Abstract

To date, the assessment of fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging has not been performed owing to (i) the lack of tools necessary for objective assessment of image quality (OAIQ), and (ii) the difficulty to test an untested diagnostic contrast agent in patient studies. Herein, we focus upon the development of a framework for OAIQ which includes a model to simulate both natural tissue heterogeneity as well as heterogeneous distribution of a molecularly targeted fluorophore. Specifically, we use a novel tomographic algorithm previously developed and validated in our laboratory (Roy and Sevick-Muraca, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, 2005). Our results show that image generation is (i) unaffected by normal anatomical heterogeneity manifested in endogenous tissue optical properties of absorption and scattering, and (ii) restricted by heterogeneous distribution of fluorophore in the background as the contrast is decreased.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  16. K. Suzuki , Y. Yamashita , K. Ohta , M. Kaneko , M. Yoshida , and B. Chance , “ Quantitative measurements of optical parameters in normal breasts using time resolved spectroscopy: in vivo results of 30 Japanese women ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 330 – 334 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  17. T. L. Troy , D. L. Page , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography ” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 342 – 355 ( 1996 ).
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  21. T. Durduran , R. Choe , J. P. Culver , L. Zubkov , M. J. Holboke , J. Giammarco , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   47 , 2847 – 2861 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. N. Shah , A. E. Cerussi , D. Jakubowski , D. Hsiang , J. Butler , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 534 – 540 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. A. Godavarty , A. B. Thompson , R. Roy , M. Gurfinkel , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Diagnostic Imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 488 – 496 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. P. Rolland and H. H. Barrett , “ Effect of random background inhomogeneity on observer detection performance ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   9 , 649 – 658 ( 1992 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. A. R. P. Fortin , “ Detection-theoretic evaluation in digital radiography and optical tomography ,” PhD Thesis , ( University of Arizona , 2002 ).
  27. H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers , Foundations of Image Science , 1 st ed. ( John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey , 2004 ).
  28. R. Roy , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorecense-enhanced optical tomography using referenced measurements of heterogeneous media ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   22 , 824 – 836 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. M. G. Breitfeld and D. F. Shanno , “ Preliminary computational experience with modified log-barrier function for large-scale nonlinear programming ,” in Large Scale Optimization: State of the Art , W. W. Hager , D. W. Hearn , and P. M. Pardalos , eds. ( Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: 1994 ), pp. 45 – 67 .
  30. M. J. Eppstein , D. E. Dougherty , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ 3-D Bayesian optical imaging reconstruction with domain decomposition ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   20 , 147 – 161 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. P. Houston , S. Ke , W. Wang , C. Li , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Quality analysis of in vivo NIR fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual-labeled tumor-targeting probe ,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published in September/October 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Detection of multiple targets in breast phantoms using fluorescence enhanced optical imaging ,” Radiology   235 , 148 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roy , A. B. Thompson , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Tomographic fluorescence imaging in tissue Phantoms: a novel reconstruction algorithm and imaging geometry ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   24 , 137 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

N. Shah , A. E. Cerussi , D. Jakubowski , D. Hsiang , J. Butler , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 534 – 540 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , A. B. Thompson , R. Roy , M. Gurfinkel , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Diagnostic Imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 488 – 496 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roy , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorecense-enhanced optical tomography using referenced measurements of heterogeneous media ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   22 , 824 – 836 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Thompson , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Near-infrared contrast-enhanced imaging with area illumination and area detection: the forward imaging problem ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 4125 – 4136 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , S. Theru , A. B. Thompson , M. Gurfinkel , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain modulated ICCD camera ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   48 , 1701 – 1720 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. R. P. Fortin , “ Detection-theoretic evaluation in digital radiography and optical tomography ,” PhD Thesis , ( University of Arizona , 2002 ).

T. Durduran , R. Choe , J. P. Culver , L. Zubkov , M. J. Holboke , J. Giammarco , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   47 , 2847 – 2861 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

N. Shah , A. Cerussi , C. Eker , J. Espinoza , J. Butler , J. Fishkin , R. Hornung , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   98 , 4420 – 4425 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Eppstein , D. E. Dougherty , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ 3-D Bayesian optical imaging reconstruction with domain decomposition ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   20 , 147 – 161 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance , “ Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy ,” Med. Phys.   28 , 1115 – 24 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

A. D. Klose and A. H. Hielscher , “ Iterative scheme for the optical tomography based on the equation of the radiative transfer ,” Med. Phys.   26 , 1698 – 1707 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and D. Y. Paithankar , “ Fluorescent imaging system and measurement ,” U.S. patent 5,865,754, (2 February 1999 ).

D. Grosenick , H. Wabnitz , H. H. Rinneberg , K. T. Moesta , and P. M. Schlag , “ Development of a time-domain optical mammography and first in vivo applications ,” Appl. Opt.   38 , 2927 – 1943 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Paithankar , A. U. Chen , B. W. Pogue , M. S. Patterson , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light re-emitted from tissues and other random media ,” Appl. Opt.   36 , 2260 – 2272 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

K. Suzuki , Y. Yamashita , K. Ohta , M. Kaneko , M. Yoshida , and B. Chance , “ Quantitative measurements of optical parameters in normal breasts using time resolved spectroscopy: in vivo results of 30 Japanese women ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 330 – 334 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

T. L. Troy , D. L. Page , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography ” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 342 – 355 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. M. Smithjones , B. Stolz , C. Bruns , R. Albert , H. W. Reist , R. Fridrich , and H. R. Macke , “ Gallium-67/Gallium-68-[DFO]-Octreotide- A Potential radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors-synthesis and rediolabeling in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies ,” J. Nucl. Med.   35 , 317 – 325 ( 1994 ).

1993 (1)

K. A. Kang , B. Chance , S. Zhao , S. Srinivasan , E. Patterson , and R. Troupin , “ Breast tumor characterization using near-infrared spectroscopy ,” Proc. photon migration and imaging in random media and tissues   1888 , 487 – 499 ( 1993 ).

1992 (1)

J. P. Rolland and H. H. Barrett , “ Effect of random background inhomogeneity on observer detection performance ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   9 , 649 – 658 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

V. G. Peters , D. R. Wymant , M. S. Patterson , and G. L. Frank , “ Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   35 , 1317 – 1334 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

D. L. Bailey , B. F. Hutton , and P. J. Walker , “ Improved SPECT using simultaneous emission and transmission tomography ,” J. Nucl. Med.   28 , 844 – 851 ( 1987 ).
[PubMed]

Albert, R.

P. M. Smithjones , B. Stolz , C. Bruns , R. Albert , H. W. Reist , R. Fridrich , and H. R. Macke , “ Gallium-67/Gallium-68-[DFO]-Octreotide- A Potential radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors-synthesis and rediolabeling in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies ,” J. Nucl. Med.   35 , 317 – 325 ( 1994 ).

Anderson, E. R.

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Andreola, S.

Bailey, D. L.

D. L. Bailey , B. F. Hutton , and P. J. Walker , “ Improved SPECT using simultaneous emission and transmission tomography ,” J. Nucl. Med.   28 , 844 – 851 ( 1987 ).
[PubMed]

Barrett, H. H.

J. P. Rolland and H. H. Barrett , “ Effect of random background inhomogeneity on observer detection performance ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   9 , 649 – 658 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers , Foundations of Image Science , 1 st ed. ( John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey , 2004 ).

Bertoni, A.

Breitfeld, M. G.

M. G. Breitfeld and D. F. Shanno , “ Preliminary computational experience with modified log-barrier function for large-scale nonlinear programming ,” in Large Scale Optimization: State of the Art , W. W. Hager , D. W. Hearn , and P. M. Pardalos , eds. ( Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: 1994 ), pp. 45 – 67 .

Bruns, C.

P. M. Smithjones , B. Stolz , C. Bruns , R. Albert , H. W. Reist , R. Fridrich , and H. R. Macke , “ Gallium-67/Gallium-68-[DFO]-Octreotide- A Potential radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors-synthesis and rediolabeling in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies ,” J. Nucl. Med.   35 , 317 – 325 ( 1994 ).

Butler, J.

N. Shah , A. E. Cerussi , D. Jakubowski , D. Hsiang , J. Butler , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 534 – 540 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shah , A. Cerussi , C. Eker , J. Espinoza , J. Butler , J. Fishkin , R. Hornung , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   98 , 4420 – 4425 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Cahn, M.

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Cerussi, A.

N. Shah , A. Cerussi , C. Eker , J. Espinoza , J. Butler , J. Fishkin , R. Hornung , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   98 , 4420 – 4425 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A. E.

N. Shah , A. E. Cerussi , D. Jakubowski , D. Hsiang , J. Butler , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 534 – 540 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran , R. Choe , J. P. Culver , L. Zubkov , M. J. Holboke , J. Giammarco , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   47 , 2847 – 2861 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance , “ Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy ,” Med. Phys.   28 , 1115 – 24 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki , Y. Yamashita , K. Ohta , M. Kaneko , M. Yoshida , and B. Chance , “ Quantitative measurements of optical parameters in normal breasts using time resolved spectroscopy: in vivo results of 30 Japanese women ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 330 – 334 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

K. A. Kang , B. Chance , S. Zhao , S. Srinivasan , E. Patterson , and R. Troupin , “ Breast tumor characterization using near-infrared spectroscopy ,” Proc. photon migration and imaging in random media and tissues   1888 , 487 – 499 ( 1993 ).

Chen, A. U.

Choe, R.

J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran , R. Choe , J. P. Culver , L. Zubkov , M. J. Holboke , J. Giammarco , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   47 , 2847 – 2861 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coquoz, O.

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Culver, J. P.

J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran , R. Choe , J. P. Culver , L. Zubkov , M. J. Holboke , J. Giammarco , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   47 , 2847 – 2861 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dougherty, D. E.

M. J. Eppstein , D. E. Dougherty , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ 3-D Bayesian optical imaging reconstruction with domain decomposition ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   20 , 147 – 161 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran , R. Choe , J. P. Culver , L. Zubkov , M. J. Holboke , J. Giammarco , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   47 , 2847 – 2861 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eker, C.

N. Shah , A. Cerussi , C. Eker , J. Espinoza , J. Butler , J. Fishkin , R. Hornung , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   98 , 4420 – 4425 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eppstein, M. J.

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Detection of multiple targets in breast phantoms using fluorescence enhanced optical imaging ,” Radiology   235 , 148 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , A. B. Thompson , R. Roy , M. Gurfinkel , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Diagnostic Imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 488 – 496 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , S. Theru , A. B. Thompson , M. Gurfinkel , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain modulated ICCD camera ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   48 , 1701 – 1720 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Eppstein , D. E. Dougherty , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ 3-D Bayesian optical imaging reconstruction with domain decomposition ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   20 , 147 – 161 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Espinoza, J.

N. Shah , A. Cerussi , C. Eker , J. Espinoza , J. Butler , J. Fishkin , R. Hornung , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   98 , 4420 – 4425 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fishkin, J.

N. Shah , A. Cerussi , C. Eker , J. Espinoza , J. Butler , J. Fishkin , R. Hornung , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   98 , 4420 – 4425 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fishkin, J. B.

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Fortin, A. R. P.

A. R. P. Fortin , “ Detection-theoretic evaluation in digital radiography and optical tomography ,” PhD Thesis , ( University of Arizona , 2002 ).

Frank, G. L.

V. G. Peters , D. R. Wymant , M. S. Patterson , and G. L. Frank , “ Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   35 , 1317 – 1334 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fridrich, R.

P. M. Smithjones , B. Stolz , C. Bruns , R. Albert , H. W. Reist , R. Fridrich , and H. R. Macke , “ Gallium-67/Gallium-68-[DFO]-Octreotide- A Potential radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors-synthesis and rediolabeling in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies ,” J. Nucl. Med.   35 , 317 – 325 ( 1994 ).

Giammarco, J.

T. Durduran , R. Choe , J. P. Culver , L. Zubkov , M. J. Holboke , J. Giammarco , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   47 , 2847 – 2861 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godavarty, A.

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Detection of multiple targets in breast phantoms using fluorescence enhanced optical imaging ,” Radiology   235 , 148 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roy , A. B. Thompson , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Tomographic fluorescence imaging in tissue Phantoms: a novel reconstruction algorithm and imaging geometry ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   24 , 137 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , A. B. Thompson , R. Roy , M. Gurfinkel , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Diagnostic Imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 488 – 496 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roy , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorecense-enhanced optical tomography using referenced measurements of heterogeneous media ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   22 , 824 – 836 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , S. Theru , A. B. Thompson , M. Gurfinkel , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain modulated ICCD camera ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   48 , 1701 – 1720 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , “ Fluorescence enhanced Optical Tomography on Breast Phantoms with measurements using a Gain modulated intensified CCD Imaging System ,” Ph.D. Dissertation, ( Texas A&M University , 2003 ).

Grosenick, D.

Gross, J. D.

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Gurfinkel, M.

A. Godavarty , A. B. Thompson , R. Roy , M. Gurfinkel , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Diagnostic Imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 488 – 496 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , S. Theru , A. B. Thompson , M. Gurfinkel , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain modulated ICCD camera ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   48 , 1701 – 1720 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hawrysz, D. J.

A. B. Thompson , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Near-infrared contrast-enhanced imaging with area illumination and area detection: the forward imaging problem ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 4125 – 4136 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Eppstein , D. E. Dougherty , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ 3-D Bayesian optical imaging reconstruction with domain decomposition ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   20 , 147 – 161 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

A. D. Klose and A. H. Hielscher , “ Iterative scheme for the optical tomography based on the equation of the radiative transfer ,” Med. Phys.   26 , 1698 – 1707 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holboke, M. J.

J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran , R. Choe , J. P. Culver , L. Zubkov , M. J. Holboke , J. Giammarco , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   47 , 2847 – 2861 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornung, R.

N. Shah , A. Cerussi , C. Eker , J. Espinoza , J. Butler , J. Fishkin , R. Hornung , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   98 , 4420 – 4425 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houston, J. P.

J. P. Houston , S. Ke , W. Wang , C. Li , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Quality analysis of in vivo NIR fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual-labeled tumor-targeting probe ,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published in September/October 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiang, D.

N. Shah , A. E. Cerussi , D. Jakubowski , D. Hsiang , J. Butler , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 534 – 540 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. L. Bailey , B. F. Hutton , and P. J. Walker , “ Improved SPECT using simultaneous emission and transmission tomography ,” J. Nucl. Med.   28 , 844 – 851 ( 1987 ).
[PubMed]

Jakubowski, D.

N. Shah , A. E. Cerussi , D. Jakubowski , D. Hsiang , J. Butler , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 534 – 540 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaneko, M.

K. Suzuki , Y. Yamashita , K. Ohta , M. Kaneko , M. Yoshida , and B. Chance , “ Quantitative measurements of optical parameters in normal breasts using time resolved spectroscopy: in vivo results of 30 Japanese women ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 330 – 334 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Kang, K. A.

K. A. Kang , B. Chance , S. Zhao , S. Srinivasan , E. Patterson , and R. Troupin , “ Breast tumor characterization using near-infrared spectroscopy ,” Proc. photon migration and imaging in random media and tissues   1888 , 487 – 499 ( 1993 ).

Ke, S.

J. P. Houston , S. Ke , W. Wang , C. Li , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Quality analysis of in vivo NIR fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual-labeled tumor-targeting probe ,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published in September/October 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klose, A. D.

A. D. Klose and A. H. Hielscher , “ Iterative scheme for the optical tomography based on the equation of the radiative transfer ,” Med. Phys.   26 , 1698 – 1707 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

J. P. Houston , S. Ke , W. Wang , C. Li , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Quality analysis of in vivo NIR fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual-labeled tumor-targeting probe ,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published in September/October 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macke, H. R.

P. M. Smithjones , B. Stolz , C. Bruns , R. Albert , H. W. Reist , R. Fridrich , and H. R. Macke , “ Gallium-67/Gallium-68-[DFO]-Octreotide- A Potential radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors-synthesis and rediolabeling in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies ,” J. Nucl. Med.   35 , 317 – 325 ( 1994 ).

Marchesini, R.

Melloni, E.

Moesta, K. T.

Myers, K. J.

H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers , Foundations of Image Science , 1 st ed. ( John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey , 2004 ).

Ntziachristos, V.

J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance , “ Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy ,” Med. Phys.   28 , 1115 – 24 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohta, K.

K. Suzuki , Y. Yamashita , K. Ohta , M. Kaneko , M. Yoshida , and B. Chance , “ Quantitative measurements of optical parameters in normal breasts using time resolved spectroscopy: in vivo results of 30 Japanese women ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 330 – 334 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Page, D. L.

T. L. Troy , D. L. Page , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography ” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 342 – 355 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Paithankar, D. Y.

Patterson, E.

K. A. Kang , B. Chance , S. Zhao , S. Srinivasan , E. Patterson , and R. Troupin , “ Breast tumor characterization using near-infrared spectroscopy ,” Proc. photon migration and imaging in random media and tissues   1888 , 487 – 499 ( 1993 ).

Patterson, M. S.

D. Y. Paithankar , A. U. Chen , B. W. Pogue , M. S. Patterson , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light re-emitted from tissues and other random media ,” Appl. Opt.   36 , 2260 – 2272 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Peters , D. R. Wymant , M. S. Patterson , and G. L. Frank , “ Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   35 , 1317 – 1334 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peters, V. G.

V. G. Peters , D. R. Wymant , M. S. Patterson , and G. L. Frank , “ Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   35 , 1317 – 1334 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, D.

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Pham, T.

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Pogue, B. W.

Reist, H. W.

P. M. Smithjones , B. Stolz , C. Bruns , R. Albert , H. W. Reist , R. Fridrich , and H. R. Macke , “ Gallium-67/Gallium-68-[DFO]-Octreotide- A Potential radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors-synthesis and rediolabeling in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies ,” J. Nucl. Med.   35 , 317 – 325 ( 1994 ).

Rinneberg, H. H.

Rolland, J. P.

J. P. Rolland and H. H. Barrett , “ Effect of random background inhomogeneity on observer detection performance ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   9 , 649 – 658 ( 1992 ).
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Roy, R.

R. Roy , A. B. Thompson , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Tomographic fluorescence imaging in tissue Phantoms: a novel reconstruction algorithm and imaging geometry ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   24 , 137 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , A. B. Thompson , R. Roy , M. Gurfinkel , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Diagnostic Imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 488 – 496 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roy , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorecense-enhanced optical tomography using referenced measurements of heterogeneous media ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   22 , 824 – 836 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlag, P. M.

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

R. Roy , A. B. Thompson , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Tomographic fluorescence imaging in tissue Phantoms: a novel reconstruction algorithm and imaging geometry ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   24 , 137 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Detection of multiple targets in breast phantoms using fluorescence enhanced optical imaging ,” Radiology   235 , 148 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Houston , S. Ke , W. Wang , C. Li , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Quality analysis of in vivo NIR fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual-labeled tumor-targeting probe ,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published in September/October 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , A. B. Thompson , R. Roy , M. Gurfinkel , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Diagnostic Imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 488 – 496 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Thompson , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Near-infrared contrast-enhanced imaging with area illumination and area detection: the forward imaging problem ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 4125 – 4136 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roy , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorecense-enhanced optical tomography using referenced measurements of heterogeneous media ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   22 , 824 – 836 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , S. Theru , A. B. Thompson , M. Gurfinkel , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain modulated ICCD camera ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   48 , 1701 – 1720 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Eppstein , D. E. Dougherty , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ 3-D Bayesian optical imaging reconstruction with domain decomposition ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   20 , 147 – 161 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and D. Y. Paithankar , “ Fluorescent imaging system and measurement ,” U.S. patent 5,865,754, (2 February 1999 ).

D. Y. Paithankar , A. U. Chen , B. W. Pogue , M. S. Patterson , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light re-emitted from tissues and other random media ,” Appl. Opt.   36 , 2260 – 2272 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. L. Troy , D. L. Page , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography ” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 342 – 355 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Shah, N.

N. Shah , A. E. Cerussi , D. Jakubowski , D. Hsiang , J. Butler , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 534 – 540 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shah , A. Cerussi , C. Eker , J. Espinoza , J. Butler , J. Fishkin , R. Hornung , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   98 , 4420 – 4425 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shanno, D. F.

M. G. Breitfeld and D. F. Shanno , “ Preliminary computational experience with modified log-barrier function for large-scale nonlinear programming ,” in Large Scale Optimization: State of the Art , W. W. Hager , D. W. Hearn , and P. M. Pardalos , eds. ( Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: 1994 ), pp. 45 – 67 .

Sichirollo, A. E.

Slemp, A.

J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smithjones, P. M.

P. M. Smithjones , B. Stolz , C. Bruns , R. Albert , H. W. Reist , R. Fridrich , and H. R. Macke , “ Gallium-67/Gallium-68-[DFO]-Octreotide- A Potential radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors-synthesis and rediolabeling in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies ,” J. Nucl. Med.   35 , 317 – 325 ( 1994 ).

Srinivasan, S.

K. A. Kang , B. Chance , S. Zhao , S. Srinivasan , E. Patterson , and R. Troupin , “ Breast tumor characterization using near-infrared spectroscopy ,” Proc. photon migration and imaging in random media and tissues   1888 , 487 – 499 ( 1993 ).

Stolz, B.

P. M. Smithjones , B. Stolz , C. Bruns , R. Albert , H. W. Reist , R. Fridrich , and H. R. Macke , “ Gallium-67/Gallium-68-[DFO]-Octreotide- A Potential radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors-synthesis and rediolabeling in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies ,” J. Nucl. Med.   35 , 317 – 325 ( 1994 ).

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki , Y. Yamashita , K. Ohta , M. Kaneko , M. Yoshida , and B. Chance , “ Quantitative measurements of optical parameters in normal breasts using time resolved spectroscopy: in vivo results of 30 Japanese women ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 330 – 334 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Theru, S.

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , S. Theru , A. B. Thompson , M. Gurfinkel , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain modulated ICCD camera ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   48 , 1701 – 1720 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, A. B.

R. Roy , A. B. Thompson , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Tomographic fluorescence imaging in tissue Phantoms: a novel reconstruction algorithm and imaging geometry ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   24 , 137 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , A. B. Thompson , R. Roy , M. Gurfinkel , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Diagnostic Imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 488 – 496 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Thompson , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Near-infrared contrast-enhanced imaging with area illumination and area detection: the forward imaging problem ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 4125 – 4136 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , S. Theru , A. B. Thompson , M. Gurfinkel , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain modulated ICCD camera ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   48 , 1701 – 1720 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

N. Shah , A. E. Cerussi , D. Jakubowski , D. Hsiang , J. Butler , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 534 – 540 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shah , A. Cerussi , C. Eker , J. Espinoza , J. Butler , J. Fishkin , R. Hornung , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Noninvasive functional optical spectroscopy of human breast tissue ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   98 , 4420 – 4425 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Troupin, R.

K. A. Kang , B. Chance , S. Zhao , S. Srinivasan , E. Patterson , and R. Troupin , “ Breast tumor characterization using near-infrared spectroscopy ,” Proc. photon migration and imaging in random media and tissues   1888 , 487 – 499 ( 1993 ).

Troy, T. L.

T. L. Troy , D. L. Page , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Optical properties of normal and diseased breast tissues: prognosis for optical mammography ” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 342 – 355 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Venugopalan, V.

B. J. Tromberg , O. Coquoz , J. B. Fishkin , T. Pham , E. R. Anderson , J. Butler , M. Cahn , J. D. Gross , V. Venugopalan , and D. Pham , “ Non-invasive measurement of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration ,” Philos. Trans. Biol. Sciences ,   353 , 661 – 668 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Wabnitz, H.

Walker, P. J.

D. L. Bailey , B. F. Hutton , and P. J. Walker , “ Improved SPECT using simultaneous emission and transmission tomography ,” J. Nucl. Med.   28 , 844 – 851 ( 1987 ).
[PubMed]

Wang, W.

J. P. Houston , S. Ke , W. Wang , C. Li , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Quality analysis of in vivo NIR fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual-labeled tumor-targeting probe ,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published in September/October 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wymant, D. R.

V. G. Peters , D. R. Wymant , M. S. Patterson , and G. L. Frank , “ Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   35 , 1317 – 1334 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, Y.

K. Suzuki , Y. Yamashita , K. Ohta , M. Kaneko , M. Yoshida , and B. Chance , “ Quantitative measurements of optical parameters in normal breasts using time resolved spectroscopy: in vivo results of 30 Japanese women ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 330 – 334 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Yodh, A. G.

J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran , R. Choe , J. P. Culver , L. Zubkov , M. J. Holboke , J. Giammarco , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   47 , 2847 – 2861 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, M.

K. Suzuki , Y. Yamashita , K. Ohta , M. Kaneko , M. Yoshida , and B. Chance , “ Quantitative measurements of optical parameters in normal breasts using time resolved spectroscopy: in vivo results of 30 Japanese women ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   1 , 330 – 334 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Detection of multiple targets in breast phantoms using fluorescence enhanced optical imaging ,” Radiology   235 , 148 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , A. B. Thompson , R. Roy , M. Gurfinkel , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Diagnostic Imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 488 – 496 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , S. Theru , A. B. Thompson , M. Gurfinkel , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain modulated ICCD camera ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   48 , 1701 – 1720 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, S.

K. A. Kang , B. Chance , S. Zhao , S. Srinivasan , E. Patterson , and R. Troupin , “ Breast tumor characterization using near-infrared spectroscopy ,” Proc. photon migration and imaging in random media and tissues   1888 , 487 – 499 ( 1993 ).

Zubkov, L.

J. P. Culver , R. Choe , M. J. Holboke , L. Zubkov , T. Durduran , A. Slemp , V. Ntziachristos , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging ,” Med. Phys.   30 , 235 – 247 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran , R. Choe , J. P. Culver , L. Zubkov , M. J. Holboke , J. Giammarco , B. Chance , and A. G. Yodh , “ Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue ,” Phys. Med. Biol.   47 , 2847 – 2861 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (3)

R. Roy , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Fluorecense-enhanced optical tomography using referenced measurements of heterogeneous media ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   22 , 824 – 836 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Eppstein , D. E. Dougherty , D. J. Hawrysz , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ 3-D Bayesian optical imaging reconstruction with domain decomposition ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   20 , 147 – 161 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roy , A. B. Thompson , A. Godavarty , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Tomographic fluorescence imaging in tissue Phantoms: a novel reconstruction algorithm and imaging geometry ,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging   24 , 137 – 154 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

N. Shah , A. E. Cerussi , D. Jakubowski , D. Hsiang , J. Butler , and B. J. Tromberg , “ Spatial variations in optical and physiological properties of healthy breast tissue ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 534 – 540 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty , A. B. Thompson , R. Roy , M. Gurfinkel , M. J. Eppstein , C. Zhang , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Diagnostic Imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   9 , 488 – 496 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Houston , S. Ke , W. Wang , C. Li , and E. M. Sevick-Muraca , “ Quality analysis of in vivo NIR fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual-labeled tumor-targeting probe ,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published in September/October 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (7)

» Media 1: MPG (1113 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (1092 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (1127 KB)     
» Media 4: MPG (1093 KB)     
» Media 5: MPG (1284 KB)     
» Media 6: MPG (1294 KB)     
» Media 7: MPG (1305 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The geometry of the breast-shaped phantom. The dimensions are in centimeters. The bigger cylindrical volume has a circular base of diameter 20 cm. The hemisphere has a radius of 5 cm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The positions of laser sources and detectors on the breast phantom. The stars are the positions of the sources and the circles are the positions of the detectors.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Movies of the lumps in endogenous and exogenous optical properties using Lumpy object model. The lumps in μaxi (1.08 MB) (a), μsx (1.07 MB) (b), and μaxf (1.10 MB) (c) are shown as the cutplanes to the breast geometry (Fig. 1) parallel to yz-plane. The snapshots shown above are cutplanes passing through x=0.20 cm. The spread of the lumps are 5mm and there are 100 lumps uniformly generated in the hemispherical volume. The lumps have the strength values of 25% of the average background values of μaxi , μsx , and μaxf given in Table 3.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Actual distribution of exogenous optical property of the target inside the breast phantom. The colorbar shows the values of μaxf in cm-1. The target has μaxf value 100 times more than that of the background. The Fig. shown is a cut plane parallel to yz-plane and passing through point x=0.5. The lumps in the background are not shown here.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(1.06 MB) Movie of the recovered distribution of exogenous optical property in the presence of 1% lumps in endogenous optical properties using the PMBF/CONTN inverse algorithm. The colorbar shows the values of μaxf in cm-1. The movie shows cut planes parallel to xz-plane. The black spherical mesh represents the actual target.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The root mean square error (RMSE) values of the reconstructed images in the presence of endogenous lumps in the background. The target-to-background ratio (TBR) is 100:1 and the RMSE is calculated with respect to the actual distribution of the fluorophore shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Movies of the recovered distribution of exogenous optical property in the presence of 1% lumps in endogenous as well as exogenous optical properties using the PMBF/CONTN inverse algorithm. Figs. (a) (1.25 MB), (b) (1.26 MB), and (c) (1.27 MB) are respectively for TBR values of 100:1, 50:1, and 25:1. The colorbar shows the values of μaxf in cm-1. The movies shown are cut planes parallel to xz-plane. The black spherical mesh represents the actual target.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The root mean square error (RMSE) values of the reconstructed images in the presence of endogenous as well as exogenous lumps in the background. The plots for all the three cases of TBR values are shown and the RMSE is calculated with respect to the actual distribution of the fluorophore including the target distribution shown in Fig. 4 and the exogenous lumps in the background. The values for 100% are not shown here since we could not reconstruct the target for the TBR values of 50 and 25.

Tables (5)

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Table 1. Experimental breast optical property values reported in literature

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Table 2. Constant factors to obtain lumps at emission wavelength from the generated lumps at excitation wavelength.

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Table 3. Average background optical properties. Also given are the parameters used in equations (2), (3), and (4). The optical properties used in the simulations are similar to breast tissue optical properties reported in literature (see Table 1).

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Table 4. Centroid of the reconstructed targets with varying lump intensities. The coordinate dimensions are in centimeters.

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Table 5. The mean displacement of the reconstructed targets with respect to the actual target’s centroid. The dimension is in centimeters.

Equations (14)

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c Φ ( r , ω ) [ D ( r ) Φ ( r , ω ) ] + μ a ( r ) Φ ( r , ω ) = S ( r , ω )
[ D x ( r ) Φ x ( r , ω ) ] + [ c + μ axi ( r ) + μ axf ( r ) ] Φ x ( r , ω ) = S ( r , ω )
[ D m ( r ) Φ m ( r , ω ) ] + [ c + μ ami ( r ) + μ amf ( r ) ] Φ m ( r , ω ) = ϕ μ axf ( r ) 1 + iωτ 1 + [ ωτ ] 2 Φ x ( r , ω )
D x , m = 1 3 ( μ a x , m i + μ a x , m f + μ s x , m ( 1 g ) )
2 D x , m Φ x , m n + γ Φ x , m = 0
Φ x , m ( r , ω ) = I A C x , m exp ( i θ x , m ( r , ω ) )
b ( r ) = b 0 + n = 1 N p lump ( r r n )
lump ( r r n ) = l 0 exp ( r r n 2 2 w 2 ) 1 V ( Ω ) Ω l 0 exp ( r r n 2 2 w 2 ) d 3 r
E ( μ axf ) = 1 2 p = 1 N B [ ( log ( Z p ) cal log ( Z p ) mea ) ( log ( Z p ) cal * log ( Z p ) mea * ) ]
Z p = I A C ref p exp ( i θ ref p )
( Φ m ) p ( Φ x ) p p = 1 , , N B
min μ axf M ( μ axf , λ , η ) = E ( μ axf ) η i = 1 N { λ i l f ( μ axf i l ) + λ i l f ( u μ axf i ) }
r C = i = 1 N T μ axf i r i i = 1 N T μ axf i
RMSE = i = 1 N { 1 N ( μ axf calc μ axf actual ) i 2 }

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