Abstract

A surface-micromachined high-extinction-ratio polarizing beam splitter (PBS) using low absorptive silicon nitride layers for blue wavelength applications are demonstrated. The micro polarizing beam splitter consists of novel stack of two silicon nitride layers separated by an air gap. A PBS optimization model is established to achieve both high extinction-ratio and adequate process margin. The polarization extinction ratios of 25 dB for the reflected light and 15 dB for the transmitted light were experimentally achieved at λ=405 nm. The fabrication of the PBS is compatible with other micro diffractive elements to build a micro optical bench, thus, feasible for short wavelength optical storage applications.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Pu, Z. Zhu, and Y. H. Lo, "Surface micromachined integrated optical polarization beam splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 988-990 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. K. Schuegraf, ed., Thin Film Deposition Process and Techniques (Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ 1988).
  3. S. Wolf and R. Tauber, Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era, Vol. 1: Process Technology (Lattice, Sunset Beach, CA, 1986).
  4. M. Sekimoto, H. Yoshihara, and T. Ohkubo, "Silicon nitride single-layer x-ray mask," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 1017-1021 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. G. E. Gardeniers, H. A. C. Tilmans and C. C. G. Visser, "LPCVD silicon-rich silicon nitride films for applications in micromechanics, studied with statistical experimental design," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 2879-2892 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Maier-Schneider, A. Ersoy, J. Maibach, D. Schneider, and E. Obermeier, "Influence of annealing on elastic properties of LPCVD silicon nitride and LPCVD polysilicon," Sens. Materials 7, 121-129 (1995).
  7. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (University Press, Cambridge, 1999), Chap. 1.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Pu, Z. Zhu, and Y. H. Lo, "Surface micromachined integrated optical polarization beam splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 988-990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Sekimoto, H. Yoshihara, and T. Ohkubo, "Silicon nitride single-layer x-ray mask," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 1017-1021 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

J. G. E. Gardeniers, H. A. C. Tilmans and C. C. G. Visser, "LPCVD silicon-rich silicon nitride films for applications in micromechanics, studied with statistical experimental design," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 2879-2892 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Materials (1)

D. Maier-Schneider, A. Ersoy, J. Maibach, D. Schneider, and E. Obermeier, "Influence of annealing on elastic properties of LPCVD silicon nitride and LPCVD polysilicon," Sens. Materials 7, 121-129 (1995).

Other (3)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (University Press, Cambridge, 1999), Chap. 1.

K. K. Schuegraf, ed., Thin Film Deposition Process and Techniques (Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ 1988).

S. Wolf and R. Tauber, Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era, Vol. 1: Process Technology (Lattice, Sunset Beach, CA, 1986).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dependence of (a) residual stress and (b) complex refractive index, n + ik, on the reaction gasratio for various annealing times.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Propagation of an electromagnetic wave through a stack of films of thickness di and refractive index Ni.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated reflectivity to transmissivity ratio of the TE mode as a function of d2 and d3 at theBrewster angle incidence.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic drawing of the micro PBS: (a) cross-sectional and (b) top view.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Cross section of the processing sequence for fabricating the micro PBS.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM photographs (a) the micro pop-up PBS and (b) a micro optical pickup.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Beam profiles of TE mode before (left) and after (right) reflecting from the micro-PBS. (b) Beam profiles of TM mode before (left) and after (right) transmitting through the micro PBS.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Optical Performance of the Pop-up Micro PBS at Brewster Angle Incidence

Equations (8)

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M = M SiN 1 M air M SiN 2 = [ B C ] = Π i = 1 3 [ cos ( δ i ) i η i sin ( δ i ) i η i sin ( δ i ) cos ( δ i ) ] [ 1 η a ]
δ i = 2 π λ N i d i cos ( θ i )
η i = N i cos θ i for TE Mode
η a = cos θ a for TE Mode
η i = N i / cos θ i for TM Mode
η a = 1 / cos θ a for TM Mode
R = ( η a B C η a B + C ) 2 , T = 4 η a R e ( η a ) ( η a B + C ) ( η a B C ) * , A = 4 η a R e ( BC * η a ) ( η a B + C ) 2
σ T = 10 × log 10 ( T TM T TE ) , σ R = 10 × log 10 ( R TE R TM )

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