Abstract

Electrochromic phenomena accompanying the ferroelectric domain inversion in congruent RuO2-doped z-cut LiNbO3 crystals at room temperature are observed in experiments. During the electric poling process, the electrochromism accompanies the ferroelectric domain inversion simultaneously in the same poled area. The electrochromism is completely reversible when the domain is inverted from the reverse direction. The influences of electric field and annealing conditions on domain inversion and electrochromism are also discussed. We propose the reasonable assumption that charge redistribution within the crystal structure caused by domain inversion is the source for electrochemically oxidation and reduction of Ru ion to produce the electrochromic effect.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Phys. B

M. C. Wengler, M. Müller, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, "Poling dynamics of lithium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 76, 393-396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, M. Saitoh and H. Ooki, "Electric-field induced cylindrical lens,switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO3 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3659-3661 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, "Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3719-3721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuroda, S. Kurimura and Y. Uesu, "Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO3 by applying electric fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1565-1567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishizuki, I. Shoji and T. Taira, "Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO3 crystals at elevated temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4062-4064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Zhang, and Y.-C. Lin, "Zinc oxide doping effects in polarization switching of lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottesfeld, J. D. E. McIntyre, G. Beni, and J. L. Shay, "Electrochromism in anodic iridium oxide films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 208-210 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Q. X. Xi, D. A. Liu, Y. N. Zhi, Z. Luan, and L. R. Liu, "Reversible electrochromic effect accompanying domain-inversion in LiNbO3:Ru:Fe crystals." Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121103-121105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasaki, A. Yuri, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323-3325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

V. Ya. Shur, E. L. Rumyantsev, R. G. Batchko, G. D. Miller, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 221, 157-167 (1999).

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Nakamura, J. Kurz, K. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "Periodic poling of magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4528-4534 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Grätzel, "Ultrafast colour displays," Nature 409, 575-576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

V. Marinova, M. L. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, K. Y. Hsu, "Effect of ruthenium doping on the optical and photorefractive properties of Bi12TiO20 single crystals." Opt. Commun. 203, 377-384 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Eason, A. J. Boyland, S. Mailis and P. G. R. Smith, "Electro-optically controlled beam deflection for grazing incidence geometry on a domain-engineered interface in LiNbO3," Opt. Commun. 197, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonally Poled Lithium Niobate: A Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

RCA Review

B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, P. M. Heyman, "Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films," RCA Review, 36, 177-197 (1975)

Solid State Commun.

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, K. E. Sicakfus, "Switching kinetics of 180° domains in congruent LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals," Solid State Commun. 109, 111-117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ionic

S. H. Lee, P. Liu, H. M. Cheong, C. Edwin Tracy, S. K. Deb, "Electrochromism of amorphous ruthenium oxide thin films," Solid State Ionic 165, 217-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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