Abstract

Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to selectively disrupt and dissect intracellular organelles. We report on disruption of mitochondria in living HeLa cells using a femtosecond laser oscillator with a repetition rate of 76 MHz. We studied the laser parameters used for disruption. The long-term viability of the cells after disruption of a single mitochondrion was confirmed by the observation of cell division, indicating that intracellular disruption of organelles using a femtosecond laser oscillator can be performed without compromising the long-term cell viability.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Alberts , D. Bray , A. Johnson , J. Lewis , M. Raff , K. Roberts , and P. Walter , Essential Cell Biology ( Taylor and Francis, New York , 1997 ).
  2. A. Ashkin , “ Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   24 , 156 – 159 ( 1970 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. L. Amy and R. Storb , “ Selective mitochondrial damage by a ruby laser microbeam - an electron microscopic study ,” Science   150 , 756 – 757 ( 1965 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. V. Venugopalan , A. Guerra III , K. Nahen , and A. Vogel , “ Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulsed cellular microsurgery and micromaniplation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 078103 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. W. Berns , W. H. Write , and R. W. Steubing , “ Laser microbeam as a tool in cell biology ,” Int. Rev. Cytol.   129 , 1 – 44 ( 1991 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Colombelli , S. W. Grill , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ Ultraviolet diffraction limited nanosurgery of live biological tissues ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   75 , 472 – 478 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Colombelli , E. G. Reynaud , J. Rietdorf , R. Pepperkok , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ In vivo selective cytoskeleton dynamics quantification in interphase cells induced by pulsed ultraviolet laser nanosurgery ,” Traffic   6 , 1093 – 1102 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Khodjakov , R. W. Cole , and C. L. Rieder , “ A synergy of technologies: Combining laser microsurgery with green fluorescent protein tagging ,” Cell. Motil. Cytoskeleton   38 , 311 – 317 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. E. L. Botvinick , V. Venugopalan , J. V. Shah , L. H. Liaw , and M. W. Berns , “ Controlled ablation of microtubules using a picosecond laser ,” Biophys. J.   87 , 4203 – 4212 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. W. Denk , J. H. Strickler , and W. W. Webb , “ Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy ,” Science   248 , 73 – 76 ( 1990 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. König , P. T. C. So , W. W. Mantulin , and E. Gratton , “ Cellular response to near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses in two-photon microscopes ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 135 – 136 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. K. König , T. W. Becker , P. Fischer , I. Riemann , and K. -J. Halbhuber , “ Pulse-length dependence of cellular response to intense near-infrared laser pulses in multiphoton microscopes ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 113 – 115 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. M. Squirrell , D. L. Wokosin , J. G. White , and B. D. Bavister , “ Long-term two-photon fluorescence imaging of mammalian embryos without compromising viability ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   17 , 763 – 767 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. V. V. Yakovlev , “ Advanced instrumentation for non-linear Raman microscopy ,” J. Raman Spectrosc.   4 , 957 – 964 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Lenzner , J. Krüger , S. Sartania , Z. Cheng , Ch. Spielmann , G. Mourou , W. Kautek , and F. Krausz , “ Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 4076 – 4079 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. Watanabe , N. Arakawa , S. Matsunaga , T. Higashi , K. Fukui , K. Isobe , and K. Itoh , “ Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4203 – 4213 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4203 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. N. Shen , D. Datta , C. B. Schaffer , P. LeDuc , D. E. Ingber , and E. Mazur , “ Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in live cells using a femtosecond laser nanoscissor ,” Mech. Chem. Biosyst.   2 , 17 – 25 ( 2005 ).
  18. A. Heisterkamp , I. Z. Maxwell , E. Mazur , J. M. Underwood , J. A. Nickerson , S. Kumar , and D. E. Ingber , “ Pulse energy dependence of subcellular dissection by femtosecond laser pulses ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3690 – 3696 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-10-3690 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. F. Yanik , H. Cinar , H. N. Cinar , A. D. Chisholm , Y. Jin , and A. Ben-Yakar , “ Functional regeneration after laser axotomy ,” Nature   432 , 822 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. K. König , “ Laser tweezers and multiphoton microscopes in life sciences ,” Histochem. Cell Biol.   114 , 79 – 92 ( 2000 ).
    [PubMed]
  21. K. König , I. Riemann , and W. Fritzsche , “ Nanodissection of human chromosomes with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 819 – 821 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  22. U. K. Tirlapur and K. König , “ Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser ,” Nature   418 , 290 – 291 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. W. Supatto , D. Débarre , B. Moulia , E. Brouzés , J. -L. Martin , E. Farge , and E. Beaurepaire , “ In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   102 , 1047 – 1052 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. L. Sacconi , I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke , R. Antolini , and F. S. Pavone , “ Combined intracellular three-dimensional imaging and selective nanosurgery by a nonlinear microscope ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 014002 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Müller , J. Squier , and G. J. Brakenhoff , “ Measurement of femtosecond pulses in the focal point of a high-numerical-aperture lens by two-photon absorption ,” Opt. Lett.   20 , 1038 – 1040 ( 1995 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. T. Higashi , E. Nagamori , T. Sone , S. Matsunaga , and K. Fukui , “ A novel transfection method for mammalian cells using calcium alginate microbeads ,” J. Biosci. Bioeng.   97 , 191 – 195 ( 2004 ).
  27. T. J. Collins and M. D. Bootman , “ Mitochondria are morphologically heterogeneous within cells ,” J. Exp. Biol.   206 , 1993 – 2000 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. C. L. Rieder and R. W. Cole , “ Entry into mitosis in vertebrate somatic cells is guarded by a chromosome damage checkpoint that reverses the cell cycle when triggered during early but not late prophase ,” J. Cell. Biol.   142 , 1013 – 1022 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. C. L. Rieder and R. Cole , “ Microtubule disassembly delays the G2-M transition in vertebrates ,” Curr. Biol.   10 , 1067 – 1070 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. C. Xu and W. W. Webb , “ Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophore with data from 690 to 1050nm ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   13 , 481 – 491 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  31. G. A. Blab , P. H. M. Lommerse , L. Cognet , G. S. Harms , and T. Schmidt , “ Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   350 , 71 – 77 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. P. Joglekar , H. H. Liu , E. Meyhöfer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Poc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. Vogel , J. Noack , G. Huettmann , and G. Paltauf , “ Femtosecond-laser-produced low-density plasmas in transparent biological media: a tool for the creation of chemical, thermal, and thermomechanical effects below the optical breakdown threshold ,” Proc. SPIE   4633 , 23 – 37 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Schnle and S. W. Hell , “ Heating by absorption in the focus of an objective lens ,” Opt. Lett.   23 , 325 – 327 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  35. H. Oehring , I. Riedmann , P. Fisher , K. J. Halbhuber , and K. König , “ Ultrastructure and reproduction behaviour of single CHO-K1 cells exposed to near infrared femtosecond laser pulses ,” Scanning   22 , 263 – 270 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. U. K. Tirlapur , K. König , C. Peuckert , R. Krieg , and K. Halbhuber , “ Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse elicit generation of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells leading to apotosis-like death ,” Exp. Cell Res.   263 , 88 – 97 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. A. Musacchio and K. G. Hardwick , “ The spindle checkpoint: structural insights into dynamic signaling ,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.   3 , 731 – 741 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. D. Arnoult , A. Grodet , Y. -J. Lee , J. Estaquier , and C. Blackstone , “ Release of OPA1 during apoptosis participates in the rapid and complete release of cytochrome c and subsequent mitochondrial fragmentation ,” J. Biol. Chem.   280 , 35742 – 35750 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

J. Colombelli , E. G. Reynaud , J. Rietdorf , R. Pepperkok , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ In vivo selective cytoskeleton dynamics quantification in interphase cells induced by pulsed ultraviolet laser nanosurgery ,” Traffic   6 , 1093 – 1102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shen , D. Datta , C. B. Schaffer , P. LeDuc , D. E. Ingber , and E. Mazur , “ Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in live cells using a femtosecond laser nanoscissor ,” Mech. Chem. Biosyst.   2 , 17 – 25 ( 2005 ).

A. Heisterkamp , I. Z. Maxwell , E. Mazur , J. M. Underwood , J. A. Nickerson , S. Kumar , and D. E. Ingber , “ Pulse energy dependence of subcellular dissection by femtosecond laser pulses ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3690 – 3696 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-10-3690 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Supatto , D. Débarre , B. Moulia , E. Brouzés , J. -L. Martin , E. Farge , and E. Beaurepaire , “ In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   102 , 1047 – 1052 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sacconi , I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke , R. Antolini , and F. S. Pavone , “ Combined intracellular three-dimensional imaging and selective nanosurgery by a nonlinear microscope ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 014002 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

D. Arnoult , A. Grodet , Y. -J. Lee , J. Estaquier , and C. Blackstone , “ Release of OPA1 during apoptosis participates in the rapid and complete release of cytochrome c and subsequent mitochondrial fragmentation ,” J. Biol. Chem.   280 , 35742 – 35750 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

T. Higashi , E. Nagamori , T. Sone , S. Matsunaga , and K. Fukui , “ A novel transfection method for mammalian cells using calcium alginate microbeads ,” J. Biosci. Bioeng.   97 , 191 – 195 ( 2004 ).

W. Watanabe , N. Arakawa , S. Matsunaga , T. Higashi , K. Fukui , K. Isobe , and K. Itoh , “ Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4203 – 4213 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4203 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Joglekar , H. H. Liu , E. Meyhöfer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Poc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

M. F. Yanik , H. Cinar , H. N. Cinar , A. D. Chisholm , Y. Jin , and A. Ben-Yakar , “ Functional regeneration after laser axotomy ,” Nature   432 , 822 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Colombelli , S. W. Grill , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ Ultraviolet diffraction limited nanosurgery of live biological tissues ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   75 , 472 – 478 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

E. L. Botvinick , V. Venugopalan , J. V. Shah , L. H. Liaw , and M. W. Berns , “ Controlled ablation of microtubules using a picosecond laser ,” Biophys. J.   87 , 4203 – 4212 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

V. V. Yakovlev , “ Advanced instrumentation for non-linear Raman microscopy ,” J. Raman Spectrosc.   4 , 957 – 964 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

T. J. Collins and M. D. Bootman , “ Mitochondria are morphologically heterogeneous within cells ,” J. Exp. Biol.   206 , 1993 – 2000 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

A. Vogel , J. Noack , G. Huettmann , and G. Paltauf , “ Femtosecond-laser-produced low-density plasmas in transparent biological media: a tool for the creation of chemical, thermal, and thermomechanical effects below the optical breakdown threshold ,” Proc. SPIE   4633 , 23 – 37 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König , “ Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser ,” Nature   418 , 290 – 291 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Venugopalan , A. Guerra III , K. Nahen , and A. Vogel , “ Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulsed cellular microsurgery and micromaniplation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 078103 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Musacchio and K. G. Hardwick , “ The spindle checkpoint: structural insights into dynamic signaling ,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.   3 , 731 – 741 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

G. A. Blab , P. H. M. Lommerse , L. Cognet , G. S. Harms , and T. Schmidt , “ Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   350 , 71 – 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

U. K. Tirlapur , K. König , C. Peuckert , R. Krieg , and K. Halbhuber , “ Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse elicit generation of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells leading to apotosis-like death ,” Exp. Cell Res.   263 , 88 – 97 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. König , I. Riemann , and W. Fritzsche , “ Nanodissection of human chromosomes with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 819 – 821 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

H. Oehring , I. Riedmann , P. Fisher , K. J. Halbhuber , and K. König , “ Ultrastructure and reproduction behaviour of single CHO-K1 cells exposed to near infrared femtosecond laser pulses ,” Scanning   22 , 263 – 270 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Rieder and R. Cole , “ Microtubule disassembly delays the G2-M transition in vertebrates ,” Curr. Biol.   10 , 1067 – 1070 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. König , “ Laser tweezers and multiphoton microscopes in life sciences ,” Histochem. Cell Biol.   114 , 79 – 92 ( 2000 ).
[PubMed]

1999 (2)

K. König , T. W. Becker , P. Fischer , I. Riemann , and K. -J. Halbhuber , “ Pulse-length dependence of cellular response to intense near-infrared laser pulses in multiphoton microscopes ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 113 – 115 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. M. Squirrell , D. L. Wokosin , J. G. White , and B. D. Bavister , “ Long-term two-photon fluorescence imaging of mammalian embryos without compromising viability ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   17 , 763 – 767 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

A. Schnle and S. W. Hell , “ Heating by absorption in the focus of an objective lens ,” Opt. Lett.   23 , 325 – 327 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

M. Lenzner , J. Krüger , S. Sartania , Z. Cheng , Ch. Spielmann , G. Mourou , W. Kautek , and F. Krausz , “ Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 4076 – 4079 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

C. L. Rieder and R. W. Cole , “ Entry into mitosis in vertebrate somatic cells is guarded by a chromosome damage checkpoint that reverses the cell cycle when triggered during early but not late prophase ,” J. Cell. Biol.   142 , 1013 – 1022 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

K. König , P. T. C. So , W. W. Mantulin , and E. Gratton , “ Cellular response to near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses in two-photon microscopes ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 135 – 136 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khodjakov , R. W. Cole , and C. L. Rieder , “ A synergy of technologies: Combining laser microsurgery with green fluorescent protein tagging ,” Cell. Motil. Cytoskeleton   38 , 311 – 317 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

C. Xu and W. W. Webb , “ Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophore with data from 690 to 1050nm ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   13 , 481 – 491 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

M. W. Berns , W. H. Write , and R. W. Steubing , “ Laser microbeam as a tool in cell biology ,” Int. Rev. Cytol.   129 , 1 – 44 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk , J. H. Strickler , and W. W. Webb , “ Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy ,” Science   248 , 73 – 76 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin , “ Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   24 , 156 – 159 ( 1970 ).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

R. L. Amy and R. Storb , “ Selective mitochondrial damage by a ruby laser microbeam - an electron microscopic study ,” Science   150 , 756 – 757 ( 1965 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alberts, B.

B. Alberts , D. Bray , A. Johnson , J. Lewis , M. Raff , K. Roberts , and P. Walter , Essential Cell Biology ( Taylor and Francis, New York , 1997 ).

Amy, R. L.

R. L. Amy and R. Storb , “ Selective mitochondrial damage by a ruby laser microbeam - an electron microscopic study ,” Science   150 , 756 – 757 ( 1965 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antolini, R.

L. Sacconi , I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke , R. Antolini , and F. S. Pavone , “ Combined intracellular three-dimensional imaging and selective nanosurgery by a nonlinear microscope ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 014002 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, N.

Arnoult, D.

D. Arnoult , A. Grodet , Y. -J. Lee , J. Estaquier , and C. Blackstone , “ Release of OPA1 during apoptosis participates in the rapid and complete release of cytochrome c and subsequent mitochondrial fragmentation ,” J. Biol. Chem.   280 , 35742 – 35750 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin , “ Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   24 , 156 – 159 ( 1970 ).
[Crossref]

Bavister, B. D.

J. M. Squirrell , D. L. Wokosin , J. G. White , and B. D. Bavister , “ Long-term two-photon fluorescence imaging of mammalian embryos without compromising viability ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   17 , 763 – 767 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

W. Supatto , D. Débarre , B. Moulia , E. Brouzés , J. -L. Martin , E. Farge , and E. Beaurepaire , “ In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   102 , 1047 – 1052 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, T. W.

Ben-Yakar, A.

M. F. Yanik , H. Cinar , H. N. Cinar , A. D. Chisholm , Y. Jin , and A. Ben-Yakar , “ Functional regeneration after laser axotomy ,” Nature   432 , 822 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

E. L. Botvinick , V. Venugopalan , J. V. Shah , L. H. Liaw , and M. W. Berns , “ Controlled ablation of microtubules using a picosecond laser ,” Biophys. J.   87 , 4203 – 4212 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Berns , W. H. Write , and R. W. Steubing , “ Laser microbeam as a tool in cell biology ,” Int. Rev. Cytol.   129 , 1 – 44 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blab, G. A.

G. A. Blab , P. H. M. Lommerse , L. Cognet , G. S. Harms , and T. Schmidt , “ Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   350 , 71 – 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Blackstone, C.

D. Arnoult , A. Grodet , Y. -J. Lee , J. Estaquier , and C. Blackstone , “ Release of OPA1 during apoptosis participates in the rapid and complete release of cytochrome c and subsequent mitochondrial fragmentation ,” J. Biol. Chem.   280 , 35742 – 35750 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bootman, M. D.

T. J. Collins and M. D. Bootman , “ Mitochondria are morphologically heterogeneous within cells ,” J. Exp. Biol.   206 , 1993 – 2000 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botvinick, E. L.

E. L. Botvinick , V. Venugopalan , J. V. Shah , L. H. Liaw , and M. W. Berns , “ Controlled ablation of microtubules using a picosecond laser ,” Biophys. J.   87 , 4203 – 4212 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Bray, D.

B. Alberts , D. Bray , A. Johnson , J. Lewis , M. Raff , K. Roberts , and P. Walter , Essential Cell Biology ( Taylor and Francis, New York , 1997 ).

Brouzés, E.

W. Supatto , D. Débarre , B. Moulia , E. Brouzés , J. -L. Martin , E. Farge , and E. Beaurepaire , “ In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   102 , 1047 – 1052 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

M. Lenzner , J. Krüger , S. Sartania , Z. Cheng , Ch. Spielmann , G. Mourou , W. Kautek , and F. Krausz , “ Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 4076 – 4079 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Chisholm, A. D.

M. F. Yanik , H. Cinar , H. N. Cinar , A. D. Chisholm , Y. Jin , and A. Ben-Yakar , “ Functional regeneration after laser axotomy ,” Nature   432 , 822 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cinar, H.

M. F. Yanik , H. Cinar , H. N. Cinar , A. D. Chisholm , Y. Jin , and A. Ben-Yakar , “ Functional regeneration after laser axotomy ,” Nature   432 , 822 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cinar, H. N.

M. F. Yanik , H. Cinar , H. N. Cinar , A. D. Chisholm , Y. Jin , and A. Ben-Yakar , “ Functional regeneration after laser axotomy ,” Nature   432 , 822 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cognet, L.

G. A. Blab , P. H. M. Lommerse , L. Cognet , G. S. Harms , and T. Schmidt , “ Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   350 , 71 – 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Cole, R.

C. L. Rieder and R. Cole , “ Microtubule disassembly delays the G2-M transition in vertebrates ,” Curr. Biol.   10 , 1067 – 1070 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, R. W.

C. L. Rieder and R. W. Cole , “ Entry into mitosis in vertebrate somatic cells is guarded by a chromosome damage checkpoint that reverses the cell cycle when triggered during early but not late prophase ,” J. Cell. Biol.   142 , 1013 – 1022 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khodjakov , R. W. Cole , and C. L. Rieder , “ A synergy of technologies: Combining laser microsurgery with green fluorescent protein tagging ,” Cell. Motil. Cytoskeleton   38 , 311 – 317 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, T. J.

T. J. Collins and M. D. Bootman , “ Mitochondria are morphologically heterogeneous within cells ,” J. Exp. Biol.   206 , 1993 – 2000 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombelli, J.

J. Colombelli , E. G. Reynaud , J. Rietdorf , R. Pepperkok , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ In vivo selective cytoskeleton dynamics quantification in interphase cells induced by pulsed ultraviolet laser nanosurgery ,” Traffic   6 , 1093 – 1102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Colombelli , S. W. Grill , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ Ultraviolet diffraction limited nanosurgery of live biological tissues ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   75 , 472 – 478 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Datta, D.

N. Shen , D. Datta , C. B. Schaffer , P. LeDuc , D. E. Ingber , and E. Mazur , “ Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in live cells using a femtosecond laser nanoscissor ,” Mech. Chem. Biosyst.   2 , 17 – 25 ( 2005 ).

Débarre, D.

W. Supatto , D. Débarre , B. Moulia , E. Brouzés , J. -L. Martin , E. Farge , and E. Beaurepaire , “ In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   102 , 1047 – 1052 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk , J. H. Strickler , and W. W. Webb , “ Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy ,” Science   248 , 73 – 76 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Estaquier, J.

D. Arnoult , A. Grodet , Y. -J. Lee , J. Estaquier , and C. Blackstone , “ Release of OPA1 during apoptosis participates in the rapid and complete release of cytochrome c and subsequent mitochondrial fragmentation ,” J. Biol. Chem.   280 , 35742 – 35750 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farge, E.

W. Supatto , D. Débarre , B. Moulia , E. Brouzés , J. -L. Martin , E. Farge , and E. Beaurepaire , “ In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   102 , 1047 – 1052 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, P.

Fisher, P.

H. Oehring , I. Riedmann , P. Fisher , K. J. Halbhuber , and K. König , “ Ultrastructure and reproduction behaviour of single CHO-K1 cells exposed to near infrared femtosecond laser pulses ,” Scanning   22 , 263 – 270 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fritzsche, W.

Fukui, K.

W. Watanabe , N. Arakawa , S. Matsunaga , T. Higashi , K. Fukui , K. Isobe , and K. Itoh , “ Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4203 – 4213 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4203 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Higashi , E. Nagamori , T. Sone , S. Matsunaga , and K. Fukui , “ A novel transfection method for mammalian cells using calcium alginate microbeads ,” J. Biosci. Bioeng.   97 , 191 – 195 ( 2004 ).

Gratton, E.

Grill, S. W.

J. Colombelli , S. W. Grill , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ Ultraviolet diffraction limited nanosurgery of live biological tissues ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   75 , 472 – 478 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Grodet, A.

D. Arnoult , A. Grodet , Y. -J. Lee , J. Estaquier , and C. Blackstone , “ Release of OPA1 during apoptosis participates in the rapid and complete release of cytochrome c and subsequent mitochondrial fragmentation ,” J. Biol. Chem.   280 , 35742 – 35750 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guerra III, A.

V. Venugopalan , A. Guerra III , K. Nahen , and A. Vogel , “ Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulsed cellular microsurgery and micromaniplation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 078103 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halbhuber, K.

U. K. Tirlapur , K. König , C. Peuckert , R. Krieg , and K. Halbhuber , “ Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse elicit generation of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells leading to apotosis-like death ,” Exp. Cell Res.   263 , 88 – 97 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halbhuber, K. J.

H. Oehring , I. Riedmann , P. Fisher , K. J. Halbhuber , and K. König , “ Ultrastructure and reproduction behaviour of single CHO-K1 cells exposed to near infrared femtosecond laser pulses ,” Scanning   22 , 263 – 270 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halbhuber, K. -J.

Hardwick, K. G.

A. Musacchio and K. G. Hardwick , “ The spindle checkpoint: structural insights into dynamic signaling ,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.   3 , 731 – 741 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harms, G. S.

G. A. Blab , P. H. M. Lommerse , L. Cognet , G. S. Harms , and T. Schmidt , “ Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   350 , 71 – 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Heisterkamp, A.

Hell, S. W.

Higashi, T.

W. Watanabe , N. Arakawa , S. Matsunaga , T. Higashi , K. Fukui , K. Isobe , and K. Itoh , “ Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4203 – 4213 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4203 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Higashi , E. Nagamori , T. Sone , S. Matsunaga , and K. Fukui , “ A novel transfection method for mammalian cells using calcium alginate microbeads ,” J. Biosci. Bioeng.   97 , 191 – 195 ( 2004 ).

Huettmann, G.

A. Vogel , J. Noack , G. Huettmann , and G. Paltauf , “ Femtosecond-laser-produced low-density plasmas in transparent biological media: a tool for the creation of chemical, thermal, and thermomechanical effects below the optical breakdown threshold ,” Proc. SPIE   4633 , 23 – 37 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Hunt, A. J.

A. P. Joglekar , H. H. Liu , E. Meyhöfer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Poc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Ingber, D. E.

N. Shen , D. Datta , C. B. Schaffer , P. LeDuc , D. E. Ingber , and E. Mazur , “ Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in live cells using a femtosecond laser nanoscissor ,” Mech. Chem. Biosyst.   2 , 17 – 25 ( 2005 ).

A. Heisterkamp , I. Z. Maxwell , E. Mazur , J. M. Underwood , J. A. Nickerson , S. Kumar , and D. E. Ingber , “ Pulse energy dependence of subcellular dissection by femtosecond laser pulses ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3690 – 3696 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-10-3690 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isobe, K.

Itoh, K.

Jin, Y.

M. F. Yanik , H. Cinar , H. N. Cinar , A. D. Chisholm , Y. Jin , and A. Ben-Yakar , “ Functional regeneration after laser axotomy ,” Nature   432 , 822 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joglekar, A. P.

A. P. Joglekar , H. H. Liu , E. Meyhöfer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Poc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Johnson, A.

B. Alberts , D. Bray , A. Johnson , J. Lewis , M. Raff , K. Roberts , and P. Walter , Essential Cell Biology ( Taylor and Francis, New York , 1997 ).

Kautek, W.

M. Lenzner , J. Krüger , S. Sartania , Z. Cheng , Ch. Spielmann , G. Mourou , W. Kautek , and F. Krausz , “ Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 4076 – 4079 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Khodjakov, A.

A. Khodjakov , R. W. Cole , and C. L. Rieder , “ A synergy of technologies: Combining laser microsurgery with green fluorescent protein tagging ,” Cell. Motil. Cytoskeleton   38 , 311 – 317 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

König, K.

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König , “ Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser ,” Nature   418 , 290 – 291 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. K. Tirlapur , K. König , C. Peuckert , R. Krieg , and K. Halbhuber , “ Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse elicit generation of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells leading to apotosis-like death ,” Exp. Cell Res.   263 , 88 – 97 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. König , I. Riemann , and W. Fritzsche , “ Nanodissection of human chromosomes with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 819 – 821 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

H. Oehring , I. Riedmann , P. Fisher , K. J. Halbhuber , and K. König , “ Ultrastructure and reproduction behaviour of single CHO-K1 cells exposed to near infrared femtosecond laser pulses ,” Scanning   22 , 263 – 270 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. König , “ Laser tweezers and multiphoton microscopes in life sciences ,” Histochem. Cell Biol.   114 , 79 – 92 ( 2000 ).
[PubMed]

K. König , T. W. Becker , P. Fischer , I. Riemann , and K. -J. Halbhuber , “ Pulse-length dependence of cellular response to intense near-infrared laser pulses in multiphoton microscopes ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 113 – 115 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

K. König , P. T. C. So , W. W. Mantulin , and E. Gratton , “ Cellular response to near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses in two-photon microscopes ,” Opt. Lett.   22 , 135 – 136 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Lenzner , J. Krüger , S. Sartania , Z. Cheng , Ch. Spielmann , G. Mourou , W. Kautek , and F. Krausz , “ Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 4076 – 4079 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Krieg, R.

U. K. Tirlapur , K. König , C. Peuckert , R. Krieg , and K. Halbhuber , “ Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse elicit generation of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells leading to apotosis-like death ,” Exp. Cell Res.   263 , 88 – 97 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krüger, J.

M. Lenzner , J. Krüger , S. Sartania , Z. Cheng , Ch. Spielmann , G. Mourou , W. Kautek , and F. Krausz , “ Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 4076 – 4079 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

LeDuc, P.

N. Shen , D. Datta , C. B. Schaffer , P. LeDuc , D. E. Ingber , and E. Mazur , “ Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in live cells using a femtosecond laser nanoscissor ,” Mech. Chem. Biosyst.   2 , 17 – 25 ( 2005 ).

Lee, Y. -J.

D. Arnoult , A. Grodet , Y. -J. Lee , J. Estaquier , and C. Blackstone , “ Release of OPA1 during apoptosis participates in the rapid and complete release of cytochrome c and subsequent mitochondrial fragmentation ,” J. Biol. Chem.   280 , 35742 – 35750 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenzner, M.

M. Lenzner , J. Krüger , S. Sartania , Z. Cheng , Ch. Spielmann , G. Mourou , W. Kautek , and F. Krausz , “ Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 4076 – 4079 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Lewis, J.

B. Alberts , D. Bray , A. Johnson , J. Lewis , M. Raff , K. Roberts , and P. Walter , Essential Cell Biology ( Taylor and Francis, New York , 1997 ).

Liaw, L. H.

E. L. Botvinick , V. Venugopalan , J. V. Shah , L. H. Liaw , and M. W. Berns , “ Controlled ablation of microtubules using a picosecond laser ,” Biophys. J.   87 , 4203 – 4212 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H. H.

A. P. Joglekar , H. H. Liu , E. Meyhöfer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Poc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Lommerse, P. H. M.

G. A. Blab , P. H. M. Lommerse , L. Cognet , G. S. Harms , and T. Schmidt , “ Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   350 , 71 – 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Mantulin, W. W.

Martin, J. -L.

W. Supatto , D. Débarre , B. Moulia , E. Brouzés , J. -L. Martin , E. Farge , and E. Beaurepaire , “ In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   102 , 1047 – 1052 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsunaga, S.

W. Watanabe , N. Arakawa , S. Matsunaga , T. Higashi , K. Fukui , K. Isobe , and K. Itoh , “ Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4203 – 4213 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4203 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Higashi , E. Nagamori , T. Sone , S. Matsunaga , and K. Fukui , “ A novel transfection method for mammalian cells using calcium alginate microbeads ,” J. Biosci. Bioeng.   97 , 191 – 195 ( 2004 ).

Maxwell, I. Z.

Mazur, E.

A. Heisterkamp , I. Z. Maxwell , E. Mazur , J. M. Underwood , J. A. Nickerson , S. Kumar , and D. E. Ingber , “ Pulse energy dependence of subcellular dissection by femtosecond laser pulses ,” Opt. Express   13 , 3690 – 3696 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-10-3690 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shen , D. Datta , C. B. Schaffer , P. LeDuc , D. E. Ingber , and E. Mazur , “ Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in live cells using a femtosecond laser nanoscissor ,” Mech. Chem. Biosyst.   2 , 17 – 25 ( 2005 ).

Meyhöfer, E.

A. P. Joglekar , H. H. Liu , E. Meyhöfer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Poc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Moulia, B.

W. Supatto , D. Débarre , B. Moulia , E. Brouzés , J. -L. Martin , E. Farge , and E. Beaurepaire , “ In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   102 , 1047 – 1052 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

A. P. Joglekar , H. H. Liu , E. Meyhöfer , G. Mourou , and A. J. Hunt , “ Optics at critical intensity: Applications to nanomorphing ,” Poc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   101 , 5856 – 5861 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

M. Lenzner , J. Krüger , S. Sartania , Z. Cheng , Ch. Spielmann , G. Mourou , W. Kautek , and F. Krausz , “ Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 4076 – 4079 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Müller, M.

Musacchio, A.

A. Musacchio and K. G. Hardwick , “ The spindle checkpoint: structural insights into dynamic signaling ,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.   3 , 731 – 741 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagamori, E.

T. Higashi , E. Nagamori , T. Sone , S. Matsunaga , and K. Fukui , “ A novel transfection method for mammalian cells using calcium alginate microbeads ,” J. Biosci. Bioeng.   97 , 191 – 195 ( 2004 ).

Nahen, K.

V. Venugopalan , A. Guerra III , K. Nahen , and A. Vogel , “ Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulsed cellular microsurgery and micromaniplation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 078103 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nickerson, J. A.

Noack, J.

A. Vogel , J. Noack , G. Huettmann , and G. Paltauf , “ Femtosecond-laser-produced low-density plasmas in transparent biological media: a tool for the creation of chemical, thermal, and thermomechanical effects below the optical breakdown threshold ,” Proc. SPIE   4633 , 23 – 37 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Oehring, H.

H. Oehring , I. Riedmann , P. Fisher , K. J. Halbhuber , and K. König , “ Ultrastructure and reproduction behaviour of single CHO-K1 cells exposed to near infrared femtosecond laser pulses ,” Scanning   22 , 263 – 270 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paltauf, G.

A. Vogel , J. Noack , G. Huettmann , and G. Paltauf , “ Femtosecond-laser-produced low-density plasmas in transparent biological media: a tool for the creation of chemical, thermal, and thermomechanical effects below the optical breakdown threshold ,” Proc. SPIE   4633 , 23 – 37 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Pavone, F. S.

L. Sacconi , I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke , R. Antolini , and F. S. Pavone , “ Combined intracellular three-dimensional imaging and selective nanosurgery by a nonlinear microscope ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 014002 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Pepperkok, R.

J. Colombelli , E. G. Reynaud , J. Rietdorf , R. Pepperkok , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ In vivo selective cytoskeleton dynamics quantification in interphase cells induced by pulsed ultraviolet laser nanosurgery ,” Traffic   6 , 1093 – 1102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peuckert, C.

U. K. Tirlapur , K. König , C. Peuckert , R. Krieg , and K. Halbhuber , “ Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse elicit generation of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells leading to apotosis-like death ,” Exp. Cell Res.   263 , 88 – 97 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raff, M.

B. Alberts , D. Bray , A. Johnson , J. Lewis , M. Raff , K. Roberts , and P. Walter , Essential Cell Biology ( Taylor and Francis, New York , 1997 ).

Reynaud, E. G.

J. Colombelli , E. G. Reynaud , J. Rietdorf , R. Pepperkok , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ In vivo selective cytoskeleton dynamics quantification in interphase cells induced by pulsed ultraviolet laser nanosurgery ,” Traffic   6 , 1093 – 1102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rieder, C. L.

C. L. Rieder and R. Cole , “ Microtubule disassembly delays the G2-M transition in vertebrates ,” Curr. Biol.   10 , 1067 – 1070 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Rieder and R. W. Cole , “ Entry into mitosis in vertebrate somatic cells is guarded by a chromosome damage checkpoint that reverses the cell cycle when triggered during early but not late prophase ,” J. Cell. Biol.   142 , 1013 – 1022 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khodjakov , R. W. Cole , and C. L. Rieder , “ A synergy of technologies: Combining laser microsurgery with green fluorescent protein tagging ,” Cell. Motil. Cytoskeleton   38 , 311 – 317 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riedmann, I.

H. Oehring , I. Riedmann , P. Fisher , K. J. Halbhuber , and K. König , “ Ultrastructure and reproduction behaviour of single CHO-K1 cells exposed to near infrared femtosecond laser pulses ,” Scanning   22 , 263 – 270 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riemann, I.

Rietdorf, J.

J. Colombelli , E. G. Reynaud , J. Rietdorf , R. Pepperkok , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ In vivo selective cytoskeleton dynamics quantification in interphase cells induced by pulsed ultraviolet laser nanosurgery ,” Traffic   6 , 1093 – 1102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, K.

B. Alberts , D. Bray , A. Johnson , J. Lewis , M. Raff , K. Roberts , and P. Walter , Essential Cell Biology ( Taylor and Francis, New York , 1997 ).

Sacconi, L.

L. Sacconi , I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke , R. Antolini , and F. S. Pavone , “ Combined intracellular three-dimensional imaging and selective nanosurgery by a nonlinear microscope ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 014002 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Sartania, S.

M. Lenzner , J. Krüger , S. Sartania , Z. Cheng , Ch. Spielmann , G. Mourou , W. Kautek , and F. Krausz , “ Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 4076 – 4079 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Schaffer, C. B.

N. Shen , D. Datta , C. B. Schaffer , P. LeDuc , D. E. Ingber , and E. Mazur , “ Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in live cells using a femtosecond laser nanoscissor ,” Mech. Chem. Biosyst.   2 , 17 – 25 ( 2005 ).

Schmidt, T.

G. A. Blab , P. H. M. Lommerse , L. Cognet , G. S. Harms , and T. Schmidt , “ Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   350 , 71 – 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Schnle, A.

Shah, J. V.

E. L. Botvinick , V. Venugopalan , J. V. Shah , L. H. Liaw , and M. W. Berns , “ Controlled ablation of microtubules using a picosecond laser ,” Biophys. J.   87 , 4203 – 4212 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, N.

N. Shen , D. Datta , C. B. Schaffer , P. LeDuc , D. E. Ingber , and E. Mazur , “ Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in live cells using a femtosecond laser nanoscissor ,” Mech. Chem. Biosyst.   2 , 17 – 25 ( 2005 ).

So, P. T. C.

Sone, T.

T. Higashi , E. Nagamori , T. Sone , S. Matsunaga , and K. Fukui , “ A novel transfection method for mammalian cells using calcium alginate microbeads ,” J. Biosci. Bioeng.   97 , 191 – 195 ( 2004 ).

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Lenzner , J. Krüger , S. Sartania , Z. Cheng , Ch. Spielmann , G. Mourou , W. Kautek , and F. Krausz , “ Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 4076 – 4079 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Squier, J.

Squirrell, J. M.

J. M. Squirrell , D. L. Wokosin , J. G. White , and B. D. Bavister , “ Long-term two-photon fluorescence imaging of mammalian embryos without compromising viability ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   17 , 763 – 767 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

J. Colombelli , E. G. Reynaud , J. Rietdorf , R. Pepperkok , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ In vivo selective cytoskeleton dynamics quantification in interphase cells induced by pulsed ultraviolet laser nanosurgery ,” Traffic   6 , 1093 – 1102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Colombelli , S. W. Grill , and E. H. K. Stelzer , “ Ultraviolet diffraction limited nanosurgery of live biological tissues ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   75 , 472 – 478 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Steubing, R. W.

M. W. Berns , W. H. Write , and R. W. Steubing , “ Laser microbeam as a tool in cell biology ,” Int. Rev. Cytol.   129 , 1 – 44 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Storb, R.

R. L. Amy and R. Storb , “ Selective mitochondrial damage by a ruby laser microbeam - an electron microscopic study ,” Science   150 , 756 – 757 ( 1965 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk , J. H. Strickler , and W. W. Webb , “ Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy ,” Science   248 , 73 – 76 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supatto, W.

W. Supatto , D. Débarre , B. Moulia , E. Brouzés , J. -L. Martin , E. Farge , and E. Beaurepaire , “ In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   102 , 1047 – 1052 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tirlapur, U. K.

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König , “ Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser ,” Nature   418 , 290 – 291 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. K. Tirlapur , K. König , C. Peuckert , R. Krieg , and K. Halbhuber , “ Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse elicit generation of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells leading to apotosis-like death ,” Exp. Cell Res.   263 , 88 – 97 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tolic-Nørrelykke, I. M.

L. Sacconi , I. M. Tolić-Nørrelykke , R. Antolini , and F. S. Pavone , “ Combined intracellular three-dimensional imaging and selective nanosurgery by a nonlinear microscope ,” J. Biomed. Opt.   10 , 014002 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Underwood, J. M.

Venugopalan, V.

E. L. Botvinick , V. Venugopalan , J. V. Shah , L. H. Liaw , and M. W. Berns , “ Controlled ablation of microtubules using a picosecond laser ,” Biophys. J.   87 , 4203 – 4212 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Venugopalan , A. Guerra III , K. Nahen , and A. Vogel , “ Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulsed cellular microsurgery and micromaniplation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 078103 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

V. Venugopalan , A. Guerra III , K. Nahen , and A. Vogel , “ Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulsed cellular microsurgery and micromaniplation ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   88 , 078103 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vogel , J. Noack , G. Huettmann , and G. Paltauf , “ Femtosecond-laser-produced low-density plasmas in transparent biological media: a tool for the creation of chemical, thermal, and thermomechanical effects below the optical breakdown threshold ,” Proc. SPIE   4633 , 23 – 37 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Walter, P.

B. Alberts , D. Bray , A. Johnson , J. Lewis , M. Raff , K. Roberts , and P. Walter , Essential Cell Biology ( Taylor and Francis, New York , 1997 ).

Watanabe, W.

Webb, W. W.

C. Xu and W. W. Webb , “ Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophore with data from 690 to 1050nm ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   13 , 481 – 491 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

W. Denk , J. H. Strickler , and W. W. Webb , “ Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy ,” Science   248 , 73 – 76 ( 1990 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, J. G.

J. M. Squirrell , D. L. Wokosin , J. G. White , and B. D. Bavister , “ Long-term two-photon fluorescence imaging of mammalian embryos without compromising viability ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   17 , 763 – 767 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wokosin, D. L.

J. M. Squirrell , D. L. Wokosin , J. G. White , and B. D. Bavister , “ Long-term two-photon fluorescence imaging of mammalian embryos without compromising viability ,” Nat. Biotechnol.   17 , 763 – 767 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Write, W. H.

M. W. Berns , W. H. Write , and R. W. Steubing , “ Laser microbeam as a tool in cell biology ,” Int. Rev. Cytol.   129 , 1 – 44 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

C. Xu and W. W. Webb , “ Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophore with data from 690 to 1050nm ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.   13 , 481 – 491 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. V.

V. V. Yakovlev , “ Advanced instrumentation for non-linear Raman microscopy ,” J. Raman Spectrosc.   4 , 957 – 964 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik , H. Cinar , H. N. Cinar , A. D. Chisholm , Y. Jin , and A. Ben-Yakar , “ Functional regeneration after laser axotomy ,” Nature   432 , 822 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

E. L. Botvinick , V. Venugopalan , J. V. Shah , L. H. Liaw , and M. W. Berns , “ Controlled ablation of microtubules using a picosecond laser ,” Biophys. J.   87 , 4203 – 4212 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell. Motil. Cytoskeleton (1)

A. Khodjakov , R. W. Cole , and C. L. Rieder , “ A synergy of technologies: Combining laser microsurgery with green fluorescent protein tagging ,” Cell. Motil. Cytoskeleton   38 , 311 – 317 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. A. Blab , P. H. M. Lommerse , L. Cognet , G. S. Harms , and T. Schmidt , “ Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   350 , 71 – 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. FI, Faraday isolator; P, SF10 prism; M mirror; L, lens; ND, neutral density filter; DM, dichroic mirror; OB, objective lens; GM, pair of galvanometer mirrors; PMT, photomultiplier tube

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Stacked three-dimensional confocal images (a) before and (b) after femtosecond laser irradiation with 0.39 nJ/pulse (exposure time: 32 ms). Stacked images were obtained by translating the objective lens by 1 μm in the depth direction in steps of 250 nm. Yellow fluorescence shows mitochondria of HeLa cells visualized by EYFP. A target mitochondrion is indicated by a red arrow. Scale bar: 10 μm. Confocal cross-sectional images at different depths (c) before and (d) after irradiation of the femtosecond laser pulses. The femtosecond laser pulses were focused at a depth of z = 0. Scale bar: 3 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mitochondrial fragmentation in HeLa cells induced by femtosecond laser pulses. Stacked three-dimensional confocal images obtained (a) before and (b) after irradiation with 0.53 nJ/pulse (exposure time: 32 ms). The red arrow indicates the irradiation point. Scale bar: 10 μm. (c) Time-lapse confocal images after irradiation. Scale bar: 5 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of disruption of mitochondria with EYFP and MitoTracker Red on femtosecond laser pulse energy and irradiation time. (a–c) The rate of disruption and fragmentation of the EYFP-mitochondria at irradiation times of (a) 32 ms, (b) 16 ms, and (c) 8 ms for various laser energies. (d) The rate of disruption and fragmentation of the mitochondria stained with MitoTracker Red at an irradiation time of 32 ms for various laser energies. The number of measurements was 10 for each pulse energy and irradiation time.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Cell division after femtosecond laser disruption of a mitochondrion labeled with EYFP. Confocal images (a) before and (b) after femtosecond laser irradiation with 0.39 nJ/pulse (exposure time: 32 ms). The red arrow indicates the irradiation point. (c–f) Time-lapse confocal images. The process of cell division finished successfully 12 h after laser irradiation (c–d). The migration of daughter cells was observed from 12 to 16.5 h after laser irradiation (f). Scale bar: 10 μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mitotic events of cell division after disruption of mitochondria in the histone EGFP-H1 expressed cell. The disruption of a single mitochondrion by femtosecond laser irradiation had no influence on cell division or cell activity. The cell nuclei and mitotic chromosomes in HeLa cells were visualized using histone EGFP-H1. Mitochondria were stained with MitoTracker Red. Confocal fluorescence image and transmission image (a) before and (b) after femtosecond laser irradiation with 0.39 nJ/pulse (exposure time: 32 ms). The yellow arrow indicates the irradiation point. (c)–(f) Time-lapse confocal images and transmission images. The mitotic events of cell division in the irradiated cells proceeded normally. Scale bar: 20 μm.

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