Abstract

An all-silicon in-plane micron-size electrically driven resonant cavity light emitting device (RCLED) based on slotted waveguide is proposed and modeled. The device consists of a microring resonator formed by Si/SiO2 slot-waveguide with a low-index electroluminescent material (erbium-doped SiO2) in the slot region. The geometry of the slot-waveguide permits the definition of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) configuration for the electrical excitation of the active material. Simulations predict a quality factor Q of 6,700 for a 20-μm-radius electrically driven microring RCLED capable to operate at a very low bias current of 0.75 nA. Lasing conditions are also discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. R. Almeida , C. A. Barrios , R. R. Panepucci , and M. Lipson , “ All-optical control of light on a silicon chip ,” Nature   431 , 1081 – 1084 ( 2004 ).
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  2. A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  23. J. T. Robinson , C. Manolatou , L. Chen , and M. Lipson , “ Ultrasmall modal volumes in dielectric optical microcavities ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   95 , 143901 ( 2005 ).
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2005 (6)

Q. Xu , B. Schmitdt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Walters , G. I. Bourianoff , and H. A. Atwater , “ Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals ,” Nature Materials   4 , 143 – 146 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong , R. Jones , A. Liu , O. Cohen , D. Hak , A. Fang , and M. Paniccia , “ A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser ,” Nature   433 , 725 – 728 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones , M. Hochberg , C. Walker , and A Scherer , “ High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 081101 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Robinson , C. Manolatou , L. Chen , and M. Lipson , “ Ultrasmall modal volumes in dielectric optical microcavities ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   95 , 143901 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , M. Morse , A. Liu , D. Hodge , D. Rubin , U. D. Keil , and T. Franck , “ High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator ,” Opt. Express ,   13 , 3129 – 3135 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-3129
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

V. Almeida , Q. Xu , C. A. Barrios , and M. Lipson , “ Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure ,” Opt. Lett. ,   29 , 1209 – 1211 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali , “ Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5269 – 5273 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Polman , B. Min , J. Kalkman , T. J. Kippenberg , and K. J. Vahala , “ Ultra-low threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1037 – 1039 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Koonath , T. Indukuri , and B. Jalali , “ Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 1018 – 1020 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida , C. A. Barrios , R. R. Panepucci , and M. Lipson , “ All-optical control of light on a silicon chip ,” Nature   431 , 1081 – 1084 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. E. Castagna , S. Coffa , M. Monaco , A. Muscara , L. Caristia , S. Lorenti , and A. Messina , “ High efficiency light emitting devices in silicon ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   105 , 83 – 90 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Barrios , V. R. A. R. Panepucci , and M. Lipson , Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   21 , 2332 – 2339 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. K. Emsley , O. Dosunmu , and M. S. Ünlü , “ Silicon substrates with buried distributed Bragg reflectors for resonant cavity-enhanced optoelectronics ,” IEEE J. Selected Top. Quantum Electron.   8 , 949 – 955 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Lipson , T. Chen , K. Chen , X. Duan , and L. C. Kimerling , “ Erbium in Si-based light confining structures ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   81 , 36 – 39 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv , “ Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides ,” Electron. Lett. ,   36 , 321 – 322 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. G. Kik and A. Polman , “ Erbium doped optical waveguide amplifiers on silicon ,” Materials Research Society Bulletin   23 (4), 48 ( 1998 ).

1996 (1)

K. D. Hirschman , L. Tsybeskov , S. P. Duttagupta , and P. M. Fauchet , “ Silicon-based visible light-emitting devices integrated into microelectronics circuits ,” Nature   348 , 338 – 341 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett , “ Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon ,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. , 704 , 1986 .

Almeida, V.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida , C. A. Barrios , R. R. Panepucci , and M. Lipson , “ All-optical control of light on a silicon chip ,” Nature   431 , 1081 – 1084 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

R. J. Walters , G. I. Bourianoff , and H. A. Atwater , “ Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals ,” Nature Materials   4 , 143 – 146 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones , M. Hochberg , C. Walker , and A Scherer , “ High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 081101 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett , “ Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon ,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. , 704 , 1986 .

Bourianoff, G. I.

R. J. Walters , G. I. Bourianoff , and H. A. Atwater , “ Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals ,” Nature Materials   4 , 143 – 146 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyraz, O.

Bryce, A. C.

M. Gnan , H. M. H. Chong , S. S Kim , A. C. Bryce , M. Sorel , and R. M. De La Rue , “ Coupled microcavity in photonic wire Bragg grating ,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), paper CWG7, San Francisco, 2004 .

Caristia, L.

M. E. Castagna , S. Coffa , M. Monaco , A. Muscara , L. Caristia , S. Lorenti , and A. Messina , “ High efficiency light emitting devices in silicon ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   105 , 83 – 90 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Castagna, M. E.

M. E. Castagna , S. Coffa , M. Monaco , A. Muscara , L. Caristia , S. Lorenti , and A. Messina , “ High efficiency light emitting devices in silicon ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   105 , 83 – 90 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

M. Lipson , T. Chen , K. Chen , X. Duan , and L. C. Kimerling , “ Erbium in Si-based light confining structures ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   81 , 36 – 39 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

J. T. Robinson , C. Manolatou , L. Chen , and M. Lipson , “ Ultrasmall modal volumes in dielectric optical microcavities ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   95 , 143901 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

M. Lipson , T. Chen , K. Chen , X. Duan , and L. C. Kimerling , “ Erbium in Si-based light confining structures ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   81 , 36 – 39 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

M. Gnan , H. M. H. Chong , S. S Kim , A. C. Bryce , M. Sorel , and R. M. De La Rue , “ Coupled microcavity in photonic wire Bragg grating ,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), paper CWG7, San Francisco, 2004 .

Coffa, S.

M. E. Castagna , S. Coffa , M. Monaco , A. Muscara , L. Caristia , S. Lorenti , and A. Messina , “ High efficiency light emitting devices in silicon ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   105 , 83 – 90 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong , R. Jones , A. Liu , O. Cohen , D. Hak , A. Fang , and M. Paniccia , “ A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser ,” Nature   433 , 725 – 728 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De La Rue, R. M.

M. Gnan , H. M. H. Chong , S. S Kim , A. C. Bryce , M. Sorel , and R. M. De La Rue , “ Coupled microcavity in photonic wire Bragg grating ,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), paper CWG7, San Francisco, 2004 .

Dosunmu, O.

M. K. Emsley , O. Dosunmu , and M. S. Ünlü , “ Silicon substrates with buried distributed Bragg reflectors for resonant cavity-enhanced optoelectronics ,” IEEE J. Selected Top. Quantum Electron.   8 , 949 – 955 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

M. Lipson , T. Chen , K. Chen , X. Duan , and L. C. Kimerling , “ Erbium in Si-based light confining structures ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   81 , 36 – 39 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Duttagupta, S. P.

K. D. Hirschman , L. Tsybeskov , S. P. Duttagupta , and P. M. Fauchet , “ Silicon-based visible light-emitting devices integrated into microelectronics circuits ,” Nature   348 , 338 – 341 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Emsley, M. K.

M. K. Emsley , O. Dosunmu , and M. S. Ünlü , “ Silicon substrates with buried distributed Bragg reflectors for resonant cavity-enhanced optoelectronics ,” IEEE J. Selected Top. Quantum Electron.   8 , 949 – 955 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong , R. Jones , A. Liu , O. Cohen , D. Hak , A. Fang , and M. Paniccia , “ A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser ,” Nature   433 , 725 – 728 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fauchet, P. M.

K. D. Hirschman , L. Tsybeskov , S. P. Duttagupta , and P. M. Fauchet , “ Silicon-based visible light-emitting devices integrated into microelectronics circuits ,” Nature   348 , 338 – 341 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Franck, T.

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan , H. M. H. Chong , S. S Kim , A. C. Bryce , M. Sorel , and R. M. De La Rue , “ Coupled microcavity in photonic wire Bragg grating ,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), paper CWG7, San Francisco, 2004 .

Hak, D.

H. Rong , R. Jones , A. Liu , O. Cohen , D. Hak , A. Fang , and M. Paniccia , “ A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser ,” Nature   433 , 725 – 728 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirschman, K. D.

K. D. Hirschman , L. Tsybeskov , S. P. Duttagupta , and P. M. Fauchet , “ Silicon-based visible light-emitting devices integrated into microelectronics circuits ,” Nature   348 , 338 – 341 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones , M. Hochberg , C. Walker , and A Scherer , “ High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 081101 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, D.

Indukuri, T.

P. Koonath , T. Indukuri , and B. Jalali , “ Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 1018 – 1020 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

P. Koonath , T. Indukuri , and B. Jalali , “ Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 1018 – 1020 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali , “ Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5269 – 5273 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

H. Rong , R. Jones , A. Liu , O. Cohen , D. Hak , A. Fang , and M. Paniccia , “ A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser ,” Nature   433 , 725 – 728 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalkman, J.

A. Polman , B. Min , J. Kalkman , T. J. Kippenberg , and K. J. Vahala , “ Ultra-low threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1037 – 1039 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Keil, U. D.

Kik, P. G.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman , “ Erbium doped optical waveguide amplifiers on silicon ,” Materials Research Society Bulletin   23 (4), 48 ( 1998 ).

Kim, S. S

M. Gnan , H. M. H. Chong , S. S Kim , A. C. Bryce , M. Sorel , and R. M. De La Rue , “ Coupled microcavity in photonic wire Bragg grating ,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), paper CWG7, San Francisco, 2004 .

Kimerling, L. C.

M. Lipson , T. Chen , K. Chen , X. Duan , and L. C. Kimerling , “ Erbium in Si-based light confining structures ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   81 , 36 – 39 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

A. Polman , B. Min , J. Kalkman , T. J. Kippenberg , and K. J. Vahala , “ Ultra-low threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1037 – 1039 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Koonath, P.

P. Koonath , T. Indukuri , and B. Jalali , “ Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 1018 – 1020 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , M. Morse , A. Liu , D. Hodge , D. Rubin , U. D. Keil , and T. Franck , “ High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator ,” Opt. Express ,   13 , 3129 – 3135 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-3129
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

J. T. Robinson , C. Manolatou , L. Chen , and M. Lipson , “ Ultrasmall modal volumes in dielectric optical microcavities ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   95 , 143901 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu , B. Schmitdt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida , C. A. Barrios , R. R. Panepucci , and M. Lipson , “ All-optical control of light on a silicon chip ,” Nature   431 , 1081 – 1084 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Almeida , Q. Xu , C. A. Barrios , and M. Lipson , “ Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure ,” Opt. Lett. ,   29 , 1209 – 1211 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios , V. R. A. R. Panepucci , and M. Lipson , Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   21 , 2332 – 2339 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipson , T. Chen , K. Chen , X. Duan , and L. C. Kimerling , “ Erbium in Si-based light confining structures ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   81 , 36 – 39 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

Liu, A. S.

A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenti, S.

M. E. Castagna , S. Coffa , M. Monaco , A. Muscara , L. Caristia , S. Lorenti , and A. Messina , “ High efficiency light emitting devices in silicon ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   105 , 83 – 90 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

J. T. Robinson , C. Manolatou , L. Chen , and M. Lipson , “ Ultrasmall modal volumes in dielectric optical microcavities ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   95 , 143901 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messina, A.

M. E. Castagna , S. Coffa , M. Monaco , A. Muscara , L. Caristia , S. Lorenti , and A. Messina , “ High efficiency light emitting devices in silicon ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   105 , 83 – 90 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

A. Polman , B. Min , J. Kalkman , T. J. Kippenberg , and K. J. Vahala , “ Ultra-low threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1037 – 1039 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Monaco, M.

M. E. Castagna , S. Coffa , M. Monaco , A. Muscara , L. Caristia , S. Lorenti , and A. Messina , “ High efficiency light emitting devices in silicon ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   105 , 83 – 90 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

Muscara, A.

M. E. Castagna , S. Coffa , M. Monaco , A. Muscara , L. Caristia , S. Lorenti , and A. Messina , “ High efficiency light emitting devices in silicon ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   105 , 83 – 90 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida , C. A. Barrios , R. R. Panepucci , and M. Lipson , “ All-optical control of light on a silicon chip ,” Nature   431 , 1081 – 1084 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, V. R. A. R.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong , R. Jones , A. Liu , O. Cohen , D. Hak , A. Fang , and M. Paniccia , “ A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser ,” Nature   433 , 725 – 728 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

A. Polman , B. Min , J. Kalkman , T. J. Kippenberg , and K. J. Vahala , “ Ultra-low threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1037 – 1039 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman , “ Erbium doped optical waveguide amplifiers on silicon ,” Materials Research Society Bulletin   23 (4), 48 ( 1998 ).

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu , B. Schmitdt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. T.

J. T. Robinson , C. Manolatou , L. Chen , and M. Lipson , “ Ultrasmall modal volumes in dielectric optical microcavities ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   95 , 143901 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, H.

H. Rong , R. Jones , A. Liu , O. Cohen , D. Hak , A. Fang , and M. Paniccia , “ A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser ,” Nature   433 , 725 – 728 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , M. Morse , A. Liu , D. Hodge , D. Rubin , U. D. Keil , and T. Franck , “ High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator ,” Opt. Express ,   13 , 3129 – 3135 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-3129
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , M. Morse , A. Liu , D. Hodge , D. Rubin , U. D. Keil , and T. Franck , “ High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator ,” Opt. Express ,   13 , 3129 – 3135 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-3129
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A

T. Baehr-Jones , M. Hochberg , C. Walker , and A Scherer , “ High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 081101 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Schmitdt, B.

Q. Xu , B. Schmitdt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett , “ Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon ,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. , 704 , 1986 .

Sorel, M.

M. Gnan , H. M. H. Chong , S. S Kim , A. C. Bryce , M. Sorel , and R. M. De La Rue , “ Coupled microcavity in photonic wire Bragg grating ,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), paper CWG7, San Francisco, 2004 .

Tsybeskov, L.

K. D. Hirschman , L. Tsybeskov , S. P. Duttagupta , and P. M. Fauchet , “ Silicon-based visible light-emitting devices integrated into microelectronics circuits ,” Nature   348 , 338 – 341 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Ünlü, M. S.

M. K. Emsley , O. Dosunmu , and M. S. Ünlü , “ Silicon substrates with buried distributed Bragg reflectors for resonant cavity-enhanced optoelectronics ,” IEEE J. Selected Top. Quantum Electron.   8 , 949 – 955 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. Polman , B. Min , J. Kalkman , T. J. Kippenberg , and K. J. Vahala , “ Ultra-low threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1037 – 1039 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Walker, C.

T. Baehr-Jones , M. Hochberg , C. Walker , and A Scherer , “ High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 081101 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters , G. I. Bourianoff , and H. A. Atwater , “ Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals ,” Nature Materials   4 , 143 – 146 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu , B. Schmitdt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Almeida , Q. Xu , C. A. Barrios , and M. Lipson , “ Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure ,” Opt. Lett. ,   29 , 1209 – 1211 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv , “ Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides ,” Electron. Lett. ,   36 , 321 – 322 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Baehr-Jones , M. Hochberg , C. Walker , and A Scherer , “ High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 081101 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman , B. Min , J. Kalkman , T. J. Kippenberg , and K. J. Vahala , “ Ultra-low threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1037 – 1039 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Koonath , T. Indukuri , and B. Jalali , “ Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 1018 – 1020 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv , “ Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides ,” Electron. Lett. ,   36 , 321 – 322 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Selected Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. K. Emsley , O. Dosunmu , and M. S. Ünlü , “ Silicon substrates with buried distributed Bragg reflectors for resonant cavity-enhanced optoelectronics ,” IEEE J. Selected Top. Quantum Electron.   8 , 949 – 955 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (2)

M. Lipson , T. Chen , K. Chen , X. Duan , and L. C. Kimerling , “ Erbium in Si-based light confining structures ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   81 , 36 – 39 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Castagna , S. Coffa , M. Monaco , A. Muscara , L. Caristia , S. Lorenti , and A. Messina , “ High efficiency light emitting devices in silicon ,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B   105 , 83 – 90 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Nature (5)

H. Rong , R. Jones , A. Liu , O. Cohen , D. Hak , A. Fang , and M. Paniccia , “ A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser ,” Nature   433 , 725 – 728 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida , C. A. Barrios , R. R. Panepucci , and M. Lipson , “ All-optical control of light on a silicon chip ,” Nature   431 , 1081 – 1084 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Liu , R. Jones , L. Liao , D. Samara-Rubio , D. Rubin , O. Cohen , R. Nicolaescu , and M. Paniccia , “ A high-speed silicon optical modulator base don a metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor ,” Nature   427 , 615 – 618 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu , B. Schmitdt , S. Pradhan , and M. Lipson , “ Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator ,” Nature   435 , 325 – 327 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Hirschman , L. Tsybeskov , S. P. Duttagupta , and P. M. Fauchet , “ Silicon-based visible light-emitting devices integrated into microelectronics circuits ,” Nature   348 , 338 – 341 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Nature Materials (1)

R. J. Walters , G. I. Bourianoff , and H. A. Atwater , “ Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals ,” Nature Materials   4 , 143 – 146 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. T. Robinson , C. Manolatou , L. Chen , and M. Lipson , “ Ultrasmall modal volumes in dielectric optical microcavities ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. ,   95 , 143901 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett , “ Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon ,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. , 704 , 1986 .

Other (4)

P. G. Kik and A. Polman , “ Erbium doped optical waveguide amplifiers on silicon ,” Materials Research Society Bulletin   23 (4), 48 ( 1998 ).

SILVACO International. 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg.1, Santa Clara, CA 94054.

M. Gnan , H. M. H. Chong , S. S Kim , A. C. Bryce , M. Sorel , and R. M. De La Rue , “ Coupled microcavity in photonic wire Bragg grating ,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), paper CWG7, San Francisco, 2004 .

http://www.rsoftinc.com/fullwave.htm

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic top view of an electrically-driven microring light emitting device based on Si/SiO2 slot-waveguides. (b) Schematic cross-sectional view of the MOS slot-waveguide that forms the ring. The dashed blue arrows indicate the flow of electrical current when the device is biased (Vanode-Vcathode>0).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transverse E-field amplitude (contour) of the quasi-TE optical mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transverse E-field amplitude (contour) of the quasi-TE optical mode for a bent slot-waveguide turning to the left (-x axis) with a radius of curvature of 20 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated spectral transmittance of the ring resonator shown in Fig. 1(a). The quality factor Q is 6,700.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) 2-D distribution of the applied electric field for a bias voltage of 55 V. (b) 2-D profile of the applied electric field.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Schematic cross-sectional view of a horizontal MOS slot-waveguide. The dashed blue arrows indicate the flow of injected electrons through the active gate oxide. (b) Transverse E-field amplitude (contour) of the quasi-TM optical mode.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fabry-Perot microcavity LED based on a slot-waveguide. Two DBRs defined the resonant structure. A MOS diode is defined in the cavity region for electrical pumping of the active material.

Equations (2)

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Δ n = Δ n e + Δ n h = [ 8.8 × 10 22 Δ N + 8.5 × 10 18 ( Δ P ) 0.8 ]
Δ α = Δ α e + Δ α h = 8.5 × 10 18 Δ N + 6.0 × 10 18 Δ P

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