Abstract

We report on the upconversion luminescence of a pure YVO4 single crystal excited by an infrared femtosecond laser. The luminescent spectra show that the upconversion luminescence comes from the transitions from the lowest excited states 3T1, 3T2 to the ground state 1A1 of the VO43. The dependence of the fluorescence intensity on the pump power density of laser indicates that the conversion of infrared irradiation to visible emission is dominated by three-photon excitation process. We suggest that the simultaneous absorption of three infrared photons promotes the VO43 to excited states, which quickly cascade down to lowest excited states, and radiatively relax to ground states, resulting in the broad characteristic fluorescence of VO43.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. F. Johnson and G. J. Guggenheim , “ Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   19 , 44 – 47 ( 1971 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis , “ Three-dimensional optical storage memory ,” Science.   245 , 843 – 845 ( 1989 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. Downing , L. Hesselink , J. Ralston , and R. Macfarlane , “ A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display ,” Science.   273 , 1185 – 1189 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Denk , J. H. Strickler , and W. W. Webb . “ Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope ,” Science.   248 , 73 – 76 ( 1990 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. S. Chivian , W. E. Case , and D. D. Eden , “ The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr 3+ -based infrared quantum counters ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   35 , 124 – 125 ( 1979 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. E. Auzel , “ Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids ,” Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.)   104 , 139 – 174 ( 2004 ).
  7. S. Heer , M. Wermuth , K. Krämer , and H. U. Güdel , “ Upconversion excitation of Cr 3+2 E emission in Y 3 Ga 5 O 12 codoped with Cr 3+ and Yb 3+ ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   334 , 293 – 297 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. Kaiser and C.G.B. Garrett , “ Two-Photon Excitation in CaF 2 : Eu 2+ ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   7 , 229 – 231 ( 1961 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Blasse and B. C. Grabmaier , Luminescent Materials . ( Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Ronde and G. Blasse ,“ The nature of the electronic transitions of the vanadate group ,” J. Inorg. Nuclear Chem.   40 , 215 ( 1978 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. Barendswaard , R. T. Weber , and J. H. van der Waals , “ An EPR study of the luminescent triplet state of VO43− in YVO 4 and YP 0.96 V 0.04 O 4 single crystals at 1.2 K ,” J. Chem. Phys.   87 , 3731 ( 1987 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. Chang Hsu and Richard C. Powell , “ Energy transfer in europium doped yttrium vanadate crystals ,” J. Luminescence.   10 , 273 – 293 ( 1975 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. L.Y. Yang , Y. J. Dong , D. P. Chen , C. Wang , N. Da , X. W. Jiang , C. S. Zhu , and J. R. Qiu , “ Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr 3+ in Al 2 O 3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Opt. Express.   13 , 7893 – 98 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. L. H. Zhang , Y. Hang , D. L. Sun , B. X. Qian , F. S. Li , and S. T. Yin , “ The color problems of YVO 4 crystal ,” J. Synth. Cryst.   32 , 24 – 26 ( 2003 in chinese).
  15. R. P. Chin , Y. R. Shen , and V. Petrova-koch , “ Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation ,” Science.   270 , 776 – 778 ( 1995 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. Bloembergen , “ Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   2 , 84 – 85 ( 1959 ).
    [Crossref]
  17. Richard Scheps , “ Upconversion laser processes ,” Prog. Quantum Electron.   20 , 271 – 358 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. G. S. He , P. P. Markowicz , T. C. Lin , and P. N. Prasad , “ Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation ,” Nature.   415 , 767 – 770 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. S. Marchant , G. E. Stutzmann , M. A. Leissring , F. M. LaFerla , and I. Parker , “ Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   19 , 645 – 649 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. K. Svoboda , W. Denk , D. Kleinfeld , and D.W. Tank , “ In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons ,” Nature.   385 , 161 – 165 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. You and M. Nogami , “ Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass containing Eu 3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2076 – 78 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. You and M. Nogami , “ Upconversion luminescence of Al 2 O 3 –SiO 2 :Ce 3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 3432 – 34 ( 2004 )
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Qiu , P. G. Kazansky , J. Si , K. Miura , T. Mitsuyu , K. Hirao , and A. L. Gaeta , “ Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 1940 – 42 ( 2000 )
    [Crossref]
  24. P. G. Kazansky , H. Inouye , T. Mitsuyu , K. Miura , J. Qiu , and K. Hirao , “ Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2199 – 2202 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]

2005 (1)

L.Y. Yang , Y. J. Dong , D. P. Chen , C. Wang , N. Da , X. W. Jiang , C. S. Zhu , and J. R. Qiu , “ Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr 3+ in Al 2 O 3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Opt. Express.   13 , 7893 – 98 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

F. E. Auzel , “ Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids ,” Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.)   104 , 139 – 174 ( 2004 ).

H. You and M. Nogami , “ Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass containing Eu 3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2076 – 78 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

H. You and M. Nogami , “ Upconversion luminescence of Al 2 O 3 –SiO 2 :Ce 3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 3432 – 34 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

L. H. Zhang , Y. Hang , D. L. Sun , B. X. Qian , F. S. Li , and S. T. Yin , “ The color problems of YVO 4 crystal ,” J. Synth. Cryst.   32 , 24 – 26 ( 2003 in chinese).

2002 (1)

G. S. He , P. P. Markowicz , T. C. Lin , and P. N. Prasad , “ Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation ,” Nature.   415 , 767 – 770 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. S. Marchant , G. E. Stutzmann , M. A. Leissring , F. M. LaFerla , and I. Parker , “ Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   19 , 645 – 649 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Heer , M. Wermuth , K. Krämer , and H. U. Güdel , “ Upconversion excitation of Cr 3+2 E emission in Y 3 Ga 5 O 12 codoped with Cr 3+ and Yb 3+ ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   334 , 293 – 297 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Qiu , P. G. Kazansky , J. Si , K. Miura , T. Mitsuyu , K. Hirao , and A. L. Gaeta , “ Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 1940 – 42 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. G. Kazansky , H. Inouye , T. Mitsuyu , K. Miura , J. Qiu , and K. Hirao , “ Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2199 – 2202 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Svoboda , W. Denk , D. Kleinfeld , and D.W. Tank , “ In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons ,” Nature.   385 , 161 – 165 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

Richard Scheps , “ Upconversion laser processes ,” Prog. Quantum Electron.   20 , 271 – 358 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

E. Downing , L. Hesselink , J. Ralston , and R. Macfarlane , “ A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display ,” Science.   273 , 1185 – 1189 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

R. P. Chin , Y. R. Shen , and V. Petrova-koch , “ Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation ,” Science.   270 , 776 – 778 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. Denk , J. H. Strickler , and W. W. Webb . “ Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope ,” Science.   248 , 73 – 76 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis , “ Three-dimensional optical storage memory ,” Science.   245 , 843 – 845 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

W. Barendswaard , R. T. Weber , and J. H. van der Waals , “ An EPR study of the luminescent triplet state of VO43− in YVO 4 and YP 0.96 V 0.04 O 4 single crystals at 1.2 K ,” J. Chem. Phys.   87 , 3731 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

J. S. Chivian , W. E. Case , and D. D. Eden , “ The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr 3+ -based infrared quantum counters ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   35 , 124 – 125 ( 1979 ).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

H. Ronde and G. Blasse ,“ The nature of the electronic transitions of the vanadate group ,” J. Inorg. Nuclear Chem.   40 , 215 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

Chang Hsu and Richard C. Powell , “ Energy transfer in europium doped yttrium vanadate crystals ,” J. Luminescence.   10 , 273 – 293 ( 1975 ).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

L. F. Johnson and G. J. Guggenheim , “ Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   19 , 44 – 47 ( 1971 ).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

W. Kaiser and C.G.B. Garrett , “ Two-Photon Excitation in CaF 2 : Eu 2+ ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   7 , 229 – 231 ( 1961 ).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

N. Bloembergen , “ Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   2 , 84 – 85 ( 1959 ).
[Crossref]

Auzel, F. E.

F. E. Auzel , “ Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids ,” Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.)   104 , 139 – 174 ( 2004 ).

Barendswaard, W.

W. Barendswaard , R. T. Weber , and J. H. van der Waals , “ An EPR study of the luminescent triplet state of VO43− in YVO 4 and YP 0.96 V 0.04 O 4 single crystals at 1.2 K ,” J. Chem. Phys.   87 , 3731 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Blasse, G.

H. Ronde and G. Blasse ,“ The nature of the electronic transitions of the vanadate group ,” J. Inorg. Nuclear Chem.   40 , 215 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

G. Blasse and B. C. Grabmaier , Luminescent Materials . ( Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen , “ Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   2 , 84 – 85 ( 1959 ).
[Crossref]

Case, W. E.

J. S. Chivian , W. E. Case , and D. D. Eden , “ The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr 3+ -based infrared quantum counters ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   35 , 124 – 125 ( 1979 ).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. P.

L.Y. Yang , Y. J. Dong , D. P. Chen , C. Wang , N. Da , X. W. Jiang , C. S. Zhu , and J. R. Qiu , “ Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr 3+ in Al 2 O 3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Opt. Express.   13 , 7893 – 98 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, R. P.

R. P. Chin , Y. R. Shen , and V. Petrova-koch , “ Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation ,” Science.   270 , 776 – 778 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Chivian, J. S.

J. S. Chivian , W. E. Case , and D. D. Eden , “ The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr 3+ -based infrared quantum counters ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   35 , 124 – 125 ( 1979 ).
[Crossref]

Da, N.

L.Y. Yang , Y. J. Dong , D. P. Chen , C. Wang , N. Da , X. W. Jiang , C. S. Zhu , and J. R. Qiu , “ Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr 3+ in Al 2 O 3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Opt. Express.   13 , 7893 – 98 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

K. Svoboda , W. Denk , D. Kleinfeld , and D.W. Tank , “ In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons ,” Nature.   385 , 161 – 165 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Denk , J. H. Strickler , and W. W. Webb . “ Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope ,” Science.   248 , 73 – 76 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Y. J.

L.Y. Yang , Y. J. Dong , D. P. Chen , C. Wang , N. Da , X. W. Jiang , C. S. Zhu , and J. R. Qiu , “ Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr 3+ in Al 2 O 3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Opt. Express.   13 , 7893 – 98 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Downing, E.

E. Downing , L. Hesselink , J. Ralston , and R. Macfarlane , “ A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display ,” Science.   273 , 1185 – 1189 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Eden, D. D.

J. S. Chivian , W. E. Case , and D. D. Eden , “ The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr 3+ -based infrared quantum counters ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   35 , 124 – 125 ( 1979 ).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. Qiu , P. G. Kazansky , J. Si , K. Miura , T. Mitsuyu , K. Hirao , and A. L. Gaeta , “ Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 1940 – 42 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

Garrett, C.G.B.

W. Kaiser and C.G.B. Garrett , “ Two-Photon Excitation in CaF 2 : Eu 2+ ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   7 , 229 – 231 ( 1961 ).
[Crossref]

Grabmaier, B. C.

G. Blasse and B. C. Grabmaier , Luminescent Materials . ( Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Güdel, H. U.

S. Heer , M. Wermuth , K. Krämer , and H. U. Güdel , “ Upconversion excitation of Cr 3+2 E emission in Y 3 Ga 5 O 12 codoped with Cr 3+ and Yb 3+ ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   334 , 293 – 297 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Guggenheim, G. J.

L. F. Johnson and G. J. Guggenheim , “ Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   19 , 44 – 47 ( 1971 ).
[Crossref]

Hang, Y.

L. H. Zhang , Y. Hang , D. L. Sun , B. X. Qian , F. S. Li , and S. T. Yin , “ The color problems of YVO 4 crystal ,” J. Synth. Cryst.   32 , 24 – 26 ( 2003 in chinese).

He, G. S.

G. S. He , P. P. Markowicz , T. C. Lin , and P. N. Prasad , “ Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation ,” Nature.   415 , 767 – 770 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heer, S.

S. Heer , M. Wermuth , K. Krämer , and H. U. Güdel , “ Upconversion excitation of Cr 3+2 E emission in Y 3 Ga 5 O 12 codoped with Cr 3+ and Yb 3+ ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   334 , 293 – 297 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing , L. Hesselink , J. Ralston , and R. Macfarlane , “ A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display ,” Science.   273 , 1185 – 1189 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

J. Qiu , P. G. Kazansky , J. Si , K. Miura , T. Mitsuyu , K. Hirao , and A. L. Gaeta , “ Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 1940 – 42 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky , H. Inouye , T. Mitsuyu , K. Miura , J. Qiu , and K. Hirao , “ Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2199 – 2202 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Chang

Chang Hsu and Richard C. Powell , “ Energy transfer in europium doped yttrium vanadate crystals ,” J. Luminescence.   10 , 273 – 293 ( 1975 ).
[Crossref]

Inouye, H.

P. G. Kazansky , H. Inouye , T. Mitsuyu , K. Miura , J. Qiu , and K. Hirao , “ Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2199 – 2202 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X. W.

L.Y. Yang , Y. J. Dong , D. P. Chen , C. Wang , N. Da , X. W. Jiang , C. S. Zhu , and J. R. Qiu , “ Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr 3+ in Al 2 O 3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Opt. Express.   13 , 7893 – 98 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson and G. J. Guggenheim , “ Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   19 , 44 – 47 ( 1971 ).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, W.

W. Kaiser and C.G.B. Garrett , “ Two-Photon Excitation in CaF 2 : Eu 2+ ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   7 , 229 – 231 ( 1961 ).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P. G.

J. Qiu , P. G. Kazansky , J. Si , K. Miura , T. Mitsuyu , K. Hirao , and A. L. Gaeta , “ Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 1940 – 42 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky , H. Inouye , T. Mitsuyu , K. Miura , J. Qiu , and K. Hirao , “ Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2199 – 2202 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Kleinfeld, D.

K. Svoboda , W. Denk , D. Kleinfeld , and D.W. Tank , “ In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons ,” Nature.   385 , 161 – 165 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krämer, K.

S. Heer , M. Wermuth , K. Krämer , and H. U. Güdel , “ Upconversion excitation of Cr 3+2 E emission in Y 3 Ga 5 O 12 codoped with Cr 3+ and Yb 3+ ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   334 , 293 – 297 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

LaFerla, F. M.

J. S. Marchant , G. E. Stutzmann , M. A. Leissring , F. M. LaFerla , and I. Parker , “ Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   19 , 645 – 649 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leissring, M. A.

J. S. Marchant , G. E. Stutzmann , M. A. Leissring , F. M. LaFerla , and I. Parker , “ Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   19 , 645 – 649 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, F. S.

L. H. Zhang , Y. Hang , D. L. Sun , B. X. Qian , F. S. Li , and S. T. Yin , “ The color problems of YVO 4 crystal ,” J. Synth. Cryst.   32 , 24 – 26 ( 2003 in chinese).

Lin, T. C.

G. S. He , P. P. Markowicz , T. C. Lin , and P. N. Prasad , “ Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation ,” Nature.   415 , 767 – 770 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing , L. Hesselink , J. Ralston , and R. Macfarlane , “ A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display ,” Science.   273 , 1185 – 1189 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Marchant, J. S.

J. S. Marchant , G. E. Stutzmann , M. A. Leissring , F. M. LaFerla , and I. Parker , “ Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   19 , 645 – 649 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markowicz, P. P.

G. S. He , P. P. Markowicz , T. C. Lin , and P. N. Prasad , “ Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation ,” Nature.   415 , 767 – 770 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitsuyu, T.

J. Qiu , P. G. Kazansky , J. Si , K. Miura , T. Mitsuyu , K. Hirao , and A. L. Gaeta , “ Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 1940 – 42 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky , H. Inouye , T. Mitsuyu , K. Miura , J. Qiu , and K. Hirao , “ Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2199 – 2202 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

J. Qiu , P. G. Kazansky , J. Si , K. Miura , T. Mitsuyu , K. Hirao , and A. L. Gaeta , “ Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 1940 – 42 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky , H. Inouye , T. Mitsuyu , K. Miura , J. Qiu , and K. Hirao , “ Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2199 – 2202 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Nogami, M.

H. You and M. Nogami , “ Upconversion luminescence of Al 2 O 3 –SiO 2 :Ce 3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 3432 – 34 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

H. You and M. Nogami , “ Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass containing Eu 3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2076 – 78 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Parker, I.

J. S. Marchant , G. E. Stutzmann , M. A. Leissring , F. M. LaFerla , and I. Parker , “ Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   19 , 645 – 649 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parthenopoulos, D. A.

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis , “ Three-dimensional optical storage memory ,” Science.   245 , 843 – 845 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrova-koch, V.

R. P. Chin , Y. R. Shen , and V. Petrova-koch , “ Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation ,” Science.   270 , 776 – 778 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Powell, Richard C.

Chang Hsu and Richard C. Powell , “ Energy transfer in europium doped yttrium vanadate crystals ,” J. Luminescence.   10 , 273 – 293 ( 1975 ).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He , P. P. Markowicz , T. C. Lin , and P. N. Prasad , “ Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation ,” Nature.   415 , 767 – 770 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, B. X.

L. H. Zhang , Y. Hang , D. L. Sun , B. X. Qian , F. S. Li , and S. T. Yin , “ The color problems of YVO 4 crystal ,” J. Synth. Cryst.   32 , 24 – 26 ( 2003 in chinese).

Qiu, J.

J. Qiu , P. G. Kazansky , J. Si , K. Miura , T. Mitsuyu , K. Hirao , and A. L. Gaeta , “ Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   77 , 1940 – 42 ( 2000 )
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky , H. Inouye , T. Mitsuyu , K. Miura , J. Qiu , and K. Hirao , “ Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 2199 – 2202 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

L.Y. Yang , Y. J. Dong , D. P. Chen , C. Wang , N. Da , X. W. Jiang , C. S. Zhu , and J. R. Qiu , “ Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr 3+ in Al 2 O 3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation ,” Opt. Express.   13 , 7893 – 98 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ralston, J.

E. Downing , L. Hesselink , J. Ralston , and R. Macfarlane , “ A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display ,” Science.   273 , 1185 – 1189 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Rentzepis, P. M.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Emission spectra of the YVO4 crystal sample under focused femtosecond laser irradiation and 267nm monochromatic light excitation. The inset was the photograph of the YVO4 crystal sample irradiated by focused femtosecond laser, which was taken in darkroom.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption spectrum and the excitation spectrum (the inset) of the YVO4 crystal sample.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluorescence intensity of the transition from 3T1, and 3T2 to 1A1 of VO43 as function of the femtosecond laser pump power density.

Equations (1)

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