Abstract

We fabricate and measure a microfluidic variable optical attenuator which consists of an optical waveguide integrated with a microfluidic channel. An opening is introduced in the upper cladding of the waveguide in order to facilitate the alignment and bonding of the microfluidic channel. By using fluids with different refractive indices, the optical output power is gradually attenuated. We obtain a maximum attenuation of 28 dB when the fluid refractive index changes from 1.557 to 1.584.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Barber , C. R. Giles , V. Askyuk , R. Ruel , L. Stulz , and D. Bishop , “ A fiber connectorized MEMS variable optical attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , pp. 1262 – 1264 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. M. Zhang , A. Q. Liu , C. Lu , and D. Y. Tang , “ MEMS variable optical attenuator using low driving voltage for DWDM systems ,” Electron. Lett.   38 , pp. 382 – 383 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kawai , M. Koga , M. Okuno , and T. Kitoh , “ PLC type compact variable optical attenuator for photonic transport network ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , pp. 264 – 265 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Lenzi , S. Tebaldini , D. D. Mola , S. Brunazzi , and L. Cibinetto , “ Power control in the photonic domain based on integrated arrays of optical variable attenuators in glass-on-silicon technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   5 , pp. 1289 – 1297 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Z. Xiao , Z. Zhang , and C. P. Grover , “ A variable optical attenuator based on a straight polymer-silica hybrid channel waveguide ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , pp. 2511 – 2513 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , B. J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J. A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , pp. 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Kerbage , A. Hale , A. Yablon , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , pp. 3191 – 3193 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Mach , M. Dolinski , K. W. Baldwin , J. A. Rogers , C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Tunable microfluidic optical fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   80 , pp. 4294 – 4296 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Grillet , P. Domachuk , V. Ta’eed , E. Magi , J. A. Bolger , B. J. Eggleton , L. E. Rodd , and J. Cooper-White , “ Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer ,” Opt. Express   12 , pp. 5440 – 5447 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-22-5440
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Domachuk , M. Cronin-Golomb , B. J. Eggleton , S. Mutzenich , G. Rosengarten , and A. Mitchell , “ Application of optical trapping to beam manipulation in optofluidics ,” Opt. Express   13 , pp. 7265 – 7275 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-19-7265
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Y. Fu , C. Spence , A. Scherer , F. H. Arnold , and S. R. Quake , “ A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter ,” Nature Biotechnology   17 , pp. 1109 – 1111 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Balslev and A. Kristensen , “ Microfluidic single-mode laser using high-order Bragg grating and antiguiding segments ,” Opt. Express   13 , pp. 344 – 351 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-344
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. L. Adams , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qiu , “ Microfluidic integration of porous photonic crystal nanolasers for chemical sensing ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   23 , pp. 1348 – 1354 ( 2005 ).
  14. J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , pp. 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Friis , K. Hoppe , O. Leistiko , K. B. Mogensen , J. Hubner , and J. P. Kutter , “ Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and opticalwaveguides in silica on silicon ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , pp. 6246 – 6251 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Lien , Y. Berdichevsky , and Y. Lo , “ A prealigned process of integrating optical waveguides with microfluidic devices ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , pp. 1525 – 1527 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides , “ Soft lithography ,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.   28 , pp. 153 – 184 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Huang , G.T. Paloczi , J. K. S. Poon , and A. Yariv , “ Bottom-up soft-lithographic fabrication of three-dimensional multilayer polymer integrated optical microdevices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , pp. 3005 – 3007 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (6)

V. Lien , Y. Berdichevsky , and Y. Lo , “ A prealigned process of integrating optical waveguides with microfluidic devices ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , pp. 1525 – 1527 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang , G.T. Paloczi , J. K. S. Poon , and A. Yariv , “ Bottom-up soft-lithographic fabrication of three-dimensional multilayer polymer integrated optical microdevices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , pp. 3005 – 3007 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Xiao , Z. Zhang , and C. P. Grover , “ A variable optical attenuator based on a straight polymer-silica hybrid channel waveguide ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , pp. 2511 – 2513 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage , A. Hale , A. Yablon , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , pp. 3191 – 3193 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Mach , M. Dolinski , K. W. Baldwin , J. A. Rogers , C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Tunable microfluidic optical fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   80 , pp. 4294 – 4296 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet , P. Domachuk , V. Ta’eed , E. Magi , J. A. Bolger , B. J. Eggleton , L. E. Rodd , and J. Cooper-White , “ Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer ,” Opt. Express   12 , pp. 5440 – 5447 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-22-5440
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , B. J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J. A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , pp. 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhang , A. Q. Liu , C. Lu , and D. Y. Tang , “ MEMS variable optical attenuator using low driving voltage for DWDM systems ,” Electron. Lett.   38 , pp. 382 – 383 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , pp. 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. Y. Fu , C. Spence , A. Scherer , F. H. Arnold , and S. R. Quake , “ A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter ,” Nature Biotechnology   17 , pp. 1109 – 1111 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lenzi , S. Tebaldini , D. D. Mola , S. Brunazzi , and L. Cibinetto , “ Power control in the photonic domain based on integrated arrays of optical variable attenuators in glass-on-silicon technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   5 , pp. 1289 – 1297 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

B. Barber , C. R. Giles , V. Askyuk , R. Ruel , L. Stulz , and D. Bishop , “ A fiber connectorized MEMS variable optical attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , pp. 1262 – 1264 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawai , M. Koga , M. Okuno , and T. Kitoh , “ PLC type compact variable optical attenuator for photonic transport network ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , pp. 264 – 265 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides , “ Soft lithography ,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.   28 , pp. 153 – 184 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. L.

M. L. Adams , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qiu , “ Microfluidic integration of porous photonic crystal nanolasers for chemical sensing ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   23 , pp. 1348 – 1354 ( 2005 ).

Aitchison, J. S.

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , pp. 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, F. H.

A. Y. Fu , C. Spence , A. Scherer , F. H. Arnold , and S. R. Quake , “ A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter ,” Nature Biotechnology   17 , pp. 1109 – 1111 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Askyuk, V.

B. Barber , C. R. Giles , V. Askyuk , R. Ruel , L. Stulz , and D. Bishop , “ A fiber connectorized MEMS variable optical attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , pp. 1262 – 1264 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K. W.

P. Mach , M. Dolinski , K. W. Baldwin , J. A. Rogers , C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Tunable microfluidic optical fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   80 , pp. 4294 – 4296 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Balslev, S.

Barber, B.

B. Barber , C. R. Giles , V. Askyuk , R. Ruel , L. Stulz , and D. Bishop , “ A fiber connectorized MEMS variable optical attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , pp. 1262 – 1264 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Benoit, V.

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , pp. 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berdichevsky, Y.

V. Lien , Y. Berdichevsky , and Y. Lo , “ A prealigned process of integrating optical waveguides with microfluidic devices ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , pp. 1525 – 1527 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, D.

B. Barber , C. R. Giles , V. Askyuk , R. Ruel , L. Stulz , and D. Bishop , “ A fiber connectorized MEMS variable optical attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , pp. 1262 – 1264 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J. A.

Brunazzi, S.

M. Lenzi , S. Tebaldini , D. D. Mola , S. Brunazzi , and L. Cibinetto , “ Power control in the photonic domain based on integrated arrays of optical variable attenuators in glass-on-silicon technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   5 , pp. 1289 – 1297 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Cibinetto, L.

M. Lenzi , S. Tebaldini , D. D. Mola , S. Brunazzi , and L. Cibinetto , “ Power control in the photonic domain based on integrated arrays of optical variable attenuators in glass-on-silicon technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   5 , pp. 1289 – 1297 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J. M.

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , pp. 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper-White, J.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Dolinski, M.

P. Mach , M. Dolinski , K. W. Baldwin , J. A. Rogers , C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Tunable microfluidic optical fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   80 , pp. 4294 – 4296 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , B. J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J. A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , pp. 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

Eggleton, B. J.

P. Domachuk , M. Cronin-Golomb , B. J. Eggleton , S. Mutzenich , G. Rosengarten , and A. Mitchell , “ Application of optical trapping to beam manipulation in optofluidics ,” Opt. Express   13 , pp. 7265 – 7275 ( 2005 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-19-7265
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grillet , P. Domachuk , V. Ta’eed , E. Magi , J. A. Bolger , B. J. Eggleton , L. E. Rodd , and J. Cooper-White , “ Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer ,” Opt. Express   12 , pp. 5440 – 5447 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-22-5440
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mach , M. Dolinski , K. W. Baldwin , J. A. Rogers , C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Tunable microfluidic optical fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   80 , pp. 4294 – 4296 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage , A. Hale , A. Yablon , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , pp. 3191 – 3193 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , B. J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J. A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , pp. 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Friis, P.

Fu, A. Y.

A. Y. Fu , C. Spence , A. Scherer , F. H. Arnold , and S. R. Quake , “ A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter ,” Nature Biotechnology   17 , pp. 1109 – 1111 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giles, C. R.

B. Barber , C. R. Giles , V. Askyuk , R. Ruel , L. Stulz , and D. Bishop , “ A fiber connectorized MEMS variable optical attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , pp. 1262 – 1264 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Grover, C. P.

G. Z. Xiao , Z. Zhang , and C. P. Grover , “ A variable optical attenuator based on a straight polymer-silica hybrid channel waveguide ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , pp. 2511 – 2513 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

C. Kerbage , A. Hale , A. Yablon , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , pp. 3191 – 3193 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, K.

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang , G.T. Paloczi , J. K. S. Poon , and A. Yariv , “ Bottom-up soft-lithographic fabrication of three-dimensional multilayer polymer integrated optical microdevices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , pp. 3005 – 3007 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Hubner, J.

Kawai, T.

T. Kawai , M. Koga , M. Okuno , and T. Kitoh , “ PLC type compact variable optical attenuator for photonic transport network ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , pp. 264 – 265 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Kerbage, C.

C. Kerbage , A. Hale , A. Yablon , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , pp. 3191 – 3193 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Mach , M. Dolinski , K. W. Baldwin , J. A. Rogers , C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Tunable microfluidic optical fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   80 , pp. 4294 – 4296 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , B. J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J. A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , pp. 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Kitoh, T.

T. Kawai , M. Koga , M. Okuno , and T. Kitoh , “ PLC type compact variable optical attenuator for photonic transport network ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , pp. 264 – 265 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Koga, M.

T. Kawai , M. Koga , M. Okuno , and T. Kitoh , “ PLC type compact variable optical attenuator for photonic transport network ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , pp. 264 – 265 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

Kutter, J. P.

Leistiko, O.

Lenzi, M.

M. Lenzi , S. Tebaldini , D. D. Mola , S. Brunazzi , and L. Cibinetto , “ Power control in the photonic domain based on integrated arrays of optical variable attenuators in glass-on-silicon technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   5 , pp. 1289 – 1297 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Lien, V.

V. Lien , Y. Berdichevsky , and Y. Lo , “ A prealigned process of integrating optical waveguides with microfluidic devices ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , pp. 1525 – 1527 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

X. M. Zhang , A. Q. Liu , C. Lu , and D. Y. Tang , “ MEMS variable optical attenuator using low driving voltage for DWDM systems ,” Electron. Lett.   38 , pp. 382 – 383 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y.

V. Lien , Y. Berdichevsky , and Y. Lo , “ A prealigned process of integrating optical waveguides with microfluidic devices ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , pp. 1525 – 1527 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

M. L. Adams , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qiu , “ Microfluidic integration of porous photonic crystal nanolasers for chemical sensing ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   23 , pp. 1348 – 1354 ( 2005 ).

Lu, C.

X. M. Zhang , A. Q. Liu , C. Lu , and D. Y. Tang , “ MEMS variable optical attenuator using low driving voltage for DWDM systems ,” Electron. Lett.   38 , pp. 382 – 383 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Mach, P.

P. Mach , M. Dolinski , K. W. Baldwin , J. A. Rogers , C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Tunable microfluidic optical fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   80 , pp. 4294 – 4296 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , B. J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J. A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , pp. 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Magi, E.

Mitchell, A.

Mogensen, K. B.

Mola, D. D.

M. Lenzi , S. Tebaldini , D. D. Mola , S. Brunazzi , and L. Cibinetto , “ Power control in the photonic domain based on integrated arrays of optical variable attenuators in glass-on-silicon technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   5 , pp. 1289 – 1297 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Mutzenich, S.

Okuno, M.

T. Kawai , M. Koga , M. Okuno , and T. Kitoh , “ PLC type compact variable optical attenuator for photonic transport network ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , pp. 264 – 265 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Paloczi, G.T.

Y. Huang , G.T. Paloczi , J. K. S. Poon , and A. Yariv , “ Bottom-up soft-lithographic fabrication of three-dimensional multilayer polymer integrated optical microdevices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , pp. 3005 – 3007 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Poon, J. K. S.

Y. Huang , G.T. Paloczi , J. K. S. Poon , and A. Yariv , “ Bottom-up soft-lithographic fabrication of three-dimensional multilayer polymer integrated optical microdevices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , pp. 3005 – 3007 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

M. L. Adams , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qiu , “ Microfluidic integration of porous photonic crystal nanolasers for chemical sensing ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   23 , pp. 1348 – 1354 ( 2005 ).

Quake, S. R.

A. Y. Fu , C. Spence , A. Scherer , F. H. Arnold , and S. R. Quake , “ A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter ,” Nature Biotechnology   17 , pp. 1109 – 1111 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodd, L. E.

Rogers, J. A.

P. Mach , M. Dolinski , K. W. Baldwin , J. A. Rogers , C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Tunable microfluidic optical fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   80 , pp. 4294 – 4296 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , B. J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J. A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , pp. 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Rosengarten, G.

Ruano, J. M.

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , pp. 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruel, R.

B. Barber , C. R. Giles , V. Askyuk , R. Ruel , L. Stulz , and D. Bishop , “ A fiber connectorized MEMS variable optical attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , pp. 1262 – 1264 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

M. L. Adams , M. Loncar , A. Scherer , and Y. Qiu , “ Microfluidic integration of porous photonic crystal nanolasers for chemical sensing ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   23 , pp. 1348 – 1354 ( 2005 ).

A. Y. Fu , C. Spence , A. Scherer , F. H. Arnold , and S. R. Quake , “ A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter ,” Nature Biotechnology   17 , pp. 1109 – 1111 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spence, C.

A. Y. Fu , C. Spence , A. Scherer , F. H. Arnold , and S. R. Quake , “ A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter ,” Nature Biotechnology   17 , pp. 1109 – 1111 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stulz, L.

B. Barber , C. R. Giles , V. Askyuk , R. Ruel , L. Stulz , and D. Bishop , “ A fiber connectorized MEMS variable optical attenuator ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   10 , pp. 1262 – 1264 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V.

Tang, D. Y.

X. M. Zhang , A. Q. Liu , C. Lu , and D. Y. Tang , “ MEMS variable optical attenuator using low driving voltage for DWDM systems ,” Electron. Lett.   38 , pp. 382 – 383 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Tebaldini, S.

M. Lenzi , S. Tebaldini , D. D. Mola , S. Brunazzi , and L. Cibinetto , “ Power control in the photonic domain based on integrated arrays of optical variable attenuators in glass-on-silicon technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   5 , pp. 1289 – 1297 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides , “ Soft lithography ,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.   28 , pp. 153 – 184 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

P. Mach , M. Dolinski , K. W. Baldwin , J. A. Rogers , C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Tunable microfluidic optical fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   80 , pp. 4294 – 4296 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage , A. Hale , A. Yablon , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , pp. 3191 – 3193 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , B. J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J. A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , pp. 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides , “ Soft lithography ,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.   28 , pp. 153 – 184 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G. Z.

G. Z. Xiao , Z. Zhang , and C. P. Grover , “ A variable optical attenuator based on a straight polymer-silica hybrid channel waveguide ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , pp. 2511 – 2513 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A.

C. Kerbage , A. Hale , A. Yablon , R. S. Windeler , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , pp. 3191 – 3193 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Y. Huang , G.T. Paloczi , J. K. S. Poon , and A. Yariv , “ Bottom-up soft-lithographic fabrication of three-dimensional multilayer polymer integrated optical microdevices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , pp. 3005 – 3007 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

X. M. Zhang , A. Q. Liu , C. Lu , and D. Y. Tang , “ MEMS variable optical attenuator using low driving voltage for DWDM systems ,” Electron. Lett.   38 , pp. 382 – 383 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

G. Z. Xiao , Z. Zhang , and C. P. Grover , “ A variable optical attenuator based on a straight polymer-silica hybrid channel waveguide ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   16 , pp. 2511 – 2513 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , pp. 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides , “ Soft lithography ,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.   28 , pp. 153 – 184 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

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Electron. Lett. (2)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Lenzi , S. Tebaldini , D. D. Mola , S. Brunazzi , and L. Cibinetto , “ Power control in the photonic domain based on integrated arrays of optical variable attenuators in glass-on-silicon technology ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   5 , pp. 1289 – 1297 ( 1999 ).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Kerbage , R. S. Windeler , B. J. Eggleton , P. Mach , M. Dolinski , and J. A. Rogers , “ Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber ,” Opt. Commun.   204 , pp. 179 – 184 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic flowchart for the fabrication of an integrated microfluidic variable optical attenuator. The sequential steps are labeled from (a) to (g).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The optical image shows the integrated microfluidic optical chip and the inset SEM image shows SU-8 waveguide core embedded in the window opening of the BCB cladding. Two pin holes in the fluid chambers part on the microfluidic layer serve as fluid input and output ports. From the inset, the height of the SU-8 waveguide core and BCB cladding are 1.8 μm and 4.2 μm, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated and measured attentuation for the fabricated microfluidic variable optical attenuator. The dotted line is the simulation result and the solid line is the measured normalized attenuation for the device. The attenuation is the average of all polarization states.The dashed line is the PDL for the device.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured transient response for the fabricated microfluidic variable optical attenuator as the fluid refractive index changes between 1.37 and 1.58.

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