Abstract

Using silicon photonic wire waveguides, we constructed compact 1 × 1, 1 × 2, and 1 × 4 Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical switches on a silicon-on-insulator substrate and demonstrated their switching operations through the thermo-optic effect. These switches were smaller than 140 × 65, 85 × 30, and 190 × 75 μm, respectively. At a 1550-nm wavelength, we obtained an extinction ratio larger than 30 dB, a switching power as low as 90 mW, and a switching response time of less than 100 μs. Furthermore, switching operations were successfully demonstrated for the 1 × 4 switch.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. T. Reed , “ The optical age of silicon ,” Nature   427 , 595 – 596 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. B. Jalali , V. Raghunathan , O. Boyraz , R. Claps , and D. Dimitropoulos , “ Wavelength conversion and light amplification in silicon waveguides ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), WA3.
  3. A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Chen , J. L. Yen , J. Y. Li , J. F. Chang , S. C. Tsai , and C. S. Tsai , “ Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2163 – 2165 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. Q. Xu , B. Schmidt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. Manolatou , S. G. Johnson , S. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , H. A. Haus , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ High-density integrated optics ,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol.   17 , 1682 – 1692 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Sakai , G. Hara , and T. Baba , “ Propagation Characteristics of Ultrahigh-∆ Optical Waveguide on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   40 , L383 – L385 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab , “ Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1622 – 1631 ( 2004 ). http ://www. opticsexpress. org/abstract. cfm?URI=OPEX-12- 8-1622
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Harjanne , M. Kapulainen , T. Aalto , and P. Heimala , “ Sub-µs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 2039 – 2041 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. L. Espinola , M. C. Tsai , J. T. Yardley , and R. M. Osgood , “ Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   15 , 1366 – 1368 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. U. Fischer , T. Zinke , B. Schuppert , and K. Petermann , “ Singlemode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 406 – 408 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. V. Treyz , “ Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 um ,” Electron. Lett.   27 , 118 – 120 ( 1991 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. Q. Lai , W. Hunziker , and H. Melchior , “ Low-power compact 2x2 thermooptic silica-on-silicon waveguide switch with fast response ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , 681 – 683 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Yamada , T. Chu , S. Ishida , and Y. Arakawa , “ Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 585 – 588 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).
  18. S. P. Chan , C. E. Png , S. T. Lim , G. T. Reed , and V. M. N. Passaro , “ Single mode, polarization independent waveguides in silicon-on- insulator ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), ThP21.

2005 (3)

Q. Xu , B. Schmidt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

H. Yamada , T. Chu , S. Ishida , and Y. Arakawa , “ Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 585 – 588 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

2004 (8)

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

S. P. Chan , C. E. Png , S. T. Lim , G. T. Reed , and V. M. N. Passaro , “ Single mode, polarization independent waveguides in silicon-on- insulator ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), ThP21.

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab , “ Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1622 – 1631 ( 2004 ). http ://www. opticsexpress. org/abstract. cfm?URI=OPEX-12- 8-1622
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

M. Harjanne , M. Kapulainen , T. Aalto , and P. Heimala , “ Sub-µs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 2039 – 2041 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed , “ The optical age of silicon ,” Nature   427 , 595 – 596 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Chen , J. L. Yen , J. Y. Li , J. F. Chang , S. C. Tsai , and C. S. Tsai , “ Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2163 – 2165 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. L. Espinola , M. C. Tsai , J. T. Yardley , and R. M. Osgood , “ Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   15 , 1366 – 1368 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Sakai , G. Hara , and T. Baba , “ Propagation Characteristics of Ultrahigh-∆ Optical Waveguide on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   40 , L383 – L385 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

C. Manolatou , S. G. Johnson , S. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , H. A. Haus , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ High-density integrated optics ,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol.   17 , 1682 – 1692 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Q. Lai , W. Hunziker , and H. Melchior , “ Low-power compact 2x2 thermooptic silica-on-silicon waveguide switch with fast response ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , 681 – 683 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

U. Fischer , T. Zinke , B. Schuppert , and K. Petermann , “ Singlemode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 406 – 408 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G. V. Treyz , “ Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 um ,” Electron. Lett.   27 , 118 – 120 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Aalto, T.

M. Harjanne , M. Kapulainen , T. Aalto , and P. Heimala , “ Sub-µs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 2039 – 2041 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

H. Yamada , T. Chu , S. Ishida , and Y. Arakawa , “ Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 585 – 588 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

A. Sakai , G. Hara , and T. Baba , “ Propagation Characteristics of Ultrahigh-∆ Optical Waveguide on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   40 , L383 – L385 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Boyraz, O.

B. Jalali , V. Raghunathan , O. Boyraz , R. Claps , and D. Dimitropoulos , “ Wavelength conversion and light amplification in silicon waveguides ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), WA3.

Campenhout, J. V.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Chan, S. P.

S. P. Chan , C. E. Png , S. T. Lim , G. T. Reed , and V. M. N. Passaro , “ Single mode, polarization independent waveguides in silicon-on- insulator ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), ThP21.

Chang, J. F.

M. J. Chen , J. L. Yen , J. Y. Li , J. F. Chang , S. C. Tsai , and C. S. Tsai , “ Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2163 – 2165 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. J.

M. J. Chen , J. L. Yen , J. Y. Li , J. F. Chang , S. C. Tsai , and C. S. Tsai , “ Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2163 – 2165 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Chu, T.

H. Yamada , T. Chu , S. Ishida , and Y. Arakawa , “ Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 585 – 588 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Claps, R.

B. Jalali , V. Raghunathan , O. Boyraz , R. Claps , and D. Dimitropoulos , “ Wavelength conversion and light amplification in silicon waveguides ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), WA3.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimitropoulos, D.

B. Jalali , V. Raghunathan , O. Boyraz , R. Claps , and D. Dimitropoulos , “ Wavelength conversion and light amplification in silicon waveguides ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), WA3.

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Espinola, R. L.

R. L. Espinola , M. C. Tsai , J. T. Yardley , and R. M. Osgood , “ Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   15 , 1366 – 1368 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

C. Manolatou , S. G. Johnson , S. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , H. A. Haus , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ High-density integrated optics ,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol.   17 , 1682 – 1692 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Fischer, U.

U. Fischer , T. Zinke , B. Schuppert , and K. Petermann , “ Singlemode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 406 – 408 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Hara, G.

A. Sakai , G. Hara , and T. Baba , “ Propagation Characteristics of Ultrahigh-∆ Optical Waveguide on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   40 , L383 – L385 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Harjanne, M.

M. Harjanne , M. Kapulainen , T. Aalto , and P. Heimala , “ Sub-µs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 2039 – 2041 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

C. Manolatou , S. G. Johnson , S. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , H. A. Haus , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ High-density integrated optics ,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol.   17 , 1682 – 1692 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Heimala, P.

M. Harjanne , M. Kapulainen , T. Aalto , and P. Heimala , “ Sub-µs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 2039 – 2041 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Hunziker, W.

Q. Lai , W. Hunziker , and H. Melchior , “ Low-power compact 2x2 thermooptic silica-on-silicon waveguide switch with fast response ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , 681 – 683 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Ishida, S.

H. Yamada , T. Chu , S. Ishida , and Y. Arakawa , “ Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 585 – 588 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali , V. Raghunathan , O. Boyraz , R. Claps , and D. Dimitropoulos , “ Wavelength conversion and light amplification in silicon waveguides ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), WA3.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Manolatou , S. G. Johnson , S. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , H. A. Haus , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ High-density integrated optics ,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol.   17 , 1682 – 1692 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Manolatou , S. G. Johnson , S. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , H. A. Haus , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ High-density integrated optics ,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol.   17 , 1682 – 1692 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Jones, R.

A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapulainen, M.

M. Harjanne , M. Kapulainen , T. Aalto , and P. Heimala , “ Sub-µs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 2039 – 2041 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Lai, Q.

Q. Lai , W. Hunziker , and H. Melchior , “ Low-power compact 2x2 thermooptic silica-on-silicon waveguide switch with fast response ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , 681 – 683 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Li, J. Y.

M. J. Chen , J. L. Yen , J. Y. Li , J. F. Chang , S. C. Tsai , and C. S. Tsai , “ Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2163 – 2165 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.

A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, S. T.

S. P. Chan , C. E. Png , S. T. Lim , G. T. Reed , and V. M. N. Passaro , “ Single mode, polarization independent waveguides in silicon-on- insulator ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), ThP21.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu , B. Schmidt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou , S. G. Johnson , S. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , H. A. Haus , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ High-density integrated optics ,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol.   17 , 1682 – 1692 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

McNab, S. J.

Melchior, H.

Q. Lai , W. Hunziker , and H. Melchior , “ Low-power compact 2x2 thermooptic silica-on-silicon waveguide switch with fast response ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , 681 – 683 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

R. L. Espinola , M. C. Tsai , J. T. Yardley , and R. M. Osgood , “ Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   15 , 1366 – 1368 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passaro, V. M. N.

S. P. Chan , C. E. Png , S. T. Lim , G. T. Reed , and V. M. N. Passaro , “ Single mode, polarization independent waveguides in silicon-on- insulator ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), ThP21.

Petermann, K.

U. Fischer , T. Zinke , B. Schuppert , and K. Petermann , “ Singlemode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 406 – 408 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Png, C. E.

S. P. Chan , C. E. Png , S. T. Lim , G. T. Reed , and V. M. N. Passaro , “ Single mode, polarization independent waveguides in silicon-on- insulator ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), ThP21.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu , B. Schmidt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raghunathan, V.

B. Jalali , V. Raghunathan , O. Boyraz , R. Claps , and D. Dimitropoulos , “ Wavelength conversion and light amplification in silicon waveguides ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), WA3.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed , “ The optical age of silicon ,” Nature   427 , 595 – 596 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Chan , C. E. Png , S. T. Lim , G. T. Reed , and V. M. N. Passaro , “ Single mode, polarization independent waveguides in silicon-on- insulator ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), ThP21.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai , G. Hara , and T. Baba , “ Propagation Characteristics of Ultrahigh-∆ Optical Waveguide on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   40 , L383 – L385 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu , B. Schmidt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuppert, B.

U. Fischer , T. Zinke , B. Schuppert , and K. Petermann , “ Singlemode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 406 – 408 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Thourhout, D. V.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Treyz, G. V.

G. V. Treyz , “ Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 um ,” Electron. Lett.   27 , 118 – 120 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. S.

M. J. Chen , J. L. Yen , J. Y. Li , J. F. Chang , S. C. Tsai , and C. S. Tsai , “ Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2163 – 2165 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M. C.

R. L. Espinola , M. C. Tsai , J. T. Yardley , and R. M. Osgood , “ Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   15 , 1366 – 1368 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Tsai, S. C.

M. J. Chen , J. L. Yen , J. Y. Li , J. F. Chang , S. C. Tsai , and C. S. Tsai , “ Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2163 – 2165 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Uchiyama, S.

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Villeneuve, P. R.

C. Manolatou , S. G. Johnson , S. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , H. A. Haus , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ High-density integrated optics ,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol.   17 , 1682 – 1692 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu , B. Schmidt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada , T. Chu , S. Ishida , and Y. Arakawa , “ Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 585 – 588 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Yardley, J. T.

R. L. Espinola , M. C. Tsai , J. T. Yardley , and R. M. Osgood , “ Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   15 , 1366 – 1368 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Yen, J. L.

M. J. Chen , J. L. Yen , J. Y. Li , J. F. Chang , S. C. Tsai , and C. S. Tsai , “ Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2163 – 2165 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Zinke, T.

U. Fischer , T. Zinke , B. Schuppert , and K. Petermann , “ Singlemode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 406 – 408 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. J. Chen , J. L. Yen , J. Y. Li , J. F. Chang , S. C. Tsai , and C. S. Tsai , “ Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 2163 – 2165 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

U. Fischer , T. Zinke , B. Schuppert , and K. Petermann , “ Singlemode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 406 – 408 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

G. V. Treyz , “ Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 um ,” Electron. Lett.   27 , 118 – 120 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. (1)

C. Manolatou , S. G. Johnson , S. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , H. A. Haus , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ High-density integrated optics ,” IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol.   17 , 1682 – 1692 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa , K. Yamada , H. Fukuda , T. Watanabe , J. Takahashi , M. Takahashi , T. Shoji , E. Tamechika , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   11 , 232 – 240 ( 2005 )
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (5)

M. Harjanne , M. Kapulainen , T. Aalto , and P. Heimala , “ Sub-µs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 2039 – 2041 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

R. L. Espinola , M. C. Tsai , J. T. Yardley , and R. M. Osgood , “ Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   15 , 1366 – 1368 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Q. Lai , W. Hunziker , and H. Melchior , “ Low-power compact 2x2 thermooptic silica-on-silicon waveguide switch with fast response ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , 681 – 683 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

H. Yamada , T. Chu , S. Ishida , and Y. Arakawa , “ Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17 , 585 – 588 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

P. Dumon , W. Bogaerts , V. Wiaux , J. Wouters , S. Beckx , J. V. Campenhout , D. Taillaert , B. Luyssaert , P. Bienstman , D. V. Thourhout , and R. Baets , “ Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , 1328 – 1330 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K. Yamada , T. Tsuchizawa , T. Watanabe , H. Takahashi , E. Tamechika , M. Takahashi , S. Uchiyama , H. Fukuda , T. Shoji , S. Itabashi , and H. Morita , “ Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system ,” IEICE Trans. Electron.   E87-C , 351 – 358 ( 2004 ).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Sakai , G. Hara , and T. Baba , “ Propagation Characteristics of Ultrahigh-∆ Optical Waveguide on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   40 , L383 – L385 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

A. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu , B. Schmidt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed , “ The optical age of silicon ,” Nature   427 , 595 – 596 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

B. Jalali , V. Raghunathan , O. Boyraz , R. Claps , and D. Dimitropoulos , “ Wavelength conversion and light amplification in silicon waveguides ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), WA3.

S. P. Chan , C. E. Png , S. T. Lim , G. T. Reed , and V. M. N. Passaro , “ Single mode, polarization independent waveguides in silicon-on- insulator ,” in 1 st International Conference on Group IV Photonics ( LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong , 2004 ), ThP21.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

1 × N optical switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Switching characteristics of 1 × 1 optical switch

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wavelength detuning characteristics of 1 × 1 optical switch.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Switching response time of 1×1 optical switch.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Switching characteristics of 1 × 2 optical switch.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Switching functions of 1 × 4 optical switch.

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