Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel all-optical digital-to-analog (D/A) conversion using pulse pattern recognition based on optical correlation processing. It is composed of pulse pattern recognition based on correlation processing and intensity adjustment using an optical attenuator. We obtain a single pulse as a result of pulse pattern recognition by using correlation processing between a target digital signal and a prepared correlation filter function. The obtained single pulse can be promptly fed to an output port as a corresponding analog signal through adequate intensity adjustment. Experimental results show that four-bit digital signals with 1.65ps interval can be successfully converted to analog signals corresponding to input digital signals.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. L. Shoop : Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion ( Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 2001 ).
  2. P. P. Ho , Q. Z. Wang , J. Chen , Q. D. Liu , and R. R. Alfano , “ Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation ,” Appl. Opt.   15 , 3425 – 3429 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Brzozowski and E. H. Sargent , “ All-optical Analog-to-Digital Converters,Hardlimiters,and Logic Gates ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   19 , 114 – 119 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Coppinger , A. S. Bhushan , and B. Jalali , ” Photonic time streach and its application to analog-to-digital conversion ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1309 – 1314 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. R. Clark , J. U. Kang , and R. D. Esman , ” Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion ,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett.   11 , 1168 – 1170 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Konishi , K. Tanimura , K. Asano , Y. Oshita , and Y. Ichioka , “ All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   11 2817 – 2823 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Ikeda , J. M. Abdul , S. Namiki , and K. Kitayama , ” Optical quantizing and coding for ultrafast A/D conversion using nonlinear fiber-optic switches based on Sagnac interferometer ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4296 – 4302 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-4296
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Oda and A. Maruta , ” 2-bit all-optical analog-to-digital conversion by slicing supercontinuum spectrum and switching with nonlinear optical loop mirror and its application to quaternary ASK-to-OOK modulation format converter ,” IEICE Trans. Commun.   E88-B , 1963 – 1969 ( 2005 )
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Saida , K. Okamoto , K. Uchiyama , K. Takiguchi , T. Shibata , and A. Sugita , “ Integrated optical digital-to-analogue converter and its application to pulse pattern recognition ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1237 – 1238 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das , “ Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using Electrooptic Modulators ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   15 , 117 – 119 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Furukawa , T. Konishi , Y. Oshita , W. Yu , K. Itoh , and Y. Ichioka , “ Design of header recognition filter for binary phase shift keying in header recognition unit using time-space conversion ,” Opt. Rev.   11 , 119 – 125 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Taniguchi , K. Matsuoka , and Y. Ichioka , “ Computer generated multiple-object discriminant correlation filters: design by simulated annealing ,” Appl. Opt.   34 , 1379 – 1385 ( 1995 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. G. Purchase , D. J. Brady , and K. Wagner , “ Time-of-flight cross correlation on a detector array for ultrafast packet detection ,h Opt. Lett. ,   18 , 2129 – 2131 ( 1993 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. H. Lee , P. C. Teh , Z. Yusoff , M. Ibsen , W. Belardi , T. M. Monro , and D. J. Richardson , “ A holy fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement ,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.   14 , 876 – 878 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. Oda and A. Maruta , ” 2-bit all-optical analog-to-digital conversion by slicing supercontinuum spectrum and switching with nonlinear optical loop mirror and its application to quaternary ASK-to-OOK modulation format converter ,” IEICE Trans. Commun.   E88-B , 1963 – 1969 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

K. Ikeda , J. M. Abdul , S. Namiki , and K. Kitayama , ” Optical quantizing and coding for ultrafast A/D conversion using nonlinear fiber-optic switches based on Sagnac interferometer ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4296 – 4302 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-4296
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. Furukawa , T. Konishi , Y. Oshita , W. Yu , K. Itoh , and Y. Ichioka , “ Design of header recognition filter for binary phase shift keying in header recognition unit using time-space conversion ,” Opt. Rev.   11 , 119 – 125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das , “ Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using Electrooptic Modulators ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   15 , 117 – 119 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

T. Konishi , K. Tanimura , K. Asano , Y. Oshita , and Y. Ichioka , “ All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   11 2817 – 2823 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee , P. C. Teh , Z. Yusoff , M. Ibsen , W. Belardi , T. M. Monro , and D. J. Richardson , “ A holy fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement ,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.   14 , 876 – 878 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

L. Brzozowski and E. H. Sargent , “ All-optical Analog-to-Digital Converters,Hardlimiters,and Logic Gates ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   19 , 114 – 119 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

T. Saida , K. Okamoto , K. Uchiyama , K. Takiguchi , T. Shibata , and A. Sugita , “ Integrated optical digital-to-analogue converter and its application to pulse pattern recognition ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1237 – 1238 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

F. Coppinger , A. S. Bhushan , and B. Jalali , ” Photonic time streach and its application to analog-to-digital conversion ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1309 – 1314 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

T. R. Clark , J. U. Kang , and R. D. Esman , ” Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion ,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett.   11 , 1168 – 1170 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. P. Ho , Q. Z. Wang , J. Chen , Q. D. Liu , and R. R. Alfano , “ Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation ,” Appl. Opt.   15 , 3425 – 3429 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

Abdul, J. M.

Alfano, R. R.

P. P. Ho , Q. Z. Wang , J. Chen , Q. D. Liu , and R. R. Alfano , “ Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation ,” Appl. Opt.   15 , 3425 – 3429 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Asano, K.

T. Konishi , K. Tanimura , K. Asano , Y. Oshita , and Y. Ichioka , “ All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   11 2817 – 2823 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Belardi, W.

J. H. Lee , P. C. Teh , Z. Yusoff , M. Ibsen , W. Belardi , T. M. Monro , and D. J. Richardson , “ A holy fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement ,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.   14 , 876 – 878 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Bhushan, A. S.

F. Coppinger , A. S. Bhushan , and B. Jalali , ” Photonic time streach and its application to analog-to-digital conversion ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1309 – 1314 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Brady, D. J.

Brzozowski, L.

Chen, J.

P. P. Ho , Q. Z. Wang , J. Chen , Q. D. Liu , and R. R. Alfano , “ Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation ,” Appl. Opt.   15 , 3425 – 3429 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark , J. U. Kang , and R. D. Esman , ” Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion ,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett.   11 , 1168 – 1170 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Coppinger, F.

F. Coppinger , A. S. Bhushan , and B. Jalali , ” Photonic time streach and its application to analog-to-digital conversion ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1309 – 1314 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Das, P. K.

A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das , “ Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using Electrooptic Modulators ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   15 , 117 – 119 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Esman, R. D.

T. R. Clark , J. U. Kang , and R. D. Esman , ” Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion ,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett.   11 , 1168 – 1170 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Furukawa, H.

H. Furukawa , T. Konishi , Y. Oshita , W. Yu , K. Itoh , and Y. Ichioka , “ Design of header recognition filter for binary phase shift keying in header recognition unit using time-space conversion ,” Opt. Rev.   11 , 119 – 125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Ho, P. P.

P. P. Ho , Q. Z. Wang , J. Chen , Q. D. Liu , and R. R. Alfano , “ Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation ,” Appl. Opt.   15 , 3425 – 3429 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Ibsen, M.

J. H. Lee , P. C. Teh , Z. Yusoff , M. Ibsen , W. Belardi , T. M. Monro , and D. J. Richardson , “ A holy fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement ,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.   14 , 876 – 878 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Ichioka, Y.

H. Furukawa , T. Konishi , Y. Oshita , W. Yu , K. Itoh , and Y. Ichioka , “ Design of header recognition filter for binary phase shift keying in header recognition unit using time-space conversion ,” Opt. Rev.   11 , 119 – 125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

T. Konishi , K. Tanimura , K. Asano , Y. Oshita , and Y. Ichioka , “ All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   11 2817 – 2823 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

M. Taniguchi , K. Matsuoka , and Y. Ichioka , “ Computer generated multiple-object discriminant correlation filters: design by simulated annealing ,” Appl. Opt.   34 , 1379 – 1385 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, K.

Itoh, K.

H. Furukawa , T. Konishi , Y. Oshita , W. Yu , K. Itoh , and Y. Ichioka , “ Design of header recognition filter for binary phase shift keying in header recognition unit using time-space conversion ,” Opt. Rev.   11 , 119 – 125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

F. Coppinger , A. S. Bhushan , and B. Jalali , ” Photonic time streach and its application to analog-to-digital conversion ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1309 – 1314 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. U.

T. R. Clark , J. U. Kang , and R. D. Esman , ” Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion ,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett.   11 , 1168 – 1170 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Kitayama, K.

Konishi, T.

H. Furukawa , T. Konishi , Y. Oshita , W. Yu , K. Itoh , and Y. Ichioka , “ Design of header recognition filter for binary phase shift keying in header recognition unit using time-space conversion ,” Opt. Rev.   11 , 119 – 125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

T. Konishi , K. Tanimura , K. Asano , Y. Oshita , and Y. Ichioka , “ All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   11 2817 – 2823 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee , P. C. Teh , Z. Yusoff , M. Ibsen , W. Belardi , T. M. Monro , and D. J. Richardson , “ A holy fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement ,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.   14 , 876 – 878 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q. D.

P. P. Ho , Q. Z. Wang , J. Chen , Q. D. Liu , and R. R. Alfano , “ Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation ,” Appl. Opt.   15 , 3425 – 3429 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Maruta, A.

S. Oda and A. Maruta , ” 2-bit all-optical analog-to-digital conversion by slicing supercontinuum spectrum and switching with nonlinear optical loop mirror and its application to quaternary ASK-to-OOK modulation format converter ,” IEICE Trans. Commun.   E88-B , 1963 – 1969 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

Matsuoka, K.

Monro, T. M.

J. H. Lee , P. C. Teh , Z. Yusoff , M. Ibsen , W. Belardi , T. M. Monro , and D. J. Richardson , “ A holy fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement ,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.   14 , 876 – 878 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Namiki, S.

Oda, S.

S. Oda and A. Maruta , ” 2-bit all-optical analog-to-digital conversion by slicing supercontinuum spectrum and switching with nonlinear optical loop mirror and its application to quaternary ASK-to-OOK modulation format converter ,” IEICE Trans. Commun.   E88-B , 1963 – 1969 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

T. Saida , K. Okamoto , K. Uchiyama , K. Takiguchi , T. Shibata , and A. Sugita , “ Integrated optical digital-to-analogue converter and its application to pulse pattern recognition ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1237 – 1238 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Oshita, Y.

H. Furukawa , T. Konishi , Y. Oshita , W. Yu , K. Itoh , and Y. Ichioka , “ Design of header recognition filter for binary phase shift keying in header recognition unit using time-space conversion ,” Opt. Rev.   11 , 119 – 125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

T. Konishi , K. Tanimura , K. Asano , Y. Oshita , and Y. Ichioka , “ All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   11 2817 – 2823 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Purchase, K. G.

Richardson, D. J.

J. H. Lee , P. C. Teh , Z. Yusoff , M. Ibsen , W. Belardi , T. M. Monro , and D. J. Richardson , “ A holy fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement ,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.   14 , 876 – 878 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Saida, T.

T. Saida , K. Okamoto , K. Uchiyama , K. Takiguchi , T. Shibata , and A. Sugita , “ Integrated optical digital-to-analogue converter and its application to pulse pattern recognition ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1237 – 1238 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Sargent, E. H.

Shibata, T.

T. Saida , K. Okamoto , K. Uchiyama , K. Takiguchi , T. Shibata , and A. Sugita , “ Integrated optical digital-to-analogue converter and its application to pulse pattern recognition ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1237 – 1238 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Shoop, B. L.

B. L. Shoop : Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion ( Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 2001 ).

Sugita, A.

T. Saida , K. Okamoto , K. Uchiyama , K. Takiguchi , T. Shibata , and A. Sugita , “ Integrated optical digital-to-analogue converter and its application to pulse pattern recognition ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1237 – 1238 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Takiguchi, K.

T. Saida , K. Okamoto , K. Uchiyama , K. Takiguchi , T. Shibata , and A. Sugita , “ Integrated optical digital-to-analogue converter and its application to pulse pattern recognition ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1237 – 1238 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, M.

Tanimura, K.

T. Konishi , K. Tanimura , K. Asano , Y. Oshita , and Y. Ichioka , “ All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   11 2817 – 2823 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Teh, P. C.

J. H. Lee , P. C. Teh , Z. Yusoff , M. Ibsen , W. Belardi , T. M. Monro , and D. J. Richardson , “ A holy fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement ,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.   14 , 876 – 878 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Uchiyama, K.

T. Saida , K. Okamoto , K. Uchiyama , K. Takiguchi , T. Shibata , and A. Sugita , “ Integrated optical digital-to-analogue converter and its application to pulse pattern recognition ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1237 – 1238 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Wagner, K.

Wang, Q. Z.

P. P. Ho , Q. Z. Wang , J. Chen , Q. D. Liu , and R. R. Alfano , “ Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation ,” Appl. Opt.   15 , 3425 – 3429 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Yacoubian, A.

A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das , “ Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using Electrooptic Modulators ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   15 , 117 – 119 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Yu, W.

H. Furukawa , T. Konishi , Y. Oshita , W. Yu , K. Itoh , and Y. Ichioka , “ Design of header recognition filter for binary phase shift keying in header recognition unit using time-space conversion ,” Opt. Rev.   11 , 119 – 125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Yusoff, Z.

J. H. Lee , P. C. Teh , Z. Yusoff , M. Ibsen , W. Belardi , T. M. Monro , and D. J. Richardson , “ A holy fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement ,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.   14 , 876 – 878 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

P. P. Ho , Q. Z. Wang , J. Chen , Q. D. Liu , and R. R. Alfano , “ Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation ,” Appl. Opt.   15 , 3425 – 3429 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

M. Taniguchi , K. Matsuoka , and Y. Ichioka , “ Computer generated multiple-object discriminant correlation filters: design by simulated annealing ,” Appl. Opt.   34 , 1379 – 1385 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Saida , K. Okamoto , K. Uchiyama , K. Takiguchi , T. Shibata , and A. Sugita , “ Integrated optical digital-to-analogue converter and its application to pulse pattern recognition ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1237 – 1238 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

J. H. Lee , P. C. Teh , Z. Yusoff , M. Ibsen , W. Belardi , T. M. Monro , and D. J. Richardson , “ A holy fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement ,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.   14 , 876 – 878 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das , “ Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using Electrooptic Modulators ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   15 , 117 – 119 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. R. Clark , J. U. Kang , and R. D. Esman , ” Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion ,” IEEE Photonics. Technol. Lett.   11 , 1168 – 1170 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

F. Coppinger , A. S. Bhushan , and B. Jalali , ” Photonic time streach and its application to analog-to-digital conversion ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1309 – 1314 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

S. Oda and A. Maruta , ” 2-bit all-optical analog-to-digital conversion by slicing supercontinuum spectrum and switching with nonlinear optical loop mirror and its application to quaternary ASK-to-OOK modulation format converter ,” IEICE Trans. Commun.   E88-B , 1963 – 1969 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

T. Konishi , K. Tanimura , K. Asano , Y. Oshita , and Y. Ichioka , “ All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   11 2817 – 2823 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Furukawa , T. Konishi , Y. Oshita , W. Yu , K. Itoh , and Y. Ichioka , “ Design of header recognition filter for binary phase shift keying in header recognition unit using time-space conversion ,” Opt. Rev.   11 , 119 – 125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

B. L. Shoop : Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion ( Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 2001 ).

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