Abstract

Using silicon photonic wire waveguides, we constructed compact 1 × 1, 1 × 2, and 1 × 4 Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical switches on a silicon-on-insulator substrate and demonstrated their switching operations through the thermo-optic effect. These switches were smaller than 140 × 65, 85 × 30, and 190 × 75 μm, respectively. At a 1550-nm wavelength, we obtained an extinction ratio larger than 30 dB, a switching power as low as 90 mW, and a switching response time of less than 100 μs. Furthermore, switching operations were successfully demonstrated for the 1 × 4 switch.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, R. Claps, and D. Dimitropoulos, "Wavelength conversion and light amplification in silicon waveguides," in 1st International Conference on Group IV Photonics (LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong, 2004), WA3.
  3. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Chen, J. L. Yen, J. Y. Li, J. F. Chang, S. C. Tsai, and C. S. Tsai, "Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2163-2165 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-density integrated optics," IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, "Propagation Characteristics of Ultrahigh-Δ Optical Waveguide on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L383-L385 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1622">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1622</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-μs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, "Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, "Singlemode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section," Electron. Lett. 30, 406-408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. V. Treyz, "Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 µm," Electron. Lett. 27, 118-120 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Lai, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, "Low-power compact 2x2 thermooptic silica-on-silicon waveguide switch with fast response," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 681-683 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 585-588 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351-358 (2004).
  18. S. P. Chan, C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, G. T. Reed, and V. M. N. Passaro, " Single mode, polarization independent waveguides in silicon-on- insulator," in 1st International Conference on Group IV Photonics (LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong, 2004), ThP21.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. J. Chen, J. L. Yen, J. Y. Li, J. F. Chang, S. C. Tsai, and C. S. Tsai, "Stimulated emission in a nanostructured silicon pn junction diode using current injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2163-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, "Singlemode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section," Electron. Lett. 30, 406-408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Treyz, "Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 µm," Electron. Lett. 27, 118-120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-density integrated optics," IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-μs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, "Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lai, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, "Low-power compact 2x2 thermooptic silica-on-silicon waveguide switch with fast response," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 681-683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Optical directional coupler based on Si-wire waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 585-588 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351-358 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, "Propagation Characteristics of Ultrahigh-Δ Optical Waveguide on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L383-L385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong, 2004

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, R. Claps, and D. Dimitropoulos, "Wavelength conversion and light amplification in silicon waveguides," in 1st International Conference on Group IV Photonics (LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong, 2004), WA3.

S. P. Chan, C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, G. T. Reed, and V. M. N. Passaro, " Single mode, polarization independent waveguides in silicon-on- insulator," in 1st International Conference on Group IV Photonics (LEOS/IEEE, Hong Kong, 2004), ThP21.

Nature

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

1 × N optical switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Switching characteristics of 1 × 1 optical switch

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wavelength detuning characteristics of 1 × 1 optical switch.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Switching response time of 1×1 optical switch.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Switching characteristics of 1 × 2 optical switch.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Switching functions of 1 × 4 optical switch.

Metrics