Abstract

Generation and dynamic switching of optical vortices from charge 1 up to charge 6 at wavelength of 0.6328μm by one dynamic gamma-correction liquid crystal spiral phase plate are reported. The liquid crystal spiral phase plate comprises 46 slices, which are driven by a 16-channel voltage output card. The spiral phase plate was designed based on the relationship between the topological charge purity of an optical vortex generated by the spiral phase plate and the total number of slices. The calculation results show that a minimum slice number of 44 is required for generating optical vortices up to charge 6 with charge purity above 94%.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. C. Cheong, W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, and L.-S. Zhang, "Direct electron-beam writing of continuous spiral phase plates sin negative resist with high power efficiency for optical manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5784 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. G. White, C. P. Smith, N. R. Heckenberg, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, R. McDuff, C. O. Weiss, and Chr. Tamm, "Interferometric measurements of phase singularities in the output of a visible laser," J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2531 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh1, E. R. Elie, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer and G. W't Hooft, "Half-integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S288- S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons," Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (5)

M. P. MacDonald, "Revolving interference pattern for the rotation of optically trapped particles," Opt. Commun. 201, 21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen and J. P. Woerdman, "Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, and E. Hasman, "Efficient formation of pure helical laser beams," Opt. Commun. 182, 205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, "Performance of a cylindrical lens mode converter for producing Laguerre- Gaussian laser modes," Opt. Commun. 159, 13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. W.Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel , M. Kristensen and J. P. Woerdman, "Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phy. Rev. A (1)

Xinye Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, "Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam," Phy. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R.Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, "Laser modes with helical wave fronts," Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

T. Kuga, Y. T., Noritsugu Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu and H. Sasada, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Rotational frequency shift of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 013601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial1, "Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, N. M. Burykin, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Holographic spectral selectors and filters based on phase gratings and planar waveguides," in Optical Engineering, Proc. SPIE 1574, 148-153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Phase retardation versus driving voltage of the LC cell.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Photograph of a LC SPP cell; (b). Photograph of an assembled LC SPP module.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The setup for verification of optical vortex.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fork like interference patterns corresponding to charges from 1 up to 6.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(2.06MB) Movie of dynamic switching of radial spokes interference patterns from charges 1 to 6.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Setup for observing Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of Gaussian beam passing through the LC SPP.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(1.58MB) Movie of Fraunhofer diffraction patterns of Gaussian beams passing through LC SPP with charges from 1 to 6.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Minimum slice number of a SPP and the corresponding topological charge of a vortex beam generated with over 94% purity.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ( ϕ ) = e i mod ( s ϕ 2 π ) 2 m π s
c n = 1 2 π 0 2 π f ( ϕ ) exp ( j n ϕ ) d ϕ = 1 2 π 0 2 π e i mod ( 2 π ) 2 m π s exp ( j n ϕ ) d ϕ
u ( ρ , ϕ , z ) = F ( ρ , z ) n = + c n exp ( j n ϕ )
R = 1 c m 2

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