Abstract

By frequency-stabilizing the output from an Erbium fiber amplifier at 1580 nm to a high-finesse cavity (finesse ~6300) formed by two high-reflectance, low-loss, concave mirrors, we achieve 22.4±2.0 kW intracavity circulating power and 101±9 MW/cm2 cw intracavity intensities on the surfaces of the mirrors. Repeated experiments show no damage to the mirrors’ coating. In addition, small variations of the mirrors’ radius of curvature are observed and measured by recording the cavity’s transverse-mode range. The mirrors’ 10 cm radius of curvature changes as function of laser intensity at a rate of 105 μm/(MW/cm2).

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Uehara and K. Ueda, "Accurate measurement of the radius of curvature of a concave mirror and the power dependence in a high-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer," Appl. Opt. 34, 5611-5619 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Barnes, T. E. Gough, and M. Stoer, "Laser power build-up cavity for high-resolution laser spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instru. 70, 3515-3518 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), p. 762 and 683.
  4. J. P. Goldsborough, "Beat frequencies between modes of a concave-mirror optical resonator," Appl. Opt. 3, 267-275 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Ricci, M. Weidemueller, T. Essinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, and T. W. Haensch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Hecht, Optics, 4th Edition (Addison-Wesley, 2002), p. 594.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Ricci, M. Weidemueller, T. Essinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Koenig, and T. W. Haensch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instru. (1)

J. A. Barnes, T. E. Gough, and M. Stoer, "Laser power build-up cavity for high-resolution laser spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instru. 70, 3515-3518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), p. 762 and 683.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th Edition (Addison-Wesley, 2002), p. 594.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Resonant frequencies in a standing-wave concave-mirror cavity. Each longitudinal mode contains a set of transverse modes. The separation between two adjacent longitudinal modes is the free spectral range (FSR), while the two adjacent transverse modes are separated by the transverse mode range (TMR). (b) Experimental cavity transmitted signal as the cavity is scanned (for showing purpose, the mode-matching is not optimized). The two identical mirrors have a radius of curvature r = 10 cm and are separated by L = 1.45 cm. Thus FSR = 10.35 GHz and TMR = 1.80 GHz. Peaks labeled “M” are the modulated sidebands on the laser for measuring purpose (see text).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup. The laser source is an ECDL-seeded Erbium Amplifier. The Pound-Drever-Hall technique is used to lock the laser’s frequency to the cavity. ECDL: external-cavity diode laser, APP: anamorphic prism pair, λ/2: half-wave plate, EOM1: electrooptic modulator (free space), EOM2: electrooptic modulator (fiber coupled), MML: mode-matching lens, WG: wedged glass, HFC: high-finesse cavity, PZT: piezo-electric transducer, D1: detector for monitoring input laser power, D2: detector for cavity reflected signal, D3: high-speed detector for measuring beat frequency between cavity modes, D4: detector for monitoring transmitted power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Power and intensity data. (a) Transmitted power as a function of the incident power. The linear fitting shows a 72% slope. (b) Converting the transmitted power to the intracavity circulating power and the beam-center intensity on the surfaces of the mirrors. Peak values of 22.4 ± 2.0 kW circulating power, or 101 ± 9 MW/cm2 intensity on mirrors are achieved at the 17.4 W incident power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A few selected traces of the network analyzer showing the spectra of the beat signal between the cavity’s fundamental transverse mode (locked) and the first-order transverse mode (swept by RF modulation). The peak (equal to cavity’s TMR) moves to smaller frequency direction as the intensity on mirrors increases. The resolution bandwidth of the network analyzer is set at 100 kHz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured transverse mode range (TMR) as a function of the intensity on mirrors. (b) Convert TMR into mirrors’ radius of curvature. It is found that the radius of curvature increases with the increasing intensity at a rate of 105 μm/(MW/cm2).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Key parameters of the cavity

Equations (6)

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ν = { q + ( n + m + 1 ) 1 π cos 1 [ ( 1 L r 1 ) ( 1 L r 2 ) ] 1 2 } c 2 L ,
FSR = c 2 L ;
TMR = 1 π cos 1 [ ( 1 L r 1 ) ( 1 L r 2 ) ] 1 2 } c 2 L .
TMR = 1 π cos 1 ( 1 L r ) c 2 L .
P c = P t T .
I = 2 P c π w m 2 ,

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