Abstract

Nonlinear propagation of fs laser pulses in liquids and the dynamic processes of filamentation such as self-focusing, intensity clamping, and evolution of white light production have been analyzed by using one- and two-photon fluorescence. The energy losses of laser pulses caused by multiphoton absorption and conical emission have been measured respectively by z-scan technique. Numerical simulations of fs laser propagation in water have been made to explain the evolution of white light production as well as the small-scale filaments in liquids we have observed by a nonlinear fluorescence technique.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin , “ Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media ,” J. opt. Soc. Am. B   16 , 637 – 650 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Henz and J. Herrmann , “ Self-channeling and pulse shortening of femtosecond pulses in multiphoton-ionized dispersive dielectric solids ,” Phys. Rev. A   59 , 2528 – 2531 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Bergé and A. Couairon , “ Gas-Induced Solitons ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1003 – 1006 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
    [CrossRef]
  7. Hélène Ward and Luc Bergé , “ Temporal Shaping of Femtosecond Solitary Pulses in Photoionized Media ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 053901 -4 ( 2003 ).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Méchain , A. Couairon , M. Franco , B. Prade , and A. Mysyrowicz , “ Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air ,” Phys, Rev. Lett.   93 , 035003 ( 2004 )
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. S. Golubtsov , V. P. Kandidov , I. S. Golubtsov , and O. G. Kosareva , “ Conical emission of high-power femtosecond laser pulse in the atmosphere ,” Atm. Oceanic opt.   14 , 303 – 315 ( 2001 ).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Kolesik , G. Katona , J. V. Moloney , and E. M. Wright , “ Physical Factors Limiting the Spectral Extent and Band Gap Dependence of Supercontinuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   91 , 043905 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L. Chin , W. Yu , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Space-frequency coupling, conical waves, and small-scale filamentation in water ,” Phys. Rev. A   2005 (in press).
  28. A. Dubietis , E. Gaižauskas , G. Tamošauskas , and P. Di Trapani , “ Light Filaments without Self-Channeling ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   92 , 253903 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. H. Schroeder and S. L Chin , “ Visualization of the evolution of multiple filaments in methanol ,” Opt. Commun.   234 , 399 – 406 ( 2004 )
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Schroeder , J. Liu , and S. L. Chin , “ From random to controlled small-scale filamentation in water ,” Opt. Express.   12 , 4768 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URIOPEX-12-20-4768 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L Chin , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 161105 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. H. Fan , J. Sun , and J. P. Longtin , “ Breakdown threshold and localized electron density in water induced by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 2530 – 2536 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  34. I.A. Danilchenko arXiv2 :physics/0306020 v1 June 2003 .

2005 (2)

M. Centurion , Y. Pu , M. Tsang , and D. Psaltis , “ Dynamics of filament formation in a Kerr medium ,” Phys. Rev. A   71 , 063811 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L Chin , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 161105 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

2004 (7)

R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik , E. M. Wright , and J. V. Moloney , “ Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   92 , 253901 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis , E. Gaižauskas , G. Tamošauskas , and P. Di Trapani , “ Light Filaments without Self-Channeling ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   92 , 253903 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schroeder and S. L Chin , “ Visualization of the evolution of multiple filaments in methanol ,” Opt. Commun.   234 , 399 – 406 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

H. Schroeder , J. Liu , and S. L. Chin , “ From random to controlled small-scale filamentation in water ,” Opt. Express.   12 , 4768 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URIOPEX-12-20-4768 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain , A. Couairon , M. Franco , B. Prade , and A. Mysyrowicz , “ Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air ,” Phys, Rev. Lett.   93 , 035003 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

Hélène Ward and Luc Bergé , “ Temporal Shaping of Femtosecond Solitary Pulses in Photoionized Media ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 053901 -4 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti , S. Trillo , P. Di Trapani , G. Valiulis , A. Piskarskas , O. Jedrkiewicz , and J. Trull , “ Nonlinear Electromagnetic X Waves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 170406 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti , “ X-wave-mediated instability of plane waves in Kerr media ,” Phys. Rev. E   68 , 016606 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik , G. Katona , J. V. Moloney , and E. M. Wright , “ Physical Factors Limiting the Spectral Extent and Band Gap Dependence of Supercontinuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   91 , 043905 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. H. Fan , J. Sun , and J. P. Longtin , “ Breakdown threshold and localized electron density in water induced by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 2530 – 2536 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi , G. Arrighi , and P. Di Trapani , “ Solitonic all-optical switch based on the fractional talbot effect ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 2097 – 2099 ( 2002 )
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

L. Bergé and A. Couairon , “ Gas-Induced Solitons ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1003 – 1006 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Golubtsov , V. P. Kandidov , I. S. Golubtsov , and O. G. Kosareva , “ Conical emission of high-power femtosecond laser pulse in the atmosphere ,” Atm. Oceanic opt.   14 , 303 – 315 ( 2001 ).

2000 (3)

A. L. Gaeta , “ Catastrophic Collapse of Ultrashort Pulses ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 3582 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz , “ Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics ,” Rev. Mod. Phys.   72 , 545 – 591 ( 2000 )
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Henz and J. Herrmann , “ Self-channeling and pulse shortening of femtosecond pulses in multiphoton-ionized dispersive dielectric solids ,” Phys. Rev. A   59 , 2528 – 2531 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zozulya , S. A. Diddams , A. G. Van Engen , and T. S. Clement , “ Propagation Dynamics of Intense Femtosecond Pulses: Multiple Splittings, Coalescence, and Continuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 1430 – 1433 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin , “ Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media ,” J. opt. Soc. Am. B   16 , 637 – 650 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

P. B. Corkum , C. Rolland , and T. Srinivasan-Rao , “ Supercontinuum Generation in Gases ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   57 , 2268 – 2271 ( 1986 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1965 (1)

Y. R. Shen and Y. J. Shaham , “ Beam Deterioration and Stimulated Raman Effect ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   15 , 1008 – 1011 ( 1965 ).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Andre, Y-B.

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arrighi, G.

Baba, M.

R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé and A. Couairon , “ Gas-Induced Solitons ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1003 – 1006 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergé, Luc

Hélène Ward and Luc Bergé , “ Temporal Shaping of Femtosecond Solitary Pulses in Photoionized Media ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 053901 -4 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz , “ Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics ,” Rev. Mod. Phys.   72 , 545 – 591 ( 2000 )
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Centurion, M.

M. Centurion , Y. Pu , M. Tsang , and D. Psaltis , “ Dynamics of filament formation in a Kerr medium ,” Phys. Rev. A   71 , 063811 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, S. L

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L Chin , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 161105 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Schroeder and S. L Chin , “ Visualization of the evolution of multiple filaments in methanol ,” Opt. Commun.   234 , 399 – 406 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

H. Schroeder , J. Liu , and S. L. Chin , “ From random to controlled small-scale filamentation in water ,” Opt. Express.   12 , 4768 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URIOPEX-12-20-4768 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin , “ Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media ,” J. opt. Soc. Am. B   16 , 637 – 650 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva , V. P. Kandidov , A. Brodeur , C. Y. Chien , and S. L. Chin , “ Conical emission fromlaserplasma interactions in the filamentationof powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 1332 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L. Chin , W. Yu , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Space-frequency coupling, conical waves, and small-scale filamentation in water ,” Phys. Rev. A   2005 (in press).

Clement, T. S.

A. A. Zozulya , S. A. Diddams , A. G. Van Engen , and T. S. Clement , “ Propagation Dynamics of Intense Femtosecond Pulses: Multiple Splittings, Coalescence, and Continuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 1430 – 1433 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

C. Conti , S. Trillo , P. Di Trapani , G. Valiulis , A. Piskarskas , O. Jedrkiewicz , and J. Trull , “ Nonlinear Electromagnetic X Waves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 170406 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti , “ X-wave-mediated instability of plane waves in Kerr media ,” Phys. Rev. E   68 , 016606 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum , C. Rolland , and T. Srinivasan-Rao , “ Supercontinuum Generation in Gases ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   57 , 2268 – 2271 ( 1986 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

G. Méchain , A. Couairon , M. Franco , B. Prade , and A. Mysyrowicz , “ Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air ,” Phys, Rev. Lett.   93 , 035003 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and A. Couairon , “ Gas-Induced Solitons ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1003 – 1006 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curley, P. F.

Danilchenko, I.A.

I.A. Danilchenko arXiv2 :physics/0306020 v1 June 2003 .

Di Trapani, P.

A. Dubietis , E. Gaižauskas , G. Tamošauskas , and P. Di Trapani , “ Light Filaments without Self-Channeling ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   92 , 253903 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti , S. Trillo , P. Di Trapani , G. Valiulis , A. Piskarskas , O. Jedrkiewicz , and J. Trull , “ Nonlinear Electromagnetic X Waves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 170406 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minardi , G. Arrighi , and P. Di Trapani , “ Solitonic all-optical switch based on the fractional talbot effect ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 2097 – 2099 ( 2002 )
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

A. A. Zozulya , S. A. Diddams , A. G. Van Engen , and T. S. Clement , “ Propagation Dynamics of Intense Femtosecond Pulses: Multiple Splittings, Coalescence, and Continuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 1430 – 1433 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis , E. Gaižauskas , G. Tamošauskas , and P. Di Trapani , “ Light Filaments without Self-Channeling ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   92 , 253903 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, C. H.

C. H. Fan , J. Sun , and J. P. Longtin , “ Breakdown threshold and localized electron density in water induced by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 2530 – 2536 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

G. Méchain , A. Couairon , M. Franco , B. Prade , and A. Mysyrowicz , “ Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air ,” Phys, Rev. Lett.   93 , 035003 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta , “ Catastrophic Collapse of Ultrashort Pulses ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 3582 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaižauskas, E.

A. Dubietis , E. Gaižauskas , G. Tamošauskas , and P. Di Trapani , “ Light Filaments without Self-Channeling ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   92 , 253903 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Golub, I.

Golubtsov, I. S.

V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Golubtsov , V. P. Kandidov , I. S. Golubtsov , and O. G. Kosareva , “ Conical emission of high-power femtosecond laser pulse in the atmosphere ,” Atm. Oceanic opt.   14 , 303 – 315 ( 2001 ).

I. S. Golubtsov , V. P. Kandidov , I. S. Golubtsov , and O. G. Kosareva , “ Conical emission of high-power femtosecond laser pulse in the atmosphere ,” Atm. Oceanic opt.   14 , 303 – 315 ( 2001 ).

Grillon, G.

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Henz, S.

S. Henz and J. Herrmann , “ Self-channeling and pulse shortening of femtosecond pulses in multiphoton-ionized dispersive dielectric solids ,” Phys. Rev. A   59 , 2528 – 2531 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

S. Henz and J. Herrmann , “ Self-channeling and pulse shortening of femtosecond pulses in multiphoton-ionized dispersive dielectric solids ,” Phys. Rev. A   59 , 2528 – 2531 ( 1999 ).
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R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Jedrkiewicz, O.

C. Conti , S. Trillo , P. Di Trapani , G. Valiulis , A. Piskarskas , O. Jedrkiewicz , and J. Trull , “ Nonlinear Electromagnetic X Waves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 170406 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kandidov, V. P.

I. S. Golubtsov , V. P. Kandidov , I. S. Golubtsov , and O. G. Kosareva , “ Conical emission of high-power femtosecond laser pulse in the atmosphere ,” Atm. Oceanic opt.   14 , 303 – 315 ( 2001 ).

O. G. Kosareva , V. P. Kandidov , A. Brodeur , C. Y. Chien , and S. L. Chin , “ Conical emission fromlaserplasma interactions in the filamentationof powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 1332 ( 1997 ).
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Kandidov, V.P.

V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
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M. Kolesik , G. Katona , J. V. Moloney , and E. M. Wright , “ Physical Factors Limiting the Spectral Extent and Band Gap Dependence of Supercontinuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   91 , 043905 ( 2003 ).
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Keller, U.

C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
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Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik , E. M. Wright , and J. V. Moloney , “ Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   92 , 253901 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik , G. Katona , J. V. Moloney , and E. M. Wright , “ Physical Factors Limiting the Spectral Extent and Band Gap Dependence of Supercontinuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   91 , 043905 ( 2003 ).
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Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
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Kosareva, O. G.

V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Golubtsov , V. P. Kandidov , I. S. Golubtsov , and O. G. Kosareva , “ Conical emission of high-power femtosecond laser pulse in the atmosphere ,” Atm. Oceanic opt.   14 , 303 – 315 ( 2001 ).

O. G. Kosareva , V. P. Kandidov , A. Brodeur , C. Y. Chien , and S. L. Chin , “ Conical emission fromlaserplasma interactions in the filamentationof powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 1332 ( 1997 ).
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R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L Chin , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 161105 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L. Chin , W. Yu , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Space-frequency coupling, conical waves, and small-scale filamentation in water ,” Phys. Rev. A   2005 (in press).

Liu, J.

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L Chin , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 161105 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Schroeder , J. Liu , and S. L. Chin , “ From random to controlled small-scale filamentation in water ,” Opt. Express.   12 , 4768 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URIOPEX-12-20-4768 .
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J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L. Chin , W. Yu , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Space-frequency coupling, conical waves, and small-scale filamentation in water ,” Phys. Rev. A   2005 (in press).

Liu, W.

V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Longtin, J. P.

C. H. Fan , J. Sun , and J. P. Longtin , “ Breakdown threshold and localized electron density in water induced by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 2530 – 2536 ( 2002 ).
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G. Méchain , A. Couairon , M. Franco , B. Prade , and A. Mysyrowicz , “ Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air ,” Phys, Rev. Lett.   93 , 035003 ( 2004 )
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J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
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Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik , E. M. Wright , and J. V. Moloney , “ Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   92 , 253901 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik , G. Katona , J. V. Moloney , and E. M. Wright , “ Physical Factors Limiting the Spectral Extent and Band Gap Dependence of Supercontinuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   91 , 043905 ( 2003 ).
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Mysyrowicz, A.

C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain , A. Couairon , M. Franco , B. Prade , and A. Mysyrowicz , “ Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air ,” Phys, Rev. Lett.   93 , 035003 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
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E. T. J. Nibbering , P. F. Curley , G. Grillon , B. S. Prade , M. A. Franco , F. Salin , and A. Mysyrowicz , “ Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 62 ( 1996 ).
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P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
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Piskarskas, A.

C. Conti , S. Trillo , P. Di Trapani , G. Valiulis , A. Piskarskas , O. Jedrkiewicz , and J. Trull , “ Nonlinear Electromagnetic X Waves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 170406 ( 2003 ).
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Prade, B.

G. Méchain , A. Couairon , M. Franco , B. Prade , and A. Mysyrowicz , “ Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air ,” Phys, Rev. Lett.   93 , 035003 ( 2004 )
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Prade, B. S.

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M. Centurion , Y. Pu , M. Tsang , and D. Psaltis , “ Dynamics of filament formation in a Kerr medium ,” Phys. Rev. A   71 , 063811 ( 2005 ).
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M. Centurion , Y. Pu , M. Tsang , and D. Psaltis , “ Dynamics of filament formation in a Kerr medium ,” Phys. Rev. A   71 , 063811 ( 2005 ).
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P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
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J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
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P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
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P. B. Corkum , C. Rolland , and T. Srinivasan-Rao , “ Supercontinuum Generation in Gases ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   57 , 2268 – 2271 ( 1986 ).
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P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
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Ryasnyansky, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
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Sakakibara, S.

R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
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Salin, F.

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
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P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
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P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

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H. Schroeder , J. Liu , and S. L. Chin , “ From random to controlled small-scale filamentation in water ,” Opt. Express.   12 , 4768 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URIOPEX-12-20-4768 .
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H. Schroeder and S. L Chin , “ Visualization of the evolution of multiple filaments in methanol ,” Opt. Commun.   234 , 399 – 406 ( 2004 )
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J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L Chin , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 161105 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L. Chin , W. Yu , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Space-frequency coupling, conical waves, and small-scale filamentation in water ,” Phys. Rev. A   2005 (in press).

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G. Y. Yang and Y. R. Shen , “ Spectral broadening of ultrashort pulses in a nonlinear medium ,” Opt. Lett.   9 , 510 – 512 ( 1984 ).
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Y. R. Shen and Y. J. Shaham , “ Beam Deterioration and Stimulated Raman Effect ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   15 , 1008 – 1011 ( 1965 ).
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Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum , C. Rolland , and T. Srinivasan-Rao , “ Supercontinuum Generation in Gases ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   57 , 2268 – 2271 ( 1986 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, B.

P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

C. H. Fan , J. Sun , and J. P. Longtin , “ Breakdown threshold and localized electron density in water induced by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 2530 – 2536 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
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A. Dubietis , E. Gaižauskas , G. Tamošauskas , and P. Di Trapani , “ Light Filaments without Self-Channeling ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   92 , 253903 ( 2004 ).
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Trillo, S.

C. Conti , S. Trillo , P. Di Trapani , G. Valiulis , A. Piskarskas , O. Jedrkiewicz , and J. Trull , “ Nonlinear Electromagnetic X Waves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 170406 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trull, J.

C. Conti , S. Trillo , P. Di Trapani , G. Valiulis , A. Piskarskas , O. Jedrkiewicz , and J. Trull , “ Nonlinear Electromagnetic X Waves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 170406 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, M.

M. Centurion , Y. Pu , M. Tsang , and D. Psaltis , “ Dynamics of filament formation in a Kerr medium ,” Phys. Rev. A   71 , 063811 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Turu, M.

R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Valiulis, G.

C. Conti , S. Trillo , P. Di Trapani , G. Valiulis , A. Piskarskas , O. Jedrkiewicz , and J. Trull , “ Nonlinear Electromagnetic X Waves ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 170406 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Engen, A. G.

A. A. Zozulya , S. A. Diddams , A. G. Van Engen , and T. S. Clement , “ Propagation Dynamics of Intense Femtosecond Pulses: Multiple Splittings, Coalescence, and Continuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 1430 – 1433 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Waite, D.

P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
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Hélène Ward and Luc Bergé , “ Temporal Shaping of Femtosecond Solitary Pulses in Photoionized Media ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 053901 -4 ( 2003 ).
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Wedekind, C.

P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. -P.

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

M. Kolesik , E. M. Wright , and J. V. Moloney , “ Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   92 , 253901 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik , G. Katona , J. V. Moloney , and E. M. Wright , “ Physical Factors Limiting the Spectral Extent and Band Gap Dependence of Supercontinuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   91 , 043905 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, Q.

Xu, Z.

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L Chin , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 161105 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L. Chin , W. Yu , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Space-frequency coupling, conical waves, and small-scale filamentation in water ,” Phys. Rev. A   2005 (in press).

Yang, G. Y.

Yoo, K. M.

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, W.

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L. Chin , W. Yu , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Space-frequency coupling, conical waves, and small-scale filamentation in water ,” Phys. Rev. A   2005 (in press).

Ziener, C.

P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Zozulya, A. A.

A. A. Zozulya , S. A. Diddams , A. G. Van Engen , and T. S. Clement , “ Propagation Dynamics of Intense Femtosecond Pulses: Multiple Splittings, Coalescence, and Continuum Generation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 1430 – 1433 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl Phys B (1)

V.P. Kandidov , O. G. Kosareva , I. S. Golubtsov , W. Liu , A. Becker , N. Akozbek , C. M. Bowden , and S. L. Chin , “ Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation) ,” Appl Phys B   77 , 149 – 165 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

R. A. Ganeev , A. I. Ryasnyansky , M. Baba , M. Suzuki , N. Ishizawa , M. Turu , S. Sakakibara , and H. Kuroda , “ Nonlinear refraction in CS 2 ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 433 – 438 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri , W. Kornelis , F. W. Helbing , A. Heinrich , A. Couairon , A. Mysyrowicz , J. Biegert , and U. Keller , “ Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locker few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 673 – 677 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux , H. Schillinger , S. Niedermeier , M. Rodriguez , F. Ronneberger , R. Sauerbrey , B. Stein , D. Waite , C. Wedekind , H. Wille , L. Wöste , and C. Ziener , “ Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. B   71 , 573 – 580 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Liu , H. Schroedser , S. L Chin , R. Li , and Z. Xu , “ Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   87 , 161105 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Atm. Oceanic opt. (1)

I. S. Golubtsov , V. P. Kandidov , I. S. Golubtsov , and O. G. Kosareva , “ Conical emission of high-power femtosecond laser pulse in the atmosphere ,” Atm. Oceanic opt.   14 , 303 – 315 ( 2001 ).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. H. Fan , J. Sun , and J. P. Longtin , “ Breakdown threshold and localized electron density in water induced by ultrashort laser pulses ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 2530 – 2536 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

J. opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Schroeder and S. L Chin , “ Visualization of the evolution of multiple filaments in methanol ,” Opt. Commun.   234 , 399 – 406 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express. (1)

H. Schroeder , J. Liu , and S. L. Chin , “ From random to controlled small-scale filamentation in water ,” Opt. Express.   12 , 4768 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URIOPEX-12-20-4768 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys, Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Méchain , A. Couairon , M. Franco , B. Prade , and A. Mysyrowicz , “ Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air ,” Phys, Rev. Lett.   93 , 035003 ( 2004 )
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

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J. Kasparian , M. Rodriguez , G. Mejean , J. Yu , E. Salmon , H. Wille , R. Bourayou , S. Frey , Y-B. Andre , A. Mysyrowicz , R. Sauerbrey , J. -P. Wolf , and L. Wöste , “ White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis ,” Science   301 , 61 – 64 ( 2003 ).
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I.A. Danilchenko arXiv2 :physics/0306020 v1 June 2003 .

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for visualization of filamentation. A fs laser beam delivered by a Ti: sapphire laser system passes through the slit and propagates in ethanol.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Development of a one-dimension filament array in ethanol behind a slit. The fluorescence is excited by two-photon absorption of the fundamental laser beam and one-photon absorption of white light. The dyes in ethanol are (a) Coumarin 500, (b) Fluorescein 27, and (c) DODCI respectively. The pictures are taken by a single shot with the same condition except the dyes. The picture size shown here is H×L=2.5 mm× 10.7 mm and L corresponds to the propagation distance from the left to the right. The three pictures (d), (e) and (f) below which are taken with a higher spatial resolution (2.5 μm) correspond to the first filament in (a), (b) and (c) respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Evolution of fluorescence intensity as well as the diameter of the first filament as a function of propagation distance. The fluorescence is excited in the blue dye in ethanol.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Vertical line profile of fluorescence signal at the propagation distances z=8.0, 8.6 and 9.0mm respectively. The fluorescence is excited by the blue dye Coumarin 500 in ethanol.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Evolution of fluorescence intensity emitted by blue, green and red dye respectively from the same filament. (b) Shot to shot measurements of fluorescence signal emitted by blue dye from the same filament.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Development of a one-dimension filament array in water behind a slit. The fluorescence is excited by two-photon absorption of the fundamental laser beam and one-photon absorption of white light. The dye is Rhodamine B. λabsorption=556nm. (b) Evolution of fluorescence intensity along the first filament in (a).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Experimental setup for z-scan measurement of energy loss caused by CE and MPA respectively. (b) Z-scan measurement of energy loss caused by MPA. The energy meter is placed close to the exit surface of the sample cell. (c) Z-scan measurement of energy loss caused by conical emission. The energy meter is placed 2m away from the exit surface of the sample cell. (d) Z-scan measurement of energy loss caused by CE for water, ethanol and CS2 respectively. The energy meter is placed 2m away from the exit surface of the sample cell.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Experimental setup for measurement of beam profiles of CE. (b) Measured beam profiles of CE for CS2 centred at red (λ=680nm) and green (λ=520nm) light respectively. (c) Measured beam profiles of CE for water centred at red and green light respectively.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Evolution of maximum on-axis laser intensity, diameter of the laser beam, and two-photon plus one-photon (556nm for Rhodamine B) fluorescence as a function of propagation distance.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Evolution of maximum on-axis laser intensity together with the evolutions of the intensities of white light centred at different wavelengths

Equations (5)

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z E ̂ ( r , z , ω ) = [ i 2 k ( ω ) 2 + i k ( ω ) ] E ̂ ( r , z , ω ) + i ω 2 P ̂ N L ( r , z , ω ) 2 k ( ω ) c 2 ε 0 ω J ̂ f ( r , z , ω ) 2 k ( ω ) c 2 ε 0
P N L ( r , z , t ) = 2 ε 0 n b n 2 I ( r , z , t ) E ( r , z , t )
J ̂ f ( r , z , ω ) = e 2 m ( v i ω ) n e ( r , z , ω ) E ( r , z , ω ) I p β ( k ) I ( k 1 ) ( r , z , ω ) E ( r , z , ω ) k 0
n e ( r , z , t ) = t I rate ( r , z , t ) d t
I rate ( r , z , t ) = β ( k ) I k ( r , z , t ) η a n e ( r , z , t ) η r n e 2 ( r , z , t )

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