Abstract

We developed a high-speed polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system for retinal imaging based on spectral domain OCT. The system uses two spectrometers, one for each polarization channel, that operate in parallel at 20000 A-lines/s each. It provides reflectivity, retardation, and cumulative optic axis orientation simultaneously. We present our instrument and discuss the requirements for the alignment of the two spectrometers specific for our setup. We show 2D spectral domain PS-OCT images and – to the best of our knowledge – the first 3D spectral domain PS-OCT data sets in form of fly-through movies and volume rendered data sets recorded in human retina in vivo.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005 (4)

N. J. Kemp , H. N. Zaatari , J. Park , H. G. Rylander III , and T. E. Milner , “ Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4611 – 4628 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4611 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Polarization Preserving and Depolarizing Ocular Tissues Studied With Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography ,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.   46 , E-Abstract 4267 ( 2005 ).

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , S. H. Yun , M. Mujat , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , and J. F. de Boer , “ Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3931 – 3944 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , M. Mujat , C. Joo , T. Akkin , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , A. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tearney , and J. F. de Boer , “ Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm ”, Proc. SPIE   5690 , 159 – 162 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , A. F. Fercher , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 94 – 102 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , R. Leitgeb , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   49 , 1257 – 1263 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , R. Leitgeb , and C. K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo ,” Opt. Express   12 , 3236 – 3244 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher , E. Gützinger , R. Leitgeb , H. Sattmann , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5940 – 5951 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , and J. F. de Boer , “ Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2512 – 2514 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Todorovic , S. Jiao , L. V. Wang , and G. Stoica , “ Determination of local polarization properties of biological samples in the presence of diattenuation by use of Mueller optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2402 – 2404 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (7)

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm , S. Kaminski , O. Findl , C. Skorpik , A.F. Fercher , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea ,” Proc. SPIE   5140 , 120 – 124 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb , C. K. Hitzenberger , and A. F. Fercher , “ Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 889 – 894 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer , B. Cense , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2067 – 2069 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma , M. V. Sarunic , C. Yang , and J. A. Izatt , “ Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 2183 – 2189 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb , L. Schmetterer , W. Drexler , A. F. Fercher , R. J. Zawadzki , and T. Bajraszewski , “ Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 3116 – 3121 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3116 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White , M. C. Pierce , N. Nassif , B. Cense , B. H. Park , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , T. C. Chen , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 3490 – 3497 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.T. Choplin , Q. Zhou , and R. W. Knighton , “ Effect of individualized compensation for anterior segment birefringence on retinal nerve fiber layer assessments as determined by scanning laser polarimetry ,” Ophthalmology   110 , 719 – 725 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

2001 (3)

B. H. Park , C. Saxer , S. M. Srinivas , J. S. Nelson , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   6 , 474 – 479 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger , E. Gützinger , M. Sticker , M. Pircher , and A. F. Fercher , “ Measurment and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   9 , 780 – 790 ( 2001 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler , U. Morgner , R. K. Ghanta , F. X. Kaertner , J. S. Schuman , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography ,” Nature Med.   7 , 502 – 507 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Baumgartner , S. Dichtl , C. K. Hitzenberger , H. Sattmann , B. Robl , A. Moritz , A. F. Fercher , and W. Sperr : “ Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures ,” Caries Res.   34 , 59 – 69 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

M. J. Everett , K. Schoenenberger , B. W. Colston , and L. B. Da Silva , “ Birefringence characterization of biological tissue by use of optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   23 , 228 – 230 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Weinreb , L. Zangwill , C. C. Berry , R. Bathija , and P. A. Sample , “ Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry ,” Arch Ophthalmol.   116 , 1583 – 1589 ( 1998 ).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher , C. K. Hitzenberger , G. Kamp , and S. Y. El- Zaiat , “ Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry ,” Opt. Commun.   117 , 43 – 48 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. C. Chauhan , R. P. LeBlanc , T. A. McCormick , and J. B. Rogers , “ Test-retest variability of topographic measurements with confocal scanning laser tomography in patients with glaucoma and control subjects ,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.   118 , 9 – 15 ( 1994 ).
[PubMed]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

Akkin, T.

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , M. Mujat , C. Joo , T. Akkin , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , A. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tearney , and J. F. de Boer , “ Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm ”, Proc. SPIE   5690 , 159 – 162 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Bajraszewski, T.

Bathija, R.

R. N. Weinreb , L. Zangwill , C. C. Berry , R. Bathija , and P. A. Sample , “ Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry ,” Arch Ophthalmol.   116 , 1583 – 1589 ( 1998 ).
[PubMed]

Baumgartner, A.

A. Baumgartner , S. Dichtl , C. K. Hitzenberger , H. Sattmann , B. Robl , A. Moritz , A. F. Fercher , and W. Sperr : “ Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures ,” Caries Res.   34 , 59 – 69 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Berry, C. C.

R. N. Weinreb , L. Zangwill , C. C. Berry , R. Bathija , and P. A. Sample , “ Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry ,” Arch Ophthalmol.   116 , 1583 – 1589 ( 1998 ).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell , The Fourier transform and its applications , 3rd ed. ( McGraw-Hill, New York , 2000 ).

Cense, B.

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , M. Mujat , C. Joo , T. Akkin , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , A. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tearney , and J. F. de Boer , “ Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm ”, Proc. SPIE   5690 , 159 – 162 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , S. H. Yun , M. Mujat , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , and J. F. de Boer , “ Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3931 – 3944 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , and J. F. de Boer , “ Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2512 – 2514 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer , B. Cense , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2067 – 2069 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White , M. C. Pierce , N. Nassif , B. Cense , B. H. Park , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , T. C. Chen , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 3490 – 3497 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , and J.F. de Boer , “ In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1610 – 1612 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense , Optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging ( PhD Dissertation, Twente University 2005 ).

Chang, W.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chauhan, B. C.

B. C. Chauhan , R. P. LeBlanc , T. A. McCormick , and J. B. Rogers , “ Test-retest variability of topographic measurements with confocal scanning laser tomography in patients with glaucoma and control subjects ,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.   118 , 9 – 15 ( 1994 ).
[PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Choma, M. A.

Choplin, N.T.

N.T. Choplin , Q. Zhou , and R. W. Knighton , “ Effect of individualized compensation for anterior segment birefringence on retinal nerve fiber layer assessments as determined by scanning laser polarimetry ,” Ophthalmology   110 , 719 – 725 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , M. Mujat , C. Joo , T. Akkin , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , A. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tearney , and J. F. de Boer , “ Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm ”, Proc. SPIE   5690 , 159 – 162 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , S. H. Yun , M. Mujat , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , and J. F. de Boer , “ Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3931 – 3944 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , and J. F. de Boer , “ Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2512 – 2514 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White , M. C. Pierce , N. Nassif , B. Cense , B. H. Park , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , T. C. Chen , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 3490 – 3497 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer , B. Cense , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2067 – 2069 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park , C. Saxer , S. M. Srinivas , J. S. Nelson , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   6 , 474 – 479 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer , T. E. Milner , and J. S. Nelson , “ Determination of the depth resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 300 – 302 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer , T. E. Milner , M. J. C. Van Gemert , and J. S. Nelson , “ Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 934 – 936 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.F.

Dejaco-Ruhswurm, I.

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm , S. Kaminski , O. Findl , C. Skorpik , A.F. Fercher , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea ,” Proc. SPIE   5140 , 120 – 124 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Dichtl, S.

A. Baumgartner , S. Dichtl , C. K. Hitzenberger , H. Sattmann , B. Robl , A. Moritz , A. F. Fercher , and W. Sperr : “ Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures ,” Caries Res.   34 , 59 – 69 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, A. W.

Drexler, W.

El- Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher , C. K. Hitzenberger , G. Kamp , and S. Y. El- Zaiat , “ Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry ,” Opt. Commun.   117 , 43 – 48 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Everett, M. J.

Fercher, A. F.

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , A. F. Fercher , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 94 – 102 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb , L. Schmetterer , W. Drexler , A. F. Fercher , R. J. Zawadzki , and T. Bajraszewski , “ Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 3116 – 3121 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3116 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb , C. K. Hitzenberger , and A. F. Fercher , “ Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 889 – 894 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger , “ Optical Coherence Tomography ,” Prog. Opt.   44 , 215 – 302 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger , E. Gützinger , M. Sticker , M. Pircher , and A. F. Fercher , “ Measurment and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   9 , 780 – 790 ( 2001 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner , S. Dichtl , C. K. Hitzenberger , H. Sattmann , B. Robl , A. Moritz , A. F. Fercher , and W. Sperr : “ Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures ,” Caries Res.   34 , 59 – 69 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher , C. K. Hitzenberger , G. Kamp , and S. Y. El- Zaiat , “ Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry ,” Opt. Commun.   117 , 43 – 48 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A.F.

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm , S. Kaminski , O. Findl , C. Skorpik , A.F. Fercher , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea ,” Proc. SPIE   5140 , 120 – 124 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Findl, O.

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Polarization Preserving and Depolarizing Ocular Tissues Studied With Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography ,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.   46 , E-Abstract 4267 ( 2005 ).

M. Pircher , E. Gützinger , R. Leitgeb , H. Sattmann , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5940 – 5951 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm , S. Kaminski , O. Findl , C. Skorpik , A.F. Fercher , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea ,” Proc. SPIE   5140 , 120 – 124 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler , U. Morgner , R. K. Ghanta , F. X. Kaertner , J. S. Schuman , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography ,” Nature Med.   7 , 502 – 507 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee , D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   9 , 903 – 908 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler , U. Morgner , R. K. Ghanta , F. X. Kaertner , J. S. Schuman , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography ,” Nature Med.   7 , 502 – 507 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Polarization Preserving and Depolarizing Ocular Tissues Studied With Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography ,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.   46 , E-Abstract 4267 ( 2005 ).

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , R. Leitgeb , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   49 , 1257 – 1263 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , R. Leitgeb , and C. K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo ,” Opt. Express   12 , 3236 – 3244 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gützinger, E.

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , A. F. Fercher , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 94 – 102 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher , E. Gützinger , R. Leitgeb , H. Sattmann , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5940 – 5951 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm , S. Kaminski , O. Findl , C. Skorpik , A.F. Fercher , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea ,” Proc. SPIE   5140 , 120 – 124 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger , E. Gützinger , M. Sticker , M. Pircher , and A. F. Fercher , “ Measurment and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   9 , 780 – 790 ( 2001 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee , D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   9 , 903 – 908 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , A. F. Fercher , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 94 – 102 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , R. Leitgeb , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   49 , 1257 – 1263 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , R. Leitgeb , and C. K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo ,” Opt. Express   12 , 3236 – 3244 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb , C. K. Hitzenberger , and A. F. Fercher , “ Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 889 – 894 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger , “ Optical Coherence Tomography ,” Prog. Opt.   44 , 215 – 302 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger , E. Gützinger , M. Sticker , M. Pircher , and A. F. Fercher , “ Measurment and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   9 , 780 – 790 ( 2001 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner , S. Dichtl , C. K. Hitzenberger , H. Sattmann , B. Robl , A. Moritz , A. F. Fercher , and W. Sperr : “ Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures ,” Caries Res.   34 , 59 – 69 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher , C. K. Hitzenberger , G. Kamp , and S. Y. El- Zaiat , “ Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry ,” Opt. Commun.   117 , 43 – 48 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C.K.

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Polarization Preserving and Depolarizing Ocular Tissues Studied With Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography ,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.   46 , E-Abstract 4267 ( 2005 ).

M. Pircher , E. Gützinger , R. Leitgeb , H. Sattmann , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5940 – 5951 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm , S. Kaminski , O. Findl , C. Skorpik , A.F. Fercher , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea ,” Proc. SPIE   5140 , 120 – 124 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee , D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   9 , 903 – 908 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

Jiao, S.

Joo, C.

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , M. Mujat , C. Joo , T. Akkin , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , A. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tearney , and J. F. de Boer , “ Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm ”, Proc. SPIE   5690 , 159 – 162 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Kaertner, F. X.

W. Drexler , U. Morgner , R. K. Ghanta , F. X. Kaertner , J. S. Schuman , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography ,” Nature Med.   7 , 502 – 507 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaminski, S.

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm , S. Kaminski , O. Findl , C. Skorpik , A.F. Fercher , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea ,” Proc. SPIE   5140 , 120 – 124 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher , C. K. Hitzenberger , G. Kamp , and S. Y. El- Zaiat , “ Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry ,” Opt. Commun.   117 , 43 – 48 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, N. J.

klein Brink, H. B.

Knighton, R. W.

N.T. Choplin , Q. Zhou , and R. W. Knighton , “ Effect of individualized compensation for anterior segment birefringence on retinal nerve fiber layer assessments as determined by scanning laser polarimetry ,” Ophthalmology   110 , 719 – 725 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeBlanc, R. P.

B. C. Chauhan , R. P. LeBlanc , T. A. McCormick , and J. B. Rogers , “ Test-retest variability of topographic measurements with confocal scanning laser tomography in patients with glaucoma and control subjects ,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.   118 , 9 – 15 ( 1994 ).
[PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

McCormick, T. A.

B. C. Chauhan , R. P. LeBlanc , T. A. McCormick , and J. B. Rogers , “ Test-retest variability of topographic measurements with confocal scanning laser tomography in patients with glaucoma and control subjects ,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.   118 , 9 – 15 ( 1994 ).
[PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler , U. Morgner , R. K. Ghanta , F. X. Kaertner , J. S. Schuman , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography ,” Nature Med.   7 , 502 – 507 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moritz, A.

A. Baumgartner , S. Dichtl , C. K. Hitzenberger , H. Sattmann , B. Robl , A. Moritz , A. F. Fercher , and W. Sperr : “ Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures ,” Caries Res.   34 , 59 – 69 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Mujat, M.

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , M. Mujat , C. Joo , T. Akkin , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , A. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tearney , and J. F. de Boer , “ Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm ”, Proc. SPIE   5690 , 159 – 162 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , S. H. Yun , M. Mujat , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , and J. F. de Boer , “ Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3931 – 3944 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , M. Mujat , C. Joo , T. Akkin , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , A. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tearney , and J. F. de Boer , “ Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm ”, Proc. SPIE   5690 , 159 – 162 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , S. H. Yun , M. Mujat , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , and J. F. de Boer , “ Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3931 – 3944 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , and J. F. de Boer , “ Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2512 – 2514 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer , B. Cense , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2067 – 2069 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White , M. C. Pierce , N. Nassif , B. Cense , B. H. Park , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , T. C. Chen , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 3490 – 3497 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , and J.F. de Boer , “ In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1610 – 1612 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park , C. Saxer , S. M. Srinivas , J. S. Nelson , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   6 , 474 – 479 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Pierce, M. C.

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , S. H. Yun , M. Mujat , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , and J. F. de Boer , “ Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3931 – 3944 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , M. Mujat , C. Joo , T. Akkin , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , A. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tearney , and J. F. de Boer , “ Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm ”, Proc. SPIE   5690 , 159 – 162 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , B. Cense , and J. F. de Boer , “ Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2512 – 2514 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White , M. C. Pierce , N. Nassif , B. Cense , B. H. Park , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , T. C. Chen , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 3490 – 3497 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer , B. Cense , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , G. J. Tearney , and B. E. Bouma , “ Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 2067 – 2069 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , and J.F. de Boer , “ In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1610 – 1612 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Polarization Preserving and Depolarizing Ocular Tissues Studied With Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography ,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.   46 , E-Abstract 4267 ( 2005 ).

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , R. Leitgeb , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   49 , 1257 – 1263 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , A. F. Fercher , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 94 – 102 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher , E. Gützinger , R. Leitgeb , H. Sattmann , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5940 – 5951 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , R. Leitgeb , and C. K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo ,” Opt. Express   12 , 3236 – 3244 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm , S. Kaminski , O. Findl , C. Skorpik , A.F. Fercher , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea ,” Proc. SPIE   5140 , 120 – 124 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger , E. Gützinger , M. Sticker , M. Pircher , and A. F. Fercher , “ Measurment and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   9 , 780 – 790 ( 2001 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pufialito, C. A.

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiter, K.

Robl, B.

A. Baumgartner , S. Dichtl , C. K. Hitzenberger , H. Sattmann , B. Robl , A. Moritz , A. F. Fercher , and W. Sperr : “ Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures ,” Caries Res.   34 , 59 – 69 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. B.

B. C. Chauhan , R. P. LeBlanc , T. A. McCormick , and J. B. Rogers , “ Test-retest variability of topographic measurements with confocal scanning laser tomography in patients with glaucoma and control subjects ,” Am. J. Ophthalmol.   118 , 9 – 15 ( 1994 ).
[PubMed]

Rylander III, H. G.

Sample, P. A.

R. N. Weinreb , L. Zangwill , C. C. Berry , R. Bathija , and P. A. Sample , “ Detection of glaucoma with scanning laser polarimetry ,” Arch Ophthalmol.   116 , 1583 – 1589 ( 1998 ).
[PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

M. Pircher , E. Gützinger , R. Leitgeb , H. Sattmann , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5940 – 5951 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner , S. Dichtl , C. K. Hitzenberger , H. Sattmann , B. Robl , A. Moritz , A. F. Fercher , and W. Sperr : “ Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures ,” Caries Res.   34 , 59 – 69 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park , C. Saxer , S. M. Srinivas , J. S. Nelson , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   6 , 474 – 479 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler , U. Morgner , R. K. Ghanta , F. X. Kaertner , J. S. Schuman , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography ,” Nature Med.   7 , 502 – 507 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skorpik, C.

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm , S. Kaminski , O. Findl , C. Skorpik , A.F. Fercher , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea ,” Proc. SPIE   5140 , 120 – 124 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Sperr, W.

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A. Baumgartner , S. Dichtl , C. K. Hitzenberger , H. Sattmann , B. Robl , A. Moritz , A. F. Fercher , and W. Sperr : “ Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures ,” Caries Res.   34 , 59 – 69 ( 2000 ).
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B. H. Park , C. Saxer , S. M. Srinivas , J. S. Nelson , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   6 , 474 – 479 ( 2001 ).
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S. Jiao and L V. Wang , “ Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   7 , 350 – 358 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , A. F. Fercher , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 94 – 102 ( 2004 ).
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R. A. Leitgeb , C. K. Hitzenberger , and A. F. Fercher , “ Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 889 – 894 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889 .
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R. A. Leitgeb , L. Schmetterer , W. Drexler , A. F. Fercher , R. J. Zawadzki , and T. Bajraszewski , “ Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 3116 – 3121 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3116 .
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B. R. White , M. C. Pierce , N. Nassif , B. Cense , B. H. Park , G. J. Tearney , B. E. Bouma , T. C. Chen , and J. F. de Boer , “ In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   11 , 3490 – 3497 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490 .
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M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , R. Leitgeb , and C. K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo ,” Opt. Express   12 , 3236 – 3244 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236 .
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M. Pircher , E. Gützinger , R. Leitgeb , H. Sattmann , O. Findl , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5940 – 5951 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940 .
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C. K. Hitzenberger , E. Gützinger , M. Sticker , M. Pircher , and A. F. Fercher , “ Measurment and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Express   9 , 780 – 790 ( 2001 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780 .
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Opt. Lett. (9)

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , and J.F. de Boer , “ In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1610 – 1612 ( 2002 ).
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Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Pircher , E. Goetzinger , R. Leitgeb , and C. K. Hitzenberger : “ Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   49 , 1257 – 1263 ( 2004 ).
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Proc. SPIE (2)

E. Gützinger , M. Pircher , M. Sticker , I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm , S. Kaminski , O. Findl , C. Skorpik , A.F. Fercher , and C.K. Hitzenberger , “ Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea ,” Proc. SPIE   5140 , 120 – 124 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense , T. C. Chen , M. Mujat , C. Joo , T. Akkin , B. H. Park , M. C. Pierce , A. Yun , B. E. Bouma , G. J. Tearney , and J. F. de Boer , “ Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm ”, Proc. SPIE   5690 , 159 – 162 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

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A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger , “ Optical Coherence Tomography ,” Prog. Opt.   44 , 215 – 302 ( 2002 ).
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Science (1)

D. Huang , E. A. Swanson , C. P. Lin , J. S. Schuman , W. G. Stinson , W. Chang , M. R. Hee , T. Flotte , K. Gregory , C. A. Pufialito , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Optical coherence tomography ,” Science   254 , 1178 – 1181 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney , Handbook of optical coherence tomography ( Marcel Dekker, New York , 2002 ).

B. Cense , Optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging ( PhD Dissertation, Twente University 2005 ).

R. N. Bracewell , The Fourier transform and its applications , 3rd ed. ( McGraw-Hill, New York , 2000 ).

P. J. Tadrous ( 2002 ), http://www.bialith.com/ .

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (2589 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1206 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2233 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of spectral domain PS-OCT instrument. SLD, super luminescent diode; FC, fiber coupler; POL, polarizer; NPBS, non-polarizing beam splitter; VDF, variable density filter; QWP, quarter wave plate; M, mirror; SC, galvo scanner; L, lens; S, sample; PMF, polarization maintaining fiber; HWP, half wave plate; DG, diffraction grating; LSC, line scan camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Results of instrument calibration. A sample consisting of a wave plate and mirror was measured. Axis orientation and retardation are plotted as a function of path length difference. Within the desired measurement range of 2 mm, the axis drift stays within ± 3°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

B-scan images of human fovea in vivo. (a) Intensity (log scale); (b) retardation; (c) fast axis orientation. Image size: 3 mm (horizontal) × 0.75 mm (vertical). Values on color bars: degrees (to avoid erroneous birefringence data, areas below a certain intensity threshold are displayed in grey).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

B-scan images of human optic nerve head in vivo. (a) Intensity (log scale); (b) retardation; (c) fast axis orientation. Image size: 3 mm (horizontal) × 1.75 mm (vertical). Values on color bars: degrees. Arrow: temporal rim of scleral canal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

B-scans superior to human optic nerve head in vivo. (a) Intensity (log scale); (b) retardation; (c) fast axis orientation. Image size: 3 mm (horizontal) × 1 mm (vertical). Values on color bars: degrees.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(2.5 MB) Frame no. 31 of fly-through movie of 3D dataset of human nerve head in vivo. Top: intensity; middle: retardation; bottom: axis orientation (color scales similar to Figs. 2–4). Image size: ~ 3mm (x) × 3mm (y) × 1.75mm (z).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(1.2 MB) Frame no. 4 of animation of a 3 dimensional volume rendered data set from a human nerve head in vivo. The opacity corresponds to the backscattered intensity, the retardation corresponds to the color coding (color coding similar to Figs. 2–4).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(2.2 MB) Frame no. 3 of animation of a 3 dimensional volume rendered data set from a human nerve head in vivo. The opacity corresponds to the backscattered intensity, the fast axis orientation corresponds to the color coding (color coding similar to Figs. 2–4).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

PS-OCT axis orientation image of fovea centralis in vivo. The image illustrates the effect of translationally misaligned spectrometer cameras. Image size: ~ 3 mm (horizontal) × 0.75 mm (vertical).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A ˜ H , V ( z ) = A H , V ( z ) exp [ i Φ H , V ( z ) ]
R ( z ) [ A H ( z ) ] 2 + [ A V ( z ) ] 2
δ ( z ) = arctan [ A V ( z ) A H ( z ) ]
θ = 180 ° ΔΦ 2
FT 1 { I ( k ) } Γ ( z Δ z ) = A ( z Δ z ) exp [ i Φ ( z Δ z ) ] ,
FT 1 { I ( k δk ) } = exp ( i 2 π δk z ) FT 1 { I ( k ) } exp ( i 2 π δk z ) Γ ( z Δ z ) .
FT 1 { I ( k a ) } = 1 a FT 1 { I ( k a ) } 1 a Γ ( z a Δ z ) .

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