Abstract

We propose a new chromatic dispersion measurement method for the higher-order modes of an optical fiber using optical frequency modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interferometry. An optical fiber which supports few excited modes was prepared for our experiments. Three different guiding modes of the fiber were identified by using far-field spatial beam profile measurements and confirmed with numerical mode analysis. By using the principle of a conventional FMWC interferometry with a tunable external cavity laser, we have demonstrated that the chromatic dispersion of a few-mode optical fiber can be obtained directly and quantitatively as well as qualitatively. We have also compared our measurement results with those of conventional modulation phase-shift method.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A.H. Gnauck , L.D. Garrett , Y. Danziger , U. Levy , and M. Tur , “ Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF over the entire C band using higher-order-mode fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1946 – 1947 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R.I. Killey , V. Mikhailov , S. Appathurai , and P. Bayvel , “ Investigation of nonlinear distortion in 40 Gb/s transmission with higher order mode fiber dispersion compensators ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   20 , 2282 – 2289 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Dorrer and S. Ramachandran , “ Self-referencing dispersion characterization of multimode structures using direct instantaneous frequency measurement ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   16 , 1700 – 1702 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. H. Jae , M. Oh , and Y. Kim , “ Two-mode fiber-optic resonant ring interferometer as a sensor ,” Opt. Lett.   15 , 198 – 200 ( 1990 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A.M. Vengsarkar , W.C. Michie , L. Jankovic , B. Culshaw , and R.O. Claus , “ Fiber-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 170 – 177 ( 1994 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C.E. Covington , J. Blake , and S.L.A. Carrara , “ Two-mode fiber-optic bending sensor with temperature and stain compensation ,” Opt. Lett.   19 , 676 – 678 ( 1994 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T.-J. Chen , “ Use of liquid-crystal-clad fiber as a modal filter for a two-mode fiber-optic interferometer ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2852 – 2854 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Menashe , M. Tur , and Y. Danziger , “ Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1439 – 1440 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Jaouën , C. Palavicini , A.-F. Obaton , C. Moreau , and P. Silard , “ Direct chromatic dispersion determination of higher-order mode fibers using OLCR technique ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005 , CThB4, Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).
  12. D. Derickson , Fiber optic test and measurement , Hewlett-Packard professional books, Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey , 1998 , USA, Chap. 11.
  13. R. Passy , N. Gisin , J. P. von der Weid , and H. H. Gilgen , “ Experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 1622 – 1630 ( 1994 ).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Yoshida , K. Nakamura , and H. Ito , “ A new method for measurement of group velocity dispersion of optical fibers by using a frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   13 , 227 – 229 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ Mode analysis and modal delay measurement of a few modes fiber by using optical frequency domain reflectometry based on 1550 nm TLS ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005, JthE5 , Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).
  16. T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ New optical frequency domain differential mode delay measurement for a multimode optical fiber ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4005 – 4011 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-4005
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. -J. Ahn and D. Y. Kim , “ High-resolution differential mode delay measurement for a multimode optical fiber using a modified optical frequency domain reflectometer ,’ Opt. Express   13 , 8256 – 8262 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-20-8256
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer , “ Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1377 – 1384 ( 1993 ).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J.M. Senior , Optical fiber communications: Principles and practice , Prentice Hall Europe , 1992 .
  20. T.-J. Ahn , J. Y. Lee , and D.Y. Kim , “ Suppression of nonlinear frequency sweep in an optical frequency domain reflectometer by using Hilbert transformation ,” Appl. Opt. (to be published)
    [PubMed]
  21. L. Jeunhomme and J.P. Pocholle , “ Selective mode excitation of graded index optical fibers ,” Appl. Opt.   3 , 463 – 468 ( 1978 )
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Shimizu , T. Horiguchi , and Y. Koyamada , “ Measurement of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers based on coherent OFDR employing a DFB laser diode .” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   3 , 1039 – 1041 ( 1991 ).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Okoshi , Optical fibers , Academic press, inc., San Diego, California , 1982 .
  24. C.E. Kerbage , B.J. Eggleton , P.S. Westbrook , and R.S. Windeler , “ Experimental and scalar beam propagation analysis of an air-silica microstructure fiber ,” Opt. Express   7 , 113 – 122 , ( 2000 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-7-3-113
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. Oh , S. Choi , Y. Jung , and J.W. Lee , “ Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications ,” J. Lightwave Technol. ,   23 , 524 – 532 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

C. Dorrer and S. Ramachandran , “ Self-referencing dispersion characterization of multimode structures using direct instantaneous frequency measurement ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   16 , 1700 – 1702 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Chen , “ Use of liquid-crystal-clad fiber as a modal filter for a two-mode fiber-optic interferometer ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2852 – 2854 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

M. Yoshida , K. Nakamura , and H. Ito , “ A new method for measurement of group velocity dispersion of optical fibers by using a frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   13 , 227 – 229 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

D. Menashe , M. Tur , and Y. Danziger , “ Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1439 – 1440 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A.H. Gnauck , L.D. Garrett , Y. Danziger , U. Levy , and M. Tur , “ Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF over the entire C band using higher-order-mode fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1946 – 1947 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

C.E. Kerbage , B.J. Eggleton , P.S. Westbrook , and R.S. Windeler , “ Experimental and scalar beam propagation analysis of an air-silica microstructure fiber ,” Opt. Express   7 , 113 – 122 , ( 2000 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-7-3-113
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

A.M. Vengsarkar , W.C. Michie , L. Jankovic , B. Culshaw , and R.O. Claus , “ Fiber-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 170 – 177 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

C.E. Covington , J. Blake , and S.L.A. Carrara , “ Two-mode fiber-optic bending sensor with temperature and stain compensation ,” Opt. Lett.   19 , 676 – 678 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Passy , N. Gisin , J. P. von der Weid , and H. H. Gilgen , “ Experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 1622 – 1630 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer , “ Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1377 – 1384 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Shimizu , T. Horiguchi , and Y. Koyamada , “ Measurement of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers based on coherent OFDR employing a DFB laser diode .” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   3 , 1039 – 1041 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1978 (1)

L. Jeunhomme and J.P. Pocholle , “ Selective mode excitation of graded index optical fibers ,” Appl. Opt.   3 , 463 – 468 ( 1978 )
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T. -J.

Ahn, T.-J.

T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ New optical frequency domain differential mode delay measurement for a multimode optical fiber ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4005 – 4011 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-4005
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-J. Ahn , J. Y. Lee , and D.Y. Kim , “ Suppression of nonlinear frequency sweep in an optical frequency domain reflectometer by using Hilbert transformation ,” Appl. Opt. (to be published)
[PubMed]

T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ Mode analysis and modal delay measurement of a few modes fiber by using optical frequency domain reflectometry based on 1550 nm TLS ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005, JthE5 , Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

Appathurai, S.

Bayvel, P.

Blake, J.

Brinkmeyer, E.

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer , “ Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1377 – 1384 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

Carrara, S.L.A.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-J.

Choi, S.

Claus, R.O.

A.M. Vengsarkar , W.C. Michie , L. Jankovic , B. Culshaw , and R.O. Claus , “ Fiber-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 170 – 177 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Covington, C.E.

Culshaw, B.

A.M. Vengsarkar , W.C. Michie , L. Jankovic , B. Culshaw , and R.O. Claus , “ Fiber-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 170 – 177 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Danziger, Y.

D. Menashe , M. Tur , and Y. Danziger , “ Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1439 – 1440 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

A.H. Gnauck , L.D. Garrett , Y. Danziger , U. Levy , and M. Tur , “ Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF over the entire C band using higher-order-mode fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1946 – 1947 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Derickson, D.

D. Derickson , Fiber optic test and measurement , Hewlett-Packard professional books, Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey , 1998 , USA, Chap. 11.

DiMarcello, F.V.

J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer and S. Ramachandran , “ Self-referencing dispersion characterization of multimode structures using direct instantaneous frequency measurement ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   16 , 1700 – 1702 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.J.

Fleming, J.W.

J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, L.D.

A.H. Gnauck , L.D. Garrett , Y. Danziger , U. Levy , and M. Tur , “ Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF over the entire C band using higher-order-mode fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1946 – 1947 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Gilgen, H. H.

R. Passy , N. Gisin , J. P. von der Weid , and H. H. Gilgen , “ Experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 1622 – 1630 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

R. Passy , N. Gisin , J. P. von der Weid , and H. H. Gilgen , “ Experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 1622 – 1630 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Glombitza, U.

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer , “ Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1377 – 1384 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A.H.

A.H. Gnauck , L.D. Garrett , Y. Danziger , U. Levy , and M. Tur , “ Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF over the entire C band using higher-order-mode fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1946 – 1947 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, T.

K. Shimizu , T. Horiguchi , and Y. Koyamada , “ Measurement of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers based on coherent OFDR employing a DFB laser diode .” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   3 , 1039 – 1041 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

M. Yoshida , K. Nakamura , and H. Ito , “ A new method for measurement of group velocity dispersion of optical fibers by using a frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   13 , 227 – 229 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Jae, L. H.

Jankovic, L.

A.M. Vengsarkar , W.C. Michie , L. Jankovic , B. Culshaw , and R.O. Claus , “ Fiber-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 170 – 177 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Jaouën, Y.

Y. Jaouën , C. Palavicini , A.-F. Obaton , C. Moreau , and P. Silard , “ Direct chromatic dispersion determination of higher-order mode fibers using OLCR technique ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005 , CThB4, Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

Jeunhomme, L.

L. Jeunhomme and J.P. Pocholle , “ Selective mode excitation of graded index optical fibers ,” Appl. Opt.   3 , 463 – 468 ( 1978 )
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Kerbage, C.E.

Killey, R.I.

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, D.Y.

T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ New optical frequency domain differential mode delay measurement for a multimode optical fiber ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4005 – 4011 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-4005
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-J. Ahn , J. Y. Lee , and D.Y. Kim , “ Suppression of nonlinear frequency sweep in an optical frequency domain reflectometer by using Hilbert transformation ,” Appl. Opt. (to be published)
[PubMed]

T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ Mode analysis and modal delay measurement of a few modes fiber by using optical frequency domain reflectometry based on 1550 nm TLS ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005, JthE5 , Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

Kim, Y.

Koyamada, Y.

K. Shimizu , T. Horiguchi , and Y. Koyamada , “ Measurement of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers based on coherent OFDR employing a DFB laser diode .” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   3 , 1039 – 1041 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

T.-J. Ahn , J. Y. Lee , and D.Y. Kim , “ Suppression of nonlinear frequency sweep in an optical frequency domain reflectometer by using Hilbert transformation ,” Appl. Opt. (to be published)
[PubMed]

Lee, J.W.

Levy, U.

A.H. Gnauck , L.D. Garrett , Y. Danziger , U. Levy , and M. Tur , “ Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF over the entire C band using higher-order-mode fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1946 – 1947 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Menashe, D.

D. Menashe , M. Tur , and Y. Danziger , “ Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1439 – 1440 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Michie, W.C.

A.M. Vengsarkar , W.C. Michie , L. Jankovic , B. Culshaw , and R.O. Claus , “ Fiber-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 170 – 177 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V.

Monberg, E.A.

J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ New optical frequency domain differential mode delay measurement for a multimode optical fiber ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4005 – 4011 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-4005
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ Mode analysis and modal delay measurement of a few modes fiber by using optical frequency domain reflectometry based on 1550 nm TLS ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005, JthE5 , Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

Moreau, C.

Y. Jaouën , C. Palavicini , A.-F. Obaton , C. Moreau , and P. Silard , “ Direct chromatic dispersion determination of higher-order mode fibers using OLCR technique ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005 , CThB4, Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

Nakamura, K.

M. Yoshida , K. Nakamura , and H. Ito , “ A new method for measurement of group velocity dispersion of optical fibers by using a frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   13 , 227 – 229 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J.W.

J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Obaton, A.-F.

Y. Jaouën , C. Palavicini , A.-F. Obaton , C. Moreau , and P. Silard , “ Direct chromatic dispersion determination of higher-order mode fibers using OLCR technique ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005 , CThB4, Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

Oh, K.

Oh, M.

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi , Optical fibers , Academic press, inc., San Diego, California , 1982 .

Palavicini, C.

Y. Jaouën , C. Palavicini , A.-F. Obaton , C. Moreau , and P. Silard , “ Direct chromatic dispersion determination of higher-order mode fibers using OLCR technique ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005 , CThB4, Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

Passy, R.

R. Passy , N. Gisin , J. P. von der Weid , and H. H. Gilgen , “ Experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 1622 – 1630 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Pocholle, J.P.

L. Jeunhomme and J.P. Pocholle , “ Selective mode excitation of graded index optical fibers ,” Appl. Opt.   3 , 463 – 468 ( 1978 )
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

C. Dorrer and S. Ramachandran , “ Self-referencing dispersion characterization of multimode structures using direct instantaneous frequency measurement ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   16 , 1700 – 1702 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W.A.

S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Ryazansky, I.

S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Senior, J.M.

J.M. Senior , Optical fiber communications: Principles and practice , Prentice Hall Europe , 1992 .

Shimizu, K.

K. Shimizu , T. Horiguchi , and Y. Koyamada , “ Measurement of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers based on coherent OFDR employing a DFB laser diode .” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   3 , 1039 – 1041 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Silard, P.

Y. Jaouën , C. Palavicini , A.-F. Obaton , C. Moreau , and P. Silard , “ Direct chromatic dispersion determination of higher-order mode fibers using OLCR technique ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005 , CThB4, Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

Tur, M.

D. Menashe , M. Tur , and Y. Danziger , “ Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1439 – 1440 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

A.H. Gnauck , L.D. Garrett , Y. Danziger , U. Levy , and M. Tur , “ Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF over the entire C band using higher-order-mode fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1946 – 1947 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A.M.

A.M. Vengsarkar , W.C. Michie , L. Jankovic , B. Culshaw , and R.O. Claus , “ Fiber-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 170 – 177 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

von der Weid, J. P.

R. Passy , N. Gisin , J. P. von der Weid , and H. H. Gilgen , “ Experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 1622 – 1630 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P.S.

Windeler, R.S.

Wisk, P.

S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.F.

J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

M. Yoshida , K. Nakamura , and H. Ito , “ A new method for measurement of group velocity dispersion of optical fibers by using a frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   13 , 227 – 229 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Youk, Y.

T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ New optical frequency domain differential mode delay measurement for a multimode optical fiber ,” Opt. Express   13 , 4005 – 4011 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-4005
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ Mode analysis and modal delay measurement of a few modes fiber by using optical frequency domain reflectometry based on 1550 nm TLS ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005, JthE5 , Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Jeunhomme and J.P. Pocholle , “ Selective mode excitation of graded index optical fibers ,” Appl. Opt.   3 , 463 – 468 ( 1978 )
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A.H. Gnauck , L.D. Garrett , Y. Danziger , U. Levy , and M. Tur , “ Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF over the entire C band using higher-order-mode fibre ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1946 – 1947 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

D. Menashe , M. Tur , and Y. Danziger , “ Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres ,” Electron. Lett.   37 , 1439 – 1440 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. (3)

J.W. Nicholson , S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , E.A. Monberg , F.V. DiMarcello , M.F. Yan , P. Wisk , and J.W. Fleming , “ Electrical spectrum measurements of dispersion in higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 831 – 833 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran , S. Ghalmi , S. Chandrasekhar , I. Ryazansky , M.F. Yan , F.V. Dimarcello , W.A. Reed , and P. Wisk , “ Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   15 , 727 – 729 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer and S. Ramachandran , “ Self-referencing dispersion characterization of multimode structures using direct instantaneous frequency measurement ,” IEEE Photon. Technol.   16 , 1700 – 1702 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Shimizu , T. Horiguchi , and Y. Koyamada , “ Measurement of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers based on coherent OFDR employing a DFB laser diode .” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   3 , 1039 – 1041 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Yoshida , K. Nakamura , and H. Ito , “ A new method for measurement of group velocity dispersion of optical fibers by using a frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.   13 , 227 – 229 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer , “ Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   11 , 1377 – 1384 ( 1993 ).
[CrossRef]

R. Passy , N. Gisin , J. P. von der Weid , and H. H. Gilgen , “ Experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 1622 – 1630 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

A.M. Vengsarkar , W.C. Michie , L. Jankovic , B. Culshaw , and R.O. Claus , “ Fiber-optic dual technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   12 , 170 – 177 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

R.I. Killey , V. Mikhailov , S. Appathurai , and P. Bayvel , “ Investigation of nonlinear distortion in 40 Gb/s transmission with higher order mode fiber dispersion compensators ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   20 , 2282 – 2289 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

K. Oh , S. Choi , Y. Jung , and J.W. Lee , “ Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications ,” J. Lightwave Technol. ,   23 , 524 – 532 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (6)

T. Okoshi , Optical fibers , Academic press, inc., San Diego, California , 1982 .

J.M. Senior , Optical fiber communications: Principles and practice , Prentice Hall Europe , 1992 .

T.-J. Ahn , J. Y. Lee , and D.Y. Kim , “ Suppression of nonlinear frequency sweep in an optical frequency domain reflectometer by using Hilbert transformation ,” Appl. Opt. (to be published)
[PubMed]

T.-J. Ahn , S. Moon , Y. Youk , Y. Jung , K. Oh , and D.Y. Kim , “ Mode analysis and modal delay measurement of a few modes fiber by using optical frequency domain reflectometry based on 1550 nm TLS ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005, JthE5 , Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

Y. Jaouën , C. Palavicini , A.-F. Obaton , C. Moreau , and P. Silard , “ Direct chromatic dispersion determination of higher-order mode fibers using OLCR technique ,” in Proc. Conference on lasers and electro-optics 2005 , CThB4, Baltimore, USA ( 2005 ).

D. Derickson , Fiber optic test and measurement , Hewlett-Packard professional books, Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey , 1998 , USA, Chap. 11.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for the optical frequency domain chromatic dispersion measurements of a multimode fiber. (TLS : tunable laser source, PD : photo-diode, PC : polarization controller, FUT : fiber under test, BS : beam splitter)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured relative group delays for the excited modes of a FMF with respect to the fundamental mode of an SMF in three different wavelengths of 1524, 1540, and 1556 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Observed relative group delays of the excited modes in a FMF with respect to wavelength of light source using an OFDR and (b) Calculated relative group delay of three excited modes in a uniform-core fiber as function of wavelength.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Chromatic dispersions of the excited modes in the FMF with respect to wavelength of light source and (b) dispersions of the fundamental mode in the FMF and SMF measured with modulation phase-shift method and our optical frequency-domain method

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U ˜ PD t λ = m = 1 N U m cos { 2 πγ ( λ ) Δ τ m ( λ ) t + φ m }
Δ τ m ( λ ) = τ m ( λ ) τ R ( λ ) = f m ( λ ) γ ( λ )
D m ( λ ) = 1 L d τ m = 1 L ( d τ R + d Δτ m ) = D R ( λ ) + Δ D m ( λ )
τ = n 1 c [ 1 Δ ( 1 + y 4 ) Q x ] ( 1 2 x Δ ) 1 / 2
x = k 2 n 1 2 β 2 k 2 n 1 2 k 2 n 2 2 = u 2 v 2 ,
Q = 2 ( 1 ξ m ) x ( 1 ξ m ζ m ) ,
ξ m ( w ) = K m 2 ( w ) K m 1 ( w ) K m + 1 ( w ) ,
ζ m ( u ) = J m 2 ( u ) J m 1 ( u ) J m + 1 ( u ) .

Metrics