Abstract

Segmentation of retinal layers from OCT images is fundamental to diagnose the progress of retinal diseases. In this study we show that the retinal layers can be automatically and/or interactively located with good accuracy with the aid of local coherence information of the retinal structure. OCT images are processed using the ideas of texture analysis by means of the structure tensor combined with complex diffusion filtering. Experimental results indicate that our proposed novel approach has good performance in speckle noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of the various cellular layers of the retina using the STRATUSOCTTM system.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schumann, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Optics 4, 95, (1999).
  3. E. R. Ritenour, T. R. Nelson, and U. Raff, "Application of median filtering to digital radiographic images," in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Acoust. Speech, Signal Processing, 1984, 23.1.1-23.1.4.
  4. A. Loannidis, D. Kazakos, D. D. Watson, "Application of median filtering on nuclear medicine scintigrams images," in Proc. 7th Conf. Pattern Recognition, 1984, 33-36
  5. S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, "Speckle noise reduction for optical coherence tomography, in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring III , H.-J. Foth, R. Marchesini, and H. Podbielska, eds.", Proc. SPIE 3196, 79, (1997).
  6. K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, "Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Optics 4, 125 (1999).
  7. P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12, 629-639 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Cabrera Fernández, and H. M. Salinas, "Evaluation of a non-linear diffusion process for segmentation and quantification of lesions in Optical Coherence Tomography images," in Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5747, 1834 (2005).
  9. G. Gregori, and R. W. Knighton, "A robust algorithm for retinal thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT)," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45: E-Abstract 3007 (2004).
  10. . D. Cabrera Fernández , "Delineating fluid-filled region boundaries in optical coherence tomography images of the retina," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 929-945 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Alvarez, F. Guichard, P. L. Lions, and J. M. Morel, "Axioms and fundamental equations of image processing," Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 23, 199-257 (1993).
  12. G. Aubert, P. Kornprobst, Mathematical Problems in Image Processing, Applied Mathematical Sciences 147 (Springer-Verlag, New-York, 2002).
  13. D. Cabrera Fernández, and R. W. Knighton, "Active contour models for assessing lesion shape and area in OCT images of the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44: E-Abstract 1770 (2003).
  14. D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, "Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 900 - 916, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Weickert, "Anisotropic diffusion filters for image processing based quality control," A. Fasano, M. Primicerio eds., in Proc. Seventh European Conf. on Mathematics in Industry, (Teubner, Stuttgart, 1994), 355-362.
  16. R. Deriche, "Using canny criteria to derive a recursively implemented optimal edge detector," Int. J. Comput. Vision 1, 167-187 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Weickert, "Foundations and applications of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering," Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 76, 283-286 (1996).
  18. H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman , "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46: 2012-2017. (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Gilboa, N. Sochen, and Y. Y .Zeevi, "Image enhancement and denoising by complex diffusion process," IEEE Trans. PAMI 25 (8), 1020-1036, (2004).
  20. J. Weickert, "Coherence-enhancing diffusion filtering," Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 111-127, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. H. Cottet, ans L. Germain, "Image processing through reaction combined with nonlinear diffusion," Math. Comp. 61, 659-673 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Nitzberg, T. Shiota, "Nonlinear image filtering with edge and corner enhancement," IEEE Trans. PAMI 14, 826-833 (1992).
  23. D. Cabrera Fernández, and H. M. Salinas, "Extracting subretinal layers on stratus OCT images via a structure tensor approach combined with a nonlinear diffusion process," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 46: E-Abstract 2575 (2005).
  24. H. M. Salinas, and D. Cabrera Fernández, "Comparison of PDE-based nonlinear anisotropic diffusion approaches for image enhancement and denoising in Optical Coherence Tomography," submitted to IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (2005).
  25. O. Tan, Y. Li, and D. Huang, "Measurement of Ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer thickness with Optical Coherence Tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 44: E-Abstract 4926 (2003).
  26. R. W. Knighton, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, School of Medicine, University of Miami 1638 NW. 10th Ave, Miami, FL, 33136 (personal communication, 2005).

7th Conf. Pattern Recognition (1)

A. Loannidis, D. Kazakos, D. D. Watson, "Application of median filtering on nuclear medicine scintigrams images," in Proc. 7th Conf. Pattern Recognition, 1984, 33-36

7th Int. Conf. Acoust (1)

E. R. Ritenour, T. R. Nelson, and U. Raff, "Application of median filtering to digital radiographic images," in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Acoust. Speech, Signal Processing, 1984, 23.1.1-23.1.4.

Applied Mathematical Sciences (1)

G. Aubert, P. Kornprobst, Mathematical Problems in Image Processing, Applied Mathematical Sciences 147 (Springer-Verlag, New-York, 2002).

Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. (1)

L. Alvarez, F. Guichard, P. L. Lions, and J. M. Morel, "Axioms and fundamental equations of image processing," Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 23, 199-257 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (3)

H. M. Salinas, and D. Cabrera Fernández, "Comparison of PDE-based nonlinear anisotropic diffusion approaches for image enhancement and denoising in Optical Coherence Tomography," submitted to IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (2005).

. D. Cabrera Fernández , "Delineating fluid-filled region boundaries in optical coherence tomography images of the retina," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 929-945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, "Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 900 - 916, (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. PAMI (2)

M. Nitzberg, T. Shiota, "Nonlinear image filtering with edge and corner enhancement," IEEE Trans. PAMI 14, 826-833 (1992).

G. Gilboa, N. Sochen, and Y. Y .Zeevi, "Image enhancement and denoising by complex diffusion process," IEEE Trans. PAMI 25 (8), 1020-1036, (2004).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12, 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

in Proc. Seventh European Conf. (1)

J. Weickert, "Anisotropic diffusion filters for image processing based quality control," A. Fasano, M. Primicerio eds., in Proc. Seventh European Conf. on Mathematics in Industry, (Teubner, Stuttgart, 1994), 355-362.

Int. J. Comput. Vision (2)

R. Deriche, "Using canny criteria to derive a recursively implemented optimal edge detector," Int. J. Comput. Vision 1, 167-187 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Weickert, "Coherence-enhancing diffusion filtering," Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 111-127, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman , "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46: 2012-2017. (2005).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

G. Gregori, and R. W. Knighton, "A robust algorithm for retinal thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT)," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45: E-Abstract 3007 (2004).

D. Cabrera Fernández, and R. W. Knighton, "Active contour models for assessing lesion shape and area in OCT images of the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44: E-Abstract 1770 (2003).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci (1)

D. Cabrera Fernández, and H. M. Salinas, "Extracting subretinal layers on stratus OCT images via a structure tensor approach combined with a nonlinear diffusion process," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 46: E-Abstract 2575 (2005).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. (1)

O. Tan, Y. Li, and D. Huang, "Measurement of Ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer thickness with Optical Coherence Tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 44: E-Abstract 4926 (2003).

J. Biomed. Optics (2)

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, "Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Optics 4, 125 (1999).

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Optics 4, 95, (1999).

Math. Comp. (1)

G. H. Cottet, ans L. Germain, "Image processing through reaction combined with nonlinear diffusion," Math. Comp. 61, 659-673 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Math. Mech. (1)

J. Weickert, "Foundations and applications of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering," Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 76, 283-286 (1996).

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, "Speckle noise reduction for optical coherence tomography, in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring III , H.-J. Foth, R. Marchesini, and H. Podbielska, eds.", Proc. SPIE 3196, 79, (1997).

Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Cabrera Fernández, and H. M. Salinas, "Evaluation of a non-linear diffusion process for segmentation and quantification of lesions in Optical Coherence Tomography images," in Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5747, 1834 (2005).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schumann, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. W. Knighton, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, School of Medicine, University of Miami 1638 NW. 10th Ave, Miami, FL, 33136 (personal communication, 2005).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: JPG (33 KB)     

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