Abstract

We report on the upconversion luminescence of a pure YVO4 single crystal excited by an infrared femtosecond laser. The luminescent spectra show that the upconversion luminescence comes from the transitions from the lowest excited states 3T1, 3T2 to the ground state 1A1 of the VO43. The dependence of the fluorescence intensity on the pump power density of laser indicates that the conversion of infrared irradiation to visible emission is dominated by three-photon excitation process. We suggest that the simultaneous absorption of three infrared photons promotes the VO43 to excited states, which quickly cascade down to lowest excited states, and radiatively relax to ground states, resulting in the broad characteristic fluorescence of VO43.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. F. Johnson, G. J. Guggenheim, "Infrared-pumped visible laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44-47 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, "The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3 + -based infrared quantum counters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124-125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. You and M. Nogami, "Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-2078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. You and M. Nogami, "Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3-SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432-34 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, "Upconversion excitation of Cr3+ 2E emission in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+," Chem. Phys. Lett. 334, 293-297 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

F. E. Auzel, "Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 104, 139-174 (2004).

J. Chem. Phys.

W. Barendswaard, R. T. Weber, and J. H. van der Waals, "An EPR study of the luminescent triplet state of VO4 3- in YVO4 and YP0.96V0.04O4 single crystals at 1.2 K," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3731 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Inorg. Nuclear Chem.

H. Ronde and G. Blasse, "The nature of the electronic transitions of the vanadate group," J. Inorg. Nuclear Chem. 40, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Luminescence

C. Hsu and R. C. Powell, "Energy transfer in europium doped yttrium vanadate crystals," J. Luminescence 10, 273-293 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Synth. Cryst.

L. H. Zhang, Y. Hang, D. L. Sun, B. X. Qian, F. S. Li, and S. T. Yin, "The color problems of YVO4 crystal," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 24-26 (2003 in Chinese).

Nat. Biotechnol.

J. S. Marchant, G. E. Stutzmann, M. A. Leissring, F. M. LaFerla, and I. Parker, "Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 645-649 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D.W.Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161-165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, "Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation," Nature 415, 767-770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Bloembergen, "Solid state infrared quantum counters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84-85 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W. Kaiser, and C. G. B.Garrett, "Two-photon excitation in CaF2: Eu2+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229-231 (1961).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

R. Scheps, "Upconversion laser processes," Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271-358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-Koch, "Photoluminescence from porous silicon by infrared multiphoton excitation," Science 270, 776-778 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-dimensional optical storage memory," Science 245, 843-845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. Blasse and B. C. Grabmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Emission spectra of the YVO4 crystal sample under focused femtosecond laser irradiation and 267nm monochromatic light excitation. The inset was the photograph of the YVO4 crystal sample irradiated by focused femtosecond laser, which was taken in darkroom.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption spectrum and the excitation spectrum (the inset) of the YVO4 crystal sample.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluorescence intensity of the transition from 3T1, and 3T2 to 1A1 of VO43 as function of the femtosecond laser pump power density.

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