoelectrically cooled InGaAs avalanche photodiode ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1   40 , 200 – 201 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Hiskett , G. Bonfrate , G. Buller , and P. Townsend , “ Eighty kilometer transmission experiment using an In-GaAs/InP SPAD-based quantum cryptography receiver operating at 1.55 microns ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1957 – 1966 ( 2001 ).
  8. D. Stucki , G. Ribordy , A. Stefanov , H. Zbinden , J. G. Rarity , and T. Wall , “ Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier coold InGaAs/InP APD’s ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1967 – 1982 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. Namekata , Y. Makino , and S. Inoue , “ Single-photon detector for long-distance fiber optic quantum key distribution ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 954 – 956 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Kosaka , A. Tomita , Y. Nambu , T. Kimura , and K. Nakamura , “ Single-photon interference experiment over 100 km for quantum cryptography system using a balanced gated-mode photon detector ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1199 – 1200 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Stucki , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , G. Ribordy , and H. Zbinden , “ Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug and play system ,” New J. Phys.   4 , 41.1 – 41.8 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. D. Townsend , “ Experimental investigation of the performance limits for first telecommunications-window quantum cryptography systems ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   10 , 1048 – 1050 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. Namekata and S. Inoue , “ Fiber-optic quantum key distribution at 1550 nm ” in Proceedings of the ERATO Workshop on Quantum Information Science (JST, Tokyo, 2002 ), pp. 96 – 97 .
  14. N. Brunner , V. Scarani , M. Wegmuller , M. Legre , and N. Gisin , “ Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 203902 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. Cova , M. Ghioni , A. Lacaita , C. Samori , and F. Zappa , “ Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection ,” Appl. Opt.   35 , 1956 – 1963 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. Zbinden , H. Bechman-Pasquinucci , N. Gisin , and G. Ribordy , “ Quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. B   67 , 743 – 748 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

N. Brunner , V. Scarani , M. Wegmuller , M. Legre , and N. Gisin , “ Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 203902 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Kosaka , A. Tomita , Y. Nambu , T. Kimura , and K. Nakamura , “ Single-photon interference experiment over 100 km for quantum cryptography system using a balanced gated-mode photon detector ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1199 – 1200 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

D. Stucki , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , G. Ribordy , and H. Zbinden , “ Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug and play system ,” New J. Phys.   4 , 41.1 – 41.8 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

N. Namekata , Y. Makino , and S. Inoue , “ Single-photon detector for long-distance fiber optic quantum key distribution ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 954 – 956 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tuchida , “ A 1550 nm single-photon detector using a thermoelectrically cooled InGaAs avalanche photodiode ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1   40 , 200 – 201 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

P. Hiskett , G. Bonfrate , G. Buller , and P. Townsend , “ Eighty kilometer transmission experiment using an In-GaAs/InP SPAD-based quantum cryptography receiver operating at 1.55 microns ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1957 – 1966 ( 2001 ).

D. Stucki , G. Ribordy , A. Stefanov , H. Zbinden , J. G. Rarity , and T. Wall , “ Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier coold InGaAs/InP APD’s ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1967 – 1982 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. Bethune and W. Risk , “ An autocompensation fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   36 , 340 – 347 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

G. Ribordy , J. D. Gautier , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , and H. Zbinden , “ Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 2116 – 2117 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend , “ Experimental investigation of the performance limits for first telecommunications-window quantum cryptography systems ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   10 , 1048 – 1050 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

H. Zbinden , H. Bechman-Pasquinucci , N. Gisin , and G. Ribordy , “ Quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. B   67 , 743 – 748 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Muller , T. Huttner , W. Tittel , H. Zbinden , and N. Gisin , “ ‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 793 – 795 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett , F. Bessette , G. Brassard , L. Salvail , and J. Smolin , “ Experimental quantum cryptography ,” J. Crtptol.   5 , 3 – 28 ( 1992 ).

Bechman-Pasquinucci, H.

H. Zbinden , H. Bechman-Pasquinucci , N. Gisin , and G. Ribordy , “ Quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. B   67 , 743 – 748 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett , F. Bessette , G. Brassard , L. Salvail , and J. Smolin , “ Experimental quantum cryptography ,” J. Crtptol.   5 , 3 – 28 ( 1992 ).

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard , “ Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 1984 ), pp. 175 – 179 .

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett , F. Bessette , G. Brassard , L. Salvail , and J. Smolin , “ Experimental quantum cryptography ,” J. Crtptol.   5 , 3 – 28 ( 1992 ).

Bethune, D.

D. Bethune and W. Risk , “ An autocompensation fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   36 , 340 – 347 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Bonfrate, G.

P. Hiskett , G. Bonfrate , G. Buller , and P. Townsend , “ Eighty kilometer transmission experiment using an In-GaAs/InP SPAD-based quantum cryptography receiver operating at 1.55 microns ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1957 – 1966 ( 2001 ).

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett , F. Bessette , G. Brassard , L. Salvail , and J. Smolin , “ Experimental quantum cryptography ,” J. Crtptol.   5 , 3 – 28 ( 1992 ).

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard , “ Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 1984 ), pp. 175 – 179 .

Brunner, N.

N. Brunner , V. Scarani , M. Wegmuller , M. Legre , and N. Gisin , “ Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 203902 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buller, G.

P. Hiskett , G. Bonfrate , G. Buller , and P. Townsend , “ Eighty kilometer transmission experiment using an In-GaAs/InP SPAD-based quantum cryptography receiver operating at 1.55 microns ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1957 – 1966 ( 2001 ).

Cova, S.

Gautier, J. D.

G. Ribordy , J. D. Gautier , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , and H. Zbinden , “ Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 2116 – 2117 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Ghioni, M.

Gisin, N.

N. Brunner , V. Scarani , M. Wegmuller , M. Legre , and N. Gisin , “ Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 203902 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Stucki , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , G. Ribordy , and H. Zbinden , “ Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug and play system ,” New J. Phys.   4 , 41.1 – 41.8 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

G. Ribordy , J. D. Gautier , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , and H. Zbinden , “ Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 2116 – 2117 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

H. Zbinden , H. Bechman-Pasquinucci , N. Gisin , and G. Ribordy , “ Quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. B   67 , 743 – 748 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

A. Muller , T. Huttner , W. Tittel , H. Zbinden , and N. Gisin , “ ‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 793 – 795 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Guinnard, O.

D. Stucki , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , G. Ribordy , and H. Zbinden , “ Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug and play system ,” New J. Phys.   4 , 41.1 – 41.8 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

G. Ribordy , J. D. Gautier , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , and H. Zbinden , “ Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 2116 – 2117 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Hiskett, P.

P. Hiskett , G. Bonfrate , G. Buller , and P. Townsend , “ Eighty kilometer transmission experiment using an In-GaAs/InP SPAD-based quantum cryptography receiver operating at 1.55 microns ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1957 – 1966 ( 2001 ).

Huttner, T.

A. Muller , T. Huttner , W. Tittel , H. Zbinden , and N. Gisin , “ ‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 793 – 795 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Inoue, S.

N. Namekata , Y. Makino , and S. Inoue , “ Single-photon detector for long-distance fiber optic quantum key distribution ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 954 – 956 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

N. Namekata and S. Inoue , “ Fiber-optic quantum key distribution at 1550 nm ” in Proceedings of the ERATO Workshop on Quantum Information Science (JST, Tokyo, 2002 ), pp. 96 – 97 .

Kimura, T.

H. Kosaka , A. Tomita , Y. Nambu , T. Kimura , and K. Nakamura , “ Single-photon interference experiment over 100 km for quantum cryptography system using a balanced gated-mode photon detector ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1199 – 1200 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka , A. Tomita , Y. Nambu , T. Kimura , and K. Nakamura , “ Single-photon interference experiment over 100 km for quantum cryptography system using a balanced gated-mode photon detector ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1199 – 1200 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Lacaita, A.

Legre, M.

N. Brunner , V. Scarani , M. Wegmuller , M. Legre , and N. Gisin , “ Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 203902 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makino, Y.

Muller, A.

A. Muller , T. Huttner , W. Tittel , H. Zbinden , and N. Gisin , “ ‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 793 – 795 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, K.

H. Kosaka , A. Tomita , Y. Nambu , T. Kimura , and K. Nakamura , “ Single-photon interference experiment over 100 km for quantum cryptography system using a balanced gated-mode photon detector ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1199 – 1200 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Nambu, Y.

H. Kosaka , A. Tomita , Y. Nambu , T. Kimura , and K. Nakamura , “ Single-photon interference experiment over 100 km for quantum cryptography system using a balanced gated-mode photon detector ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1199 – 1200 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Namekata, N.

N. Namekata , Y. Makino , and S. Inoue , “ Single-photon detector for long-distance fiber optic quantum key distribution ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 954 – 956 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

N. Namekata and S. Inoue , “ Fiber-optic quantum key distribution at 1550 nm ” in Proceedings of the ERATO Workshop on Quantum Information Science (JST, Tokyo, 2002 ), pp. 96 – 97 .

Rarity, J. G.

D. Stucki , G. Ribordy , A. Stefanov , H. Zbinden , J. G. Rarity , and T. Wall , “ Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier coold InGaAs/InP APD’s ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1967 – 1982 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , G. Ribordy , and H. Zbinden , “ Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug and play system ,” New J. Phys.   4 , 41.1 – 41.8 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki , G. Ribordy , A. Stefanov , H. Zbinden , J. G. Rarity , and T. Wall , “ Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier coold InGaAs/InP APD’s ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1967 – 1982 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

G. Ribordy , J. D. Gautier , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , and H. Zbinden , “ Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 2116 – 2117 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

H. Zbinden , H. Bechman-Pasquinucci , N. Gisin , and G. Ribordy , “ Quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. B   67 , 743 – 748 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Risk, W.

D. Bethune and W. Risk , “ An autocompensation fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   36 , 340 – 347 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett , F. Bessette , G. Brassard , L. Salvail , and J. Smolin , “ Experimental quantum cryptography ,” J. Crtptol.   5 , 3 – 28 ( 1992 ).

Samori, C.

Scarani, V.

N. Brunner , V. Scarani , M. Wegmuller , M. Legre , and N. Gisin , “ Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 203902 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett , F. Bessette , G. Brassard , L. Salvail , and J. Smolin , “ Experimental quantum cryptography ,” J. Crtptol.   5 , 3 – 28 ( 1992 ).

Stefanov, A.

D. Stucki , G. Ribordy , A. Stefanov , H. Zbinden , J. G. Rarity , and T. Wall , “ Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier coold InGaAs/InP APD’s ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1967 – 1982 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , G. Ribordy , and H. Zbinden , “ Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug and play system ,” New J. Phys.   4 , 41.1 – 41.8 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki , G. Ribordy , A. Stefanov , H. Zbinden , J. G. Rarity , and T. Wall , “ Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier coold InGaAs/InP APD’s ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1967 – 1982 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Tittel, W.

A. Muller , T. Huttner , W. Tittel , H. Zbinden , and N. Gisin , “ ‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 793 – 795 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka , A. Tomita , Y. Nambu , T. Kimura , and K. Nakamura , “ Single-photon interference experiment over 100 km for quantum cryptography system using a balanced gated-mode photon detector ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1199 – 1200 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P.

P. Hiskett , G. Bonfrate , G. Buller , and P. Townsend , “ Eighty kilometer transmission experiment using an In-GaAs/InP SPAD-based quantum cryptography receiver operating at 1.55 microns ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1957 – 1966 ( 2001 ).

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend , “ Experimental investigation of the performance limits for first telecommunications-window quantum cryptography systems ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   10 , 1048 – 1050 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Tuchida, H.

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tuchida , “ A 1550 nm single-photon detector using a thermoelectrically cooled InGaAs avalanche photodiode ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1   40 , 200 – 201 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Wall, T.

D. Stucki , G. Ribordy , A. Stefanov , H. Zbinden , J. G. Rarity , and T. Wall , “ Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier coold InGaAs/InP APD’s ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1967 – 1982 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Wegmuller, M.

N. Brunner , V. Scarani , M. Wegmuller , M. Legre , and N. Gisin , “ Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 203902 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshizawa, A.

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tuchida , “ A 1550 nm single-photon detector using a thermoelectrically cooled InGaAs avalanche photodiode ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1   40 , 200 – 201 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Zappa, F.

Zbinden, H.

D. Stucki , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , G. Ribordy , and H. Zbinden , “ Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug and play system ,” New J. Phys.   4 , 41.1 – 41.8 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki , G. Ribordy , A. Stefanov , H. Zbinden , J. G. Rarity , and T. Wall , “ Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier coold InGaAs/InP APD’s ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1967 – 1982 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

G. Ribordy , J. D. Gautier , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , and H. Zbinden , “ Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 2116 – 2117 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

H. Zbinden , H. Bechman-Pasquinucci , N. Gisin , and G. Ribordy , “ Quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. B   67 , 743 – 748 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

A. Muller , T. Huttner , W. Tittel , H. Zbinden , and N. Gisin , “ ‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 793 – 795 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Zbinden , H. Bechman-Pasquinucci , N. Gisin , and G. Ribordy , “ Quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. B   67 , 743 – 748 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Muller , T. Huttner , W. Tittel , H. Zbinden , and N. Gisin , “ ‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 793 – 795 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. Ribordy , J. D. Gautier , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , and H. Zbinden , “ Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 2116 – 2117 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

H. Kosaka , A. Tomita , Y. Nambu , T. Kimura , and K. Nakamura , “ Single-photon interference experiment over 100 km for quantum cryptography system using a balanced gated-mode photon detector ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 1199 – 1200 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Bethune and W. Risk , “ An autocompensation fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   36 , 340 – 347 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. D. Townsend , “ Experimental investigation of the performance limits for first telecommunications-window quantum cryptography systems ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   10 , 1048 – 1050 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

J. Crtptol. (1)

C. H. Bennett , F. Bessette , G. Brassard , L. Salvail , and J. Smolin , “ Experimental quantum cryptography ,” J. Crtptol.   5 , 3 – 28 ( 1992 ).

J. Modern Opt. (2)

P. Hiskett , G. Bonfrate , G. Buller , and P. Townsend , “ Eighty kilometer transmission experiment using an In-GaAs/InP SPAD-based quantum cryptography receiver operating at 1.55 microns ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1957 – 1966 ( 2001 ).

D. Stucki , G. Ribordy , A. Stefanov , H. Zbinden , J. G. Rarity , and T. Wall , “ Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier coold InGaAs/InP APD’s ,” J. Modern Opt.   48 , 1967 – 1982 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1 (1)

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tuchida , “ A 1550 nm single-photon detector using a thermoelectrically cooled InGaAs avalanche photodiode ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1   40 , 200 – 201 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

D. Stucki , N. Gisin , O. Guinnard , G. Ribordy , and H. Zbinden , “ Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug and play system ,” New J. Phys.   4 , 41.1 – 41.8 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Brunner , V. Scarani , M. Wegmuller , M. Legre , and N. Gisin , “ Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 203902 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

N. Namekata and S. Inoue , “ Fiber-optic quantum key distribution at 1550 nm ” in Proceedings of the ERATO Workshop on Quantum Information Science (JST, Tokyo, 2002 ), pp. 96 – 97 .

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard , “ Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 1984 ), pp. 175 – 179 .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of the mode distribution in a graded index multimode fiber: (a)Equivalent mode distribution (b) Underfilled mode distribution

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurement of group velocity dispersion based on a photon counting.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Profiles of light pulses after transmission through (a) only the single-mode fiber (Test 1), (b) only the multimode fiber (Test 2), (c) the multimode fiber after the single-mode fiber (Test 3).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram of quantum key distribution system: C Circulator; PBS1, PBS2 Polarizing beam splitters; SMF Single-mode fiber; PMF Polarization-maintaining fiber; MMF Multimode fiber; FC 50/50 fiber-optic coupler; AT Attenuator; PMA, PMB Phase modulators; FM Faraday mirror; D1, D2 Single-photon detectors; PG1, PG2 Pulse generators; AWGA, AWGB; Arbitrary waveform generators.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Count rates of single-photon detectors D1 and D2 versus Alice’s modulator voltage. The average photon number per pulse was ≃ 2, and Bob’s phase shift ΔϕB was set to 0 or -π/2. (a) 10.5 km single-mode fiber spool, (b) 550 m multimode fiber local area network.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Tested combination of fibers

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of quantum-bit-error rates and bit rates

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

QBER = QBER opt + QBER dark + QBER after + QBER stray .
QBER opt = C wrong C right + C wrong ,
QBER dark = ( P dark , 1 + P dark , 2 ) 2 P phot + P dark , 1 + P dark , 2 ,
P phot = μ 2 ( L D 1 η 1 + L D 2 η 2 ) L i ( i = 1,2 ) .

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