Abstract

We report a novel micro-optical waveguide (MOW) on micro-actuating platform (MAP) light modulator for Q-switched all-fiber laser applications. The light modulator employs a fused biconical taper (FBT) coupler, which acts as MOW, mounted on an electromechanical system, MAP, where an axial stress over the waist of FBT coupler is precisely controlled to result in modulation of output power. The modulator was implemented in a clad pumped Yb3+-doped fiber laser cavity as a Q-switching element. Q-switching was successfully achieved at the repetition rate of 18.6kHz and average pulse energy of 1.4μJ. The proposed structure can be readily applied in power scaling up of all-fiber Q-switching laser systems.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Cai , X. Jiangzhen , H. Zhao , C. Gaoting , and F. Zujie , ” All-fiber Q-switched Erbium laser using a fiber bragg grating placed in loop mirror as a wavelength-selective intensity modulator ,” Opt. Fiber Conf. ,   ThGG31 , 654 – 655 ( 2002 ).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. Y. Hibino , F. Hanawa , T. Abe , and S. Shibata , “ Residual stress effects on refractive indices in undoped silica-core single-mode fibers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   50 , 1565 – 1566 ( 1987 ).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Suhir , “ Predicted stresses and strains in fused biconical taper couplers subjected to tension ,” Appl. Opt. ,   32 , 3237 – 3240 ( 1993 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. E. Siegman , in Lasers , ( Oxford: Oxford University , 1086 ).

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

H. Cai , X. Jiangzhen , H. Zhao , C. Gaoting , and F. Zujie , ” All-fiber Q-switched Erbium laser using a fiber bragg grating placed in loop mirror as a wavelength-selective intensity modulator ,” Opt. Fiber Conf. ,   ThGG31 , 654 – 655 ( 2002 ).

2000 (1)

D-W. Huang , W-F. Liu , and C. C. Yang , “ Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 1153 – 1135 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1988 (1)

F. Bilodeau , K. O. Hill , S. Faucher , and D. C. Johnson , “ Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: Fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure ,” J. Lightwave Technol. ,   6 , 1476 – 1482 ( 1988 ).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

Y. Hibino , F. Hanawa , T. Abe , and S. Shibata , “ Residual stress effects on refractive indices in undoped silica-core single-mode fibers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   50 , 1565 – 1566 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

C-P. Amado , J. F. D. Michel , and J. S. Herbert , “ Miniature CW and active interally Q-switched Nd:MgO:LiNbO 3 lasers ,” J. Quantum Electron. ,   QE-23 , 262 – 266 ( 1987 ).

1980 (1)

Abe, T.

Y. Hibino , F. Hanawa , T. Abe , and S. Shibata , “ Residual stress effects on refractive indices in undoped silica-core single-mode fibers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   50 , 1565 – 1566 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

Amado, C-P.

C-P. Amado , J. F. D. Michel , and J. S. Herbert , “ Miniature CW and active interally Q-switched Nd:MgO:LiNbO 3 lasers ,” J. Quantum Electron. ,   QE-23 , 262 – 266 ( 1987 ).

Andres, M. V.

Bilodeau, F.

F. Bilodeau , K. O. Hill , S. Faucher , and D. C. Johnson , “ Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: Fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure ,” J. Lightwave Technol. ,   6 , 1476 – 1482 ( 1988 ).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf , in Principles of Optics , ( New York: Macmillan , 1964 ).

Cai, H.

H. Cai , X. Jiangzhen , H. Zhao , C. Gaoting , and F. Zujie , ” All-fiber Q-switched Erbium laser using a fiber bragg grating placed in loop mirror as a wavelength-selective intensity modulator ,” Opt. Fiber Conf. ,   ThGG31 , 654 – 655 ( 2002 ).

Chang, R. K.

Chen, Z. J.

Diez, A.

Duchowicz, R.

Faucher, S.

F. Bilodeau , K. O. Hill , S. Faucher , and D. C. Johnson , “ Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: Fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure ,” J. Lightwave Technol. ,   6 , 1476 – 1482 ( 1988 ).
[CrossRef]

Fields, M. H.

Gaoting, C.

H. Cai , X. Jiangzhen , H. Zhao , C. Gaoting , and F. Zujie , ” All-fiber Q-switched Erbium laser using a fiber bragg grating placed in loop mirror as a wavelength-selective intensity modulator ,” Opt. Fiber Conf. ,   ThGG31 , 654 – 655 ( 2002 ).

Grudinin, A. B.

Han, S. W.

Hanawa, F.

Y. Hibino , F. Hanawa , T. Abe , and S. Shibata , “ Residual stress effects on refractive indices in undoped silica-core single-mode fibers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   50 , 1565 – 1566 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

Herbert, J. S.

C-P. Amado , J. F. D. Michel , and J. S. Herbert , “ Miniature CW and active interally Q-switched Nd:MgO:LiNbO 3 lasers ,” J. Quantum Electron. ,   QE-23 , 262 – 266 ( 1987 ).

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino , F. Hanawa , T. Abe , and S. Shibata , “ Residual stress effects on refractive indices in undoped silica-core single-mode fibers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   50 , 1565 – 1566 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

F. Bilodeau , K. O. Hill , S. Faucher , and D. C. Johnson , “ Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: Fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure ,” J. Lightwave Technol. ,   6 , 1476 – 1482 ( 1988 ).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D-W.

D-W. Huang , W-F. Liu , and C. C. Yang , “ Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 1153 – 1135 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. S.

Jiangzhen, X.

H. Cai , X. Jiangzhen , H. Zhao , C. Gaoting , and F. Zujie , ” All-fiber Q-switched Erbium laser using a fiber bragg grating placed in loop mirror as a wavelength-selective intensity modulator ,” Opt. Fiber Conf. ,   ThGG31 , 654 – 655 ( 2002 ).

Johnson, D. C.

F. Bilodeau , K. O. Hill , S. Faucher , and D. C. Johnson , “ Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: Fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure ,” J. Lightwave Technol. ,   6 , 1476 – 1482 ( 1988 ).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Jhang W.

Liu, W-F.

D-W. Huang , W-F. Liu , and C. C. Yang , “ Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 1153 – 1135 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

W. Snyder and J. D. Love , in Optical Waveguide Theory , ( London: Chapman & Hall , 1983 ).

Michel, J. F. D.

C-P. Amado , J. F. D. Michel , and J. S. Herbert , “ Miniature CW and active interally Q-switched Nd:MgO:LiNbO 3 lasers ,” J. Quantum Electron. ,   QE-23 , 262 – 266 ( 1987 ).

Minelly, J. D.

Oh, K.

Park, C. S.

Perez-Millan, P.

Popp, J.

Porta, J.

Scherer, G. W.

Shibata, S.

Y. Hibino , F. Hanawa , T. Abe , and S. Shibata , “ Residual stress effects on refractive indices in undoped silica-core single-mode fibers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   50 , 1565 – 1566 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

Shin, W.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman , in Lasers , ( Oxford: Oxford University , 1086 ).

Snyder, W.

W. Snyder and J. D. Love , in Optical Waveguide Theory , ( London: Chapman & Hall , 1983 ).

Suhir, E.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf , in Principles of Optics , ( New York: Macmillan , 1964 ).

Yang, C. C.

D-W. Huang , W-F. Liu , and C. C. Yang , “ Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 1153 – 1135 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Zalvidea, D.

Zhao, H.

H. Cai , X. Jiangzhen , H. Zhao , C. Gaoting , and F. Zujie , ” All-fiber Q-switched Erbium laser using a fiber bragg grating placed in loop mirror as a wavelength-selective intensity modulator ,” Opt. Fiber Conf. ,   ThGG31 , 654 – 655 ( 2002 ).

Zujie, F.

H. Cai , X. Jiangzhen , H. Zhao , C. Gaoting , and F. Zujie , ” All-fiber Q-switched Erbium laser using a fiber bragg grating placed in loop mirror as a wavelength-selective intensity modulator ,” Opt. Fiber Conf. ,   ThGG31 , 654 – 655 ( 2002 ).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Hibino , F. Hanawa , T. Abe , and S. Shibata , “ Residual stress effects on refractive indices in undoped silica-core single-mode fibers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,   50 , 1565 – 1566 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D-W. Huang , W-F. Liu , and C. C. Yang , “ Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 1153 – 1135 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Oh , W. Shin , Y. S. Jeong , and Jhang W. Lee , “ Development of micro-optical waveguide on micro-actuating platform technologies for reconfigurable optical networking ,” J. Lightwave Technol. ,   23 , 533 – 542 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau , K. O. Hill , S. Faucher , and D. C. Johnson , “ Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: Fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure ,” J. Lightwave Technol. ,   6 , 1476 – 1482 ( 1988 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C-P. Amado , J. F. D. Michel , and J. S. Herbert , “ Miniature CW and active interally Q-switched Nd:MgO:LiNbO 3 lasers ,” J. Quantum Electron. ,   QE-23 , 262 – 266 ( 1987 ).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Conf. (1)

H. Cai , X. Jiangzhen , H. Zhao , C. Gaoting , and F. Zujie , ” All-fiber Q-switched Erbium laser using a fiber bragg grating placed in loop mirror as a wavelength-selective intensity modulator ,” Opt. Fiber Conf. ,   ThGG31 , 654 – 655 ( 2002 ).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

A. E. Siegman , in Lasers , ( Oxford: Oxford University , 1086 ).

W. Snyder and J. D. Love , in Optical Waveguide Theory , ( London: Chapman & Hall , 1983 ).

M. Born and E. Wolf , in Principles of Optics , ( New York: Macmillan , 1964 ).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of device operation principle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Actual photograph of assembled single stage MOW on MAP device.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral response with applied voltages of MOW on MAP modulator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement setup for frequency response investigation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Frequency response of the MOW on MAP modulator.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Impulse response of the proposed device.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Energy extraction efficiency versus initial inversion ratio.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Q-switched Yb3+-doped fiber laser setup.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Q-switched laser pulses with pump powers of (a) 4.1W and (b) 5.2W.

Equations (5)

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C ( z ) = 2 Δ ρ 0 U 2 V 3 K 0 ( Wd / ρ 0 ) K 1 2 ( W )
V = 2 π λ ρ n co 2 Δ , 2 Δ = n co 2 n cl 2 n co 2 .
Δ n r C b σ z = C b F z A
T b τ c r 1 ( 25 ± 5 )
τ pluse r 1 ln r × τ c

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