Abstract

We demonstrate a fundamental operation for generating complex waveforms in the optical domain – line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation (O-AWG). Independent manipulation of the spectral amplitude and phase of individual lines from a mode-locked frequency comb, or spectral line-by-line pulse shaping, leads to synthesis of user-specified ultrafast optical waveforms with unprecedented control. Coupled with recent advances in frequency stabilized mode-locked lasers, line-by-line pulse shaping control should have significant impact to fields drawing upon developments in the field of ultrafast science.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Steinmeyer , D. H. Sutter , L. Gallmann , N. Matuschek , and U. Keller , “ Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics ,” Science   286 , 1507 – 1512 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro , “ The physics of attosecond light pulses ,” Rep. Prog. Phys.   67 , 813 – 855 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Udem , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hansch , “ Optical frequency metrology ,” Nature   416 , 233 – 237 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Marian , M. C. Stowe , J. R. Lawall , D. Felint , and J. Ye , “ United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure ,” Science   306 , 2063 – 2068 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. M. Weiner , “ Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   71 , 1929 – 1960 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Rabitz , R. de Vivie-Riedle , M. Motzkus , and K. Kompa , “ Chemistry – Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena? ,” Science   288 , 824 – 828 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Brixner , N. H. Damrauer , P. Niklaus , and G. Gerber , “ Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase ,” Nature   414 , 57 – 60 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Levis , G. M. Menkir , and H. Rabitz , “ Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses ,” Science   292 , 709 – 713 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. F. Tian , D. Keusters , Y. Suzaki , and W. S. Warren , “ Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy ,” Science   300 , 1553 – 1555 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. C. Weinacht , J. Ahn , and P. H. Bucksbaum , “ Controlling the shape of a quantum wavefunction ,” Nature   397 , 233 – 235 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. M. Weiner , D. E. Leaird , G. P. Wiederrecht , and K. A. Nelson , “ Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion ,” Science   247 , 1317 – 1319 ( 1990 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Y. Shverdin , D. R. Walker , D. D. Yavuz , G. Y. Yin , and S. E. Harris , “ Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 033904 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. M. Dela Cruz , I. Pastirk , M. Comstock , V. V. Lozovoy , and M. Dantus , “ Use of coherent control methods through scattering biological tissue to achieve functional imaging ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.   101 , 16996 – 17001 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Z. Jiang , D. S. Seo , S.-D. Yang , D. E. Leaird , R. V. Roussev , C. Langrock , M. M. Fejer , and A. M. Weiner , “ Four user, 2.5 Gb/s, spectrally coded O-CDMA system demonstration using low power nonlinear processing ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   23 , 143 – 158 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. P. Scott , W. Cong , K. Li , V. J. Hernandez , B. H. Kolner , J. P. Heritage , and S. J. B. Yoo , “ Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   16 , 2186 – 2188 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. D. McKinney , D. E. Leaird , and A. M. Weiner , “ Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1345 – 1347 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Jiang , D. S. Seo , D. E. Leaird , and A. M. Weiner , “ Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1557 – 1559 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Yilmaz , C. M. DePriest , T. Turpin , J. H. Abeles , and P. J. Delfyett , “ Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   14 , 1608 – 1610 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .
  24. H. Sotobayashi and K. Kitayama , “ 325nm bandwidth supercontinuum generation at 10Gbit/s using dispersion-flattened and non-decreasing normal dispersion fibre with pulse compression technique ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1336 – 1337 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson , “ Generation of high-fidelity programmable ultrafast optical waveforms ,” Opt. Lett.   20 , 1047 – 1049 ( 1995 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Z. Win and R. A. Scholtz , “ Ultra-wide bandwidth time-hopping spread-spectrum impulse radio for wireless multiple-access communications ,” IEEE Trans. Commun.   48 , 679 – 691 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Rothwell , D. P. Nyquist , K. M. Chen , and B. Drachman , “ Radar target discrimination using the extinction-pulse technique ,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   AP-33 , 929 – 937 ( 1985 ).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Stobrawa , M. Hacker , T. Feurer , D. Zeidler , M. Motzkus , and F. Reichel , “ A new high-resolution femtosecond pulse shaper ,” Appl. Phys. B   72 , 627 – 630 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Monmayrant and B. Chatel , “ New phase and amplitude high resolution pulse shaper ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   75 , 2668 – 2671 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. A. Dugan , J. X. Tull , and W. S. Warren , “ High-resolution acousto-optic shaping of unamplified and amplified femtosecond laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   14 , 2348 – 2358 ( 1997 ).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (7)

R. P. Scott , W. Cong , K. Li , V. J. Hernandez , B. H. Kolner , J. P. Heritage , and S. J. B. Yoo , “ Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   16 , 2186 – 2188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

A. Monmayrant and B. Chatel , “ New phase and amplitude high resolution pulse shaper ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   75 , 2668 – 2671 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dela Cruz , I. Pastirk , M. Comstock , V. V. Lozovoy , and M. Dantus , “ Use of coherent control methods through scattering biological tissue to achieve functional imaging ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.   101 , 16996 – 17001 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro , “ The physics of attosecond light pulses ,” Rep. Prog. Phys.   67 , 813 – 855 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian , M. C. Stowe , J. R. Lawall , D. Felint , and J. Ye , “ United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure ,” Science   306 , 2063 – 2068 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. F. Tian , D. Keusters , Y. Suzaki , and W. S. Warren , “ Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy ,” Science   300 , 1553 – 1555 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

T. Udem , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hansch , “ Optical frequency metrology ,” Nature   416 , 233 – 237 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. McKinney , D. E. Leaird , and A. M. Weiner , “ Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1345 – 1347 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

T. Yilmaz , C. M. DePriest , T. Turpin , J. H. Abeles , and P. J. Delfyett , “ Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   14 , 1608 – 1610 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

G. Stobrawa , M. Hacker , T. Feurer , D. Zeidler , M. Motzkus , and F. Reichel , “ A new high-resolution femtosecond pulse shaper ,” Appl. Phys. B   72 , 627 – 630 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner , N. H. Damrauer , P. Niklaus , and G. Gerber , “ Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase ,” Nature   414 , 57 – 60 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Levis , G. M. Menkir , and H. Rabitz , “ Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses ,” Science   292 , 709 – 713 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

A. M. Weiner , “ Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   71 , 1929 – 1960 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabitz , R. de Vivie-Riedle , M. Motzkus , and K. Kompa , “ Chemistry – Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena? ,” Science   288 , 824 – 828 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Z. Win and R. A. Scholtz , “ Ultra-wide bandwidth time-hopping spread-spectrum impulse radio for wireless multiple-access communications ,” IEEE Trans. Commun.   48 , 679 – 691 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Steinmeyer , D. H. Sutter , L. Gallmann , N. Matuschek , and U. Keller , “ Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics ,” Science   286 , 1507 – 1512 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Weinacht , J. Ahn , and P. H. Bucksbaum , “ Controlling the shape of a quantum wavefunction ,” Nature   397 , 233 – 235 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Sotobayashi and K. Kitayama , “ 325nm bandwidth supercontinuum generation at 10Gbit/s using dispersion-flattened and non-decreasing normal dispersion fibre with pulse compression technique ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1336 – 1337 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. A. Dugan , J. X. Tull , and W. S. Warren , “ High-resolution acousto-optic shaping of unamplified and amplified femtosecond laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   14 , 2348 – 2358 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

A. M. Weiner , D. E. Leaird , G. P. Wiederrecht , and K. A. Nelson , “ Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion ,” Science   247 , 1317 – 1319 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

E. Rothwell , D. P. Nyquist , K. M. Chen , and B. Drachman , “ Radar target discrimination using the extinction-pulse technique ,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   AP-33 , 929 – 937 ( 1985 ).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, J. H.

T. Yilmaz , C. M. DePriest , T. Turpin , J. H. Abeles , and P. J. Delfyett , “ Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   14 , 1608 – 1610 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro , “ The physics of attosecond light pulses ,” Rep. Prog. Phys.   67 , 813 – 855 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.

T. C. Weinacht , J. Ahn , and P. H. Bucksbaum , “ Controlling the shape of a quantum wavefunction ,” Nature   397 , 233 – 235 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Banwell, T.

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

Bartels, A.

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bi, Z. Y.

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brixner, T.

T. Brixner , N. H. Damrauer , P. Niklaus , and G. Gerber , “ Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase ,” Nature   414 , 57 – 60 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

T. C. Weinacht , J. Ahn , and P. H. Bucksbaum , “ Controlling the shape of a quantum wavefunction ,” Nature   397 , 233 – 235 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, N. H.

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Chatel, B.

A. Monmayrant and B. Chatel , “ New phase and amplitude high resolution pulse shaper ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   75 , 2668 – 2671 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

E. Rothwell , D. P. Nyquist , K. M. Chen , and B. Drachman , “ Radar target discrimination using the extinction-pulse technique ,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   AP-33 , 929 – 937 ( 1985 ).
[CrossRef]

Comstock, M.

J. M. Dela Cruz , I. Pastirk , M. Comstock , V. V. Lozovoy , and M. Dantus , “ Use of coherent control methods through scattering biological tissue to achieve functional imaging ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.   101 , 16996 – 17001 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, W.

R. P. Scott , W. Cong , K. Li , V. J. Hernandez , B. H. Kolner , J. P. Heritage , and S. J. B. Yoo , “ Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   16 , 2186 – 2188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damrauer, N. H.

T. Brixner , N. H. Damrauer , P. Niklaus , and G. Gerber , “ Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase ,” Nature   414 , 57 – 60 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dantus, M.

J. M. Dela Cruz , I. Pastirk , M. Comstock , V. V. Lozovoy , and M. Dantus , “ Use of coherent control methods through scattering biological tissue to achieve functional imaging ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.   101 , 16996 – 17001 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vivie-Riedle, R.

H. Rabitz , R. de Vivie-Riedle , M. Motzkus , and K. Kompa , “ Chemistry – Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena? ,” Science   288 , 824 – 828 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dela Cruz, J. M.

J. M. Dela Cruz , I. Pastirk , M. Comstock , V. V. Lozovoy , and M. Dantus , “ Use of coherent control methods through scattering biological tissue to achieve functional imaging ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.   101 , 16996 – 17001 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delfyett, P.

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

Delfyett, P. J.

T. Yilmaz , C. M. DePriest , T. Turpin , J. H. Abeles , and P. J. Delfyett , “ Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   14 , 1608 – 1610 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

DePriest, C. M.

T. Yilmaz , C. M. DePriest , T. Turpin , J. H. Abeles , and P. J. Delfyett , “ Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   14 , 1608 – 1610 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro , “ The physics of attosecond light pulses ,” Rep. Prog. Phys.   67 , 813 – 855 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Drachman, B.

E. Rothwell , D. P. Nyquist , K. M. Chen , and B. Drachman , “ Radar target discrimination using the extinction-pulse technique ,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   AP-33 , 929 – 937 ( 1985 ).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dugan, M. A.

Etemad, S.

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

Fejer, M. M.

Felint, D.

A. Marian , M. C. Stowe , J. R. Lawall , D. Felint , and J. Ye , “ United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure ,” Science   306 , 2063 – 2068 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feurer, T.

G. Stobrawa , M. Hacker , T. Feurer , D. Zeidler , M. Motzkus , and F. Reichel , “ A new high-resolution femtosecond pulse shaper ,” Appl. Phys. B   72 , 627 – 630 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Galli, S.

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

Gallmann, L.

G. Steinmeyer , D. H. Sutter , L. Gallmann , N. Matuschek , and U. Keller , “ Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics ,” Science   286 , 1507 – 1512 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, G.

T. Brixner , N. H. Damrauer , P. Niklaus , and G. Gerber , “ Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase ,” Nature   414 , 57 – 60 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hacker, M.

G. Stobrawa , M. Hacker , T. Feurer , D. Zeidler , M. Motzkus , and F. Reichel , “ A new high-resolution femtosecond pulse shaper ,” Appl. Phys. B   72 , 627 – 630 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

T. Udem , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hansch , “ Optical frequency metrology ,” Nature   416 , 233 – 237 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

M. Y. Shverdin , D. R. Walker , D. D. Yavuz , G. Y. Yin , and S. E. Harris , “ Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 033904 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heritage, J. P.

R. P. Scott , W. Cong , K. Li , V. J. Hernandez , B. H. Kolner , J. P. Heritage , and S. J. B. Yoo , “ Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   16 , 2186 – 2188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, V. J.

R. P. Scott , W. Cong , K. Li , V. J. Hernandez , B. H. Kolner , J. P. Heritage , and S. J. B. Yoo , “ Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   16 , 2186 – 2188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hansch , “ Optical frequency metrology ,” Nature   416 , 233 – 237 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackel, J.

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

Jiang, Z.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kan, C.

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

G. Steinmeyer , D. H. Sutter , L. Gallmann , N. Matuschek , and U. Keller , “ Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics ,” Science   286 , 1507 – 1512 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keusters, D.

P. F. Tian , D. Keusters , Y. Suzaki , and W. S. Warren , “ Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy ,” Science   300 , 1553 – 1555 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitayama, K.

H. Sotobayashi and K. Kitayama , “ 325nm bandwidth supercontinuum generation at 10Gbit/s using dispersion-flattened and non-decreasing normal dispersion fibre with pulse compression technique ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1336 – 1337 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Kolner, B. H.

R. P. Scott , W. Cong , K. Li , V. J. Hernandez , B. H. Kolner , J. P. Heritage , and S. J. B. Yoo , “ Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   16 , 2186 – 2188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Kompa, K.

H. Rabitz , R. de Vivie-Riedle , M. Motzkus , and K. Kompa , “ Chemistry – Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena? ,” Science   288 , 824 – 828 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koppitsch, R.

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Lawall, J. R.

A. Marian , M. C. Stowe , J. R. Lawall , D. Felint , and J. Ye , “ United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure ,” Science   306 , 2063 – 2068 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leaird, D. E.

Lenzner, M.

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Levis, R. J.

R. J. Levis , G. M. Menkir , and H. Rabitz , “ Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses ,” Science   292 , 709 – 713 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K.

R. P. Scott , W. Cong , K. Li , V. J. Hernandez , B. H. Kolner , J. P. Heritage , and S. J. B. Yoo , “ Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   16 , 2186 – 2188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Lozovoy, V. V.

J. M. Dela Cruz , I. Pastirk , M. Comstock , V. V. Lozovoy , and M. Dantus , “ Use of coherent control methods through scattering biological tissue to achieve functional imaging ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.   101 , 16996 – 17001 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L. S.

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marian, A.

A. Marian , M. C. Stowe , J. R. Lawall , D. Felint , and J. Ye , “ United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure ,” Science   306 , 2063 – 2068 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matuschek, N.

G. Steinmeyer , D. H. Sutter , L. Gallmann , N. Matuschek , and U. Keller , “ Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics ,” Science   286 , 1507 – 1512 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinney, J. D.

Menendez, R.

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

Menkir, G. M.

R. J. Levis , G. M. Menkir , and H. Rabitz , “ Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses ,” Science   292 , 709 – 713 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monmayrant, A.

A. Monmayrant and B. Chatel , “ New phase and amplitude high resolution pulse shaper ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   75 , 2668 – 2671 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Motzkus, M.

G. Stobrawa , M. Hacker , T. Feurer , D. Zeidler , M. Motzkus , and F. Reichel , “ A new high-resolution femtosecond pulse shaper ,” Appl. Phys. B   72 , 627 – 630 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabitz , R. de Vivie-Riedle , M. Motzkus , and K. Kompa , “ Chemistry – Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena? ,” Science   288 , 824 – 828 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson , “ Generation of high-fidelity programmable ultrafast optical waveforms ,” Opt. Lett.   20 , 1047 – 1049 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner , D. E. Leaird , G. P. Wiederrecht , and K. A. Nelson , “ Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion ,” Science   247 , 1317 – 1319 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niklaus, P.

T. Brixner , N. H. Damrauer , P. Niklaus , and G. Gerber , “ Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase ,” Nature   414 , 57 – 60 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyquist, D. P.

E. Rothwell , D. P. Nyquist , K. M. Chen , and B. Drachman , “ Radar target discrimination using the extinction-pulse technique ,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   AP-33 , 929 – 937 ( 1985 ).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C.

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastirk, I.

J. M. Dela Cruz , I. Pastirk , M. Comstock , V. V. Lozovoy , and M. Dantus , “ Use of coherent control methods through scattering biological tissue to achieve functional imaging ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.   101 , 16996 – 17001 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, C.

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

Rabitz, H.

R. J. Levis , G. M. Menkir , and H. Rabitz , “ Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses ,” Science   292 , 709 – 713 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rabitz , R. de Vivie-Riedle , M. Motzkus , and K. Kompa , “ Chemistry – Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena? ,” Science   288 , 824 – 828 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, F.

G. Stobrawa , M. Hacker , T. Feurer , D. Zeidler , M. Motzkus , and F. Reichel , “ A new high-resolution femtosecond pulse shaper ,” Appl. Phys. B   72 , 627 – 630 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothwell, E.

E. Rothwell , D. P. Nyquist , K. M. Chen , and B. Drachman , “ Radar target discrimination using the extinction-pulse technique ,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   AP-33 , 929 – 937 ( 1985 ).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Sartania, S.

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Schnurer, M.

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Scholtz, R. A.

M. Z. Win and R. A. Scholtz , “ Ultra-wide bandwidth time-hopping spread-spectrum impulse radio for wireless multiple-access communications ,” IEEE Trans. Commun.   48 , 679 – 691 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

R. P. Scott , W. Cong , K. Li , V. J. Hernandez , B. H. Kolner , J. P. Heritage , and S. J. B. Yoo , “ Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   16 , 2186 – 2188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Seo, D. S.

Shverdin, M. Y.

M. Y. Shverdin , D. R. Walker , D. D. Yavuz , G. Y. Yin , and S. E. Harris , “ Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 033904 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sotobayashi, H.

H. Sotobayashi and K. Kitayama , “ 325nm bandwidth supercontinuum generation at 10Gbit/s using dispersion-flattened and non-decreasing normal dispersion fibre with pulse compression technique ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1336 – 1337 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Steinmeyer , D. H. Sutter , L. Gallmann , N. Matuschek , and U. Keller , “ Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics ,” Science   286 , 1507 – 1512 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stobrawa, G.

G. Stobrawa , M. Hacker , T. Feurer , D. Zeidler , M. Motzkus , and F. Reichel , “ A new high-resolution femtosecond pulse shaper ,” Appl. Phys. B   72 , 627 – 630 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, M. C.

A. Marian , M. C. Stowe , J. R. Lawall , D. Felint , and J. Ye , “ United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure ,” Science   306 , 2063 – 2068 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutter, D. H.

G. Steinmeyer , D. H. Sutter , L. Gallmann , N. Matuschek , and U. Keller , “ Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics ,” Science   286 , 1507 – 1512 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzaki, Y.

P. F. Tian , D. Keusters , Y. Suzaki , and W. S. Warren , “ Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy ,” Science   300 , 1553 – 1555 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, P. F.

P. F. Tian , D. Keusters , Y. Suzaki , and W. S. Warren , “ Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy ,” Science   300 , 1553 – 1555 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toliver, P.

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

Tull, J. X.

Turpin, T.

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

T. Yilmaz , C. M. DePriest , T. Turpin , J. H. Abeles , and P. J. Delfyett , “ Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   14 , 1608 – 1610 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

T. Udem , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hansch , “ Optical frequency metrology ,” Nature   416 , 233 – 237 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, D. R.

M. Y. Shverdin , D. R. Walker , D. D. Yavuz , G. Y. Yin , and S. E. Harris , “ Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 033904 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

P. F. Tian , D. Keusters , Y. Suzaki , and W. S. Warren , “ Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy ,” Science   300 , 1553 – 1555 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Dugan , J. X. Tull , and W. S. Warren , “ High-resolution acousto-optic shaping of unamplified and amplified femtosecond laser pulses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   14 , 2348 – 2358 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Wefers, M. M.

Weinacht, T. C.

T. C. Weinacht , J. Ahn , and P. H. Bucksbaum , “ Controlling the shape of a quantum wavefunction ,” Nature   397 , 233 – 235 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. M. Weiner , D. E. Leaird , G. P. Wiederrecht , and K. A. Nelson , “ Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion ,” Science   247 , 1317 – 1319 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilpers, G.

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Win, M. Z.

M. Z. Win and R. A. Scholtz , “ Ultra-wide bandwidth time-hopping spread-spectrum impulse radio for wireless multiple-access communications ,” IEEE Trans. Commun.   48 , 679 – 691 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wobrauschek, P.

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-D.

Yavuz, D. D.

M. Y. Shverdin , D. R. Walker , D. D. Yavuz , G. Y. Yin , and S. E. Harris , “ Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 033904 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

A. Marian , M. C. Stowe , J. R. Lawall , D. Felint , and J. Ye , “ United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure ,” Science   306 , 2063 – 2068 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, T.

T. Yilmaz , C. M. DePriest , T. Turpin , J. H. Abeles , and P. J. Delfyett , “ Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   14 , 1608 – 1610 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

M. Y. Shverdin , D. R. Walker , D. D. Yavuz , G. Y. Yin , and S. E. Harris , “ Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 033904 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, S. J. B.

R. P. Scott , W. Cong , K. Li , V. J. Hernandez , B. H. Kolner , J. P. Heritage , and S. J. B. Yoo , “ Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   16 , 2186 – 2188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

Zeidler, D.

G. Stobrawa , M. Hacker , T. Feurer , D. Zeidler , M. Motzkus , and F. Reichel , “ A new high-resolution femtosecond pulse shaper ,” Appl. Phys. B   72 , 627 – 630 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Zucco, M.

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Stobrawa , M. Hacker , T. Feurer , D. Zeidler , M. Motzkus , and F. Reichel , “ A new high-resolution femtosecond pulse shaper ,” Appl. Phys. B   72 , 627 – 630 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Sotobayashi and K. Kitayama , “ 325nm bandwidth supercontinuum generation at 10Gbit/s using dispersion-flattened and non-decreasing normal dispersion fibre with pulse compression technique ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1336 – 1337 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Yilmaz , C. M. DePriest , T. Turpin , J. H. Abeles , and P. J. Delfyett , “ Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   14 , 1608 – 1610 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott , W. Cong , K. Li , V. J. Hernandez , B. H. Kolner , J. P. Heritage , and S. J. B. Yoo , “ Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   16 , 2186 – 2188 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

E. Rothwell , D. P. Nyquist , K. M. Chen , and B. Drachman , “ Radar target discrimination using the extinction-pulse technique ,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.   AP-33 , 929 – 937 ( 1985 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

M. Z. Win and R. A. Scholtz , “ Ultra-wide bandwidth time-hopping spread-spectrum impulse radio for wireless multiple-access communications ,” IEEE Trans. Commun.   48 , 679 – 691 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (4)

N. Dudovich , D. Oron , and Y. Silberberg , “ Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy ,” Nature   418 , 512 – 514 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Weinacht , J. Ahn , and P. H. Bucksbaum , “ Controlling the shape of a quantum wavefunction ,” Nature   397 , 233 – 235 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hansch , “ Optical frequency metrology ,” Nature   416 , 233 – 237 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brixner , N. H. Damrauer , P. Niklaus , and G. Gerber , “ Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase ,” Nature   414 , 57 – 60 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Y. Shverdin , D. R. Walker , D. D. Yavuz , G. Y. Yin , and S. E. Harris , “ Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   94 , 033904 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. M. Dela Cruz , I. Pastirk , M. Comstock , V. V. Lozovoy , and M. Dantus , “ Use of coherent control methods through scattering biological tissue to achieve functional imaging ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.   101 , 16996 – 17001 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro , “ The physics of attosecond light pulses ,” Rep. Prog. Phys.   67 , 813 – 855 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. M. Weiner , “ Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   71 , 1929 – 1960 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

A. Monmayrant and B. Chatel , “ New phase and amplitude high resolution pulse shaper ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   75 , 2668 – 2671 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Science (9)

H. Rabitz , R. de Vivie-Riedle , M. Motzkus , and K. Kompa , “ Chemistry – Whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena? ,” Science   288 , 824 – 828 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Levis , G. M. Menkir , and H. Rabitz , “ Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses ,” Science   292 , 709 – 713 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Tian , D. Keusters , Y. Suzaki , and W. S. Warren , “ Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy ,” Science   300 , 1553 – 1555 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Spielmann , N. H. Burnett , S. Sartania , R. Koppitsch , M. Schnurer , C. Kan , M. Lenzner , P. Wobrauschek , and F. Krausz , “ Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses ,” Science   278 , 661 – 664 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Ma , Z. Y. Bi , A. Bartels , L. Robertsson , M. Zucco , R. S. Windeler , G. Wilpers , C. Oates , L. Hollberg , and S. A. Diddams , “ Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10 -19 level ,” Science   303 , 1843 – 1845 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian , M. C. Stowe , J. R. Lawall , D. Felint , and J. Ye , “ United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure ,” Science   306 , 2063 – 2068 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Steinmeyer , D. H. Sutter , L. Gallmann , N. Matuschek , and U. Keller , “ Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics ,” Science   286 , 1507 – 1512 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner , D. E. Leaird , G. P. Wiederrecht , and K. A. Nelson , “ Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion ,” Science   247 , 1317 – 1319 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Etemad , T. Banwell , S. Galli , J. Jackel , R. Menendez , P. Toliver , J. Young , P. Delfyett , C. Price , and T. Turpin , “ Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: concept, simulation, experiment ,” in 2004 Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC2004), FG5, Los Angeles, CA, 2004 .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental apparatus for arbitrary waveform generation using line-by-line pulse shaper. The inset figure shows a measured 3 dB passband of 2.6 GHz. LCM: liquid crystal modulator. PC: polarization controller.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Selecting two spectral lines (separated by A: 10 GHz, B: 20 GHz, C: 100 GHz, E: 400 GHz and F: 500 GHz) and corresponding cosine waveforms (with periods of 100 ps, 50 ps, 10 ps, 2.5 ps and 2 ps). The inset spectra figures in Fig. (A-C) are in linear scale to show the well-controlled relative amplitudes of the two selected lines and the strong suppression of the deselected lines. Fig. (D) shows the simulation results for a distorted cosine waveform with 18 dB suppression ratio of adjacent lines due to limited pulse shaper resolution.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Selecting four spectral lines, in which two lines in each pair are separated by 10 GHz and the two inner lines between the two pairs are separated by 400 GHz. The center to center separation of the line pairs is 410 GHz. The resulting waveforms have 100 ps macro period (corresponding to 10 GHz) and 2.44 ps micro period (corresponding to 410 GHz). The red and blue waveforms are controlled to be out of phase by applying π phase shift on one pair of spectral lines, as shown in the zoomed figures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Selecting four spectral lines (five consecutive lines with center line blocked). (B,C) Waveforms measured by intensity cross-correlation with different applied spectral phases (red and blue curves). Calculations (black circles) are essentially indistinguishable from the data, showing the high fidelity of the generated waveforms. (D,E) Waveforms are detected by a 50 GHz photo-diode and measured by sampling scope in persistent mode to demonstrate radio frequency arbitrary waveform generation (RF-AWG).

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