Abstract

Effects of nano-scale surface geometry on surface plasmon are studied by the coordinate-transformation differential method to numerically calculate surface plasmon modes on a weakly disordered metallic surface. An air-silver surface profile with a subwavelength period and a nano-scale height at wavelength of 650 nm are chosen and it is found that the Bloch wave numbers and the surface plasmon modes are highly sensitive with distortions of only a few nanometers for periods much less than wavelength. On the contrary, distortions of long periods which are comparable to wavelength have little impact. Three typical surface profiles exhibit surface plasmon modes of wide variations.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of copper ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 1639 – 1647 ( 1995 ).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of silver ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 81 – 91 ( 1996 ).
  3. D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of zinc ,” J. Mod. Opt.   45 , 2585 – 2596 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Lopez-Rios , D. Mendoza , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , J. Sanchez-Dehesa , and B. Pannetier , “ Surface shape resonances in lamellar metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   81 , 665 – 668 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. Schröter and D. Heitmann , “ Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   58 , 15,419 – 15,421 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Porto , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and J. B. Pendry , “ Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   83 , 2845 – 2848 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W.-C. Liu and D. P. Tsai , “ Optical tunneling effect of surface plasmon polaritons and localized surface plasmon resonance ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 155,423 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles , “ Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 045,421 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre , “ The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating ,” Opt. Commun.   19 , 431 – 436 ( 1976 ).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Popov , L. Tsonev , and D. Maystre , “ Losses of plasmon surface waves on metallic grating ,” J. Mod. Opt.   37 , 379 – 387 ( 1990 ).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. L. Barnes , T. W. Preist , S. C. Kitson , and J. R. Sambles , “ Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   54 , 6227 – 6244 ( 1996 ).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , W. C. Tan , M. B. Sobnack , and J. R. Sambles , “ Standing-wave surface-plasmon resonances with overhanging zero-order metal gratings ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   15 , 2869 – 2876 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. Hooper and J. Sambles , “ Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on short-pitch metal gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165,432 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon polaritons on narrow-ridged short-pitch metal gratings in the conical mount ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   20 , 836 – 843 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Chandezon , M. T. Dupuis , G. Cornet , and D. Maystre , “ Multicoated gratings: a differential formalism applicable in the entire optical region ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.   72 , 839 – 846 ( 1982 ).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Chandezon , D. Maystre , and G. Raoult , “ A new theoretical method for diffraction gratings and its numerical application ,” J. Phys. (Paris)   11 , 235 – 241 ( 1980 ).
  20. L. Li , J. Chandezon , G. Granet , and J.-P. Plumey , “ Rigorous and efficient grating-analysis method made easy for optical engineers ,” Appl. Opt.   38 , 304 – 313 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. B. Sobnack , W. C. Tan , N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , and J. R. Sambles , “ Stationary surface plasmons on a zero-order metal grating ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 5667 – 5670 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. A. Darmanyan and A. V. Zayats , “ Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study ,” Phys. Rev. B   67 , 35424 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. M. Dykhne , A. K. Sarychev , and V. M. Shalaev , “ Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation ,” Phys. Rev. B   67 , 195402 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

S. A. Darmanyan and A. V. Zayats , “ Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study ,” Phys. Rev. B   67 , 35424 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Dykhne , A. K. Sarychev , and V. M. Shalaev , “ Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation ,” Phys. Rev. B   67 , 195402 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon polaritons on narrow-ridged short-pitch metal gratings in the conical mount ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   20 , 836 – 843 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

I. Hooper and J. Sambles , “ Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on short-pitch metal gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165,432 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Liu and D. P. Tsai , “ Optical tunneling effect of surface plasmon polaritons and localized surface plasmon resonance ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 155,423 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. A. Porto , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and J. B. Pendry , “ Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   83 , 2845 – 2848 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

L. Li , J. Chandezon , G. Granet , and J.-P. Plumey , “ Rigorous and efficient grating-analysis method made easy for optical engineers ,” Appl. Opt.   38 , 304 – 313 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

M. B. Sobnack , W. C. Tan , N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , and J. R. Sambles , “ Stationary surface plasmons on a zero-order metal grating ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 5667 – 5670 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of zinc ,” J. Mod. Opt.   45 , 2585 – 2596 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

T. Lopez-Rios , D. Mendoza , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , J. Sanchez-Dehesa , and B. Pannetier , “ Surface shape resonances in lamellar metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   81 , 665 – 668 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

U. Schröter and D. Heitmann , “ Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   58 , 15,419 – 15,421 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , W. C. Tan , M. B. Sobnack , and J. R. Sambles , “ Standing-wave surface-plasmon resonances with overhanging zero-order metal gratings ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   15 , 2869 – 2876 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

W. L. Barnes , T. W. Preist , S. C. Kitson , and J. R. Sambles , “ Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   54 , 6227 – 6244 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of silver ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 81 – 91 ( 1996 ).

1995 (1)

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of copper ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 1639 – 1647 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

E. Popov , L. Tsonev , and D. Maystre , “ Losses of plasmon surface waves on metallic grating ,” J. Mod. Opt.   37 , 379 – 387 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

J. Chandezon , D. Maystre , and G. Raoult , “ A new theoretical method for diffraction gratings and its numerical application ,” J. Phys. (Paris)   11 , 235 – 241 ( 1980 ).

1976 (1)

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre , “ The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating ,” Opt. Commun.   19 , 431 – 436 ( 1976 ).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes , T. W. Preist , S. C. Kitson , and J. R. Sambles , “ Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   54 , 6227 – 6244 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Chandezon, J.

Cornet, G.

Darmanyan, S. A.

S. A. Darmanyan and A. V. Zayats , “ Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study ,” Phys. Rev. B   67 , 35424 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

de Fornel, F.

Dupuis, M. T.

Dykhne, A. M.

A. M. Dykhne , A. K. Sarychev , and V. M. Shalaev , “ Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation ,” Phys. Rev. B   67 , 195402 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. A. Porto , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and J. B. Pendry , “ Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   83 , 2845 – 2848 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

T. Lopez-Rios , D. Mendoza , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , J. Sanchez-Dehesa , and B. Pannetier , “ Surface shape resonances in lamellar metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   81 , 665 – 668 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gérard, D.

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Granet, G.

Heitmann, D.

U. Schröter and D. Heitmann , “ Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   58 , 15,419 – 15,421 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, I.

I. Hooper and J. Sambles , “ Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on short-pitch metal gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165,432 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, I. R.

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles , “ Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 045,421 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon polaritons on narrow-ridged short-pitch metal gratings in the conical mount ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   20 , 836 – 843 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre , “ The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating ,” Opt. Commun.   19 , 431 – 436 ( 1976 ).
[CrossRef]

Kitson, S. C.

W. L. Barnes , T. W. Preist , S. C. Kitson , and J. R. Sambles , “ Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   54 , 6227 – 6244 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Liu, W.-C.

W.-C. Liu and D. P. Tsai , “ Optical tunneling effect of surface plasmon polaritons and localized surface plasmon resonance ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 155,423 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Rios, T.

T. Lopez-Rios , D. Mendoza , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , J. Sanchez-Dehesa , and B. Pannetier , “ Surface shape resonances in lamellar metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   81 , 665 – 668 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maystre, D.

E. Popov , L. Tsonev , and D. Maystre , “ Losses of plasmon surface waves on metallic grating ,” J. Mod. Opt.   37 , 379 – 387 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Chandezon , M. T. Dupuis , G. Cornet , and D. Maystre , “ Multicoated gratings: a differential formalism applicable in the entire optical region ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.   72 , 839 – 846 ( 1982 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Chandezon , D. Maystre , and G. Raoult , “ A new theoretical method for diffraction gratings and its numerical application ,” J. Phys. (Paris)   11 , 235 – 241 ( 1980 ).

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre , “ The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating ,” Opt. Commun.   19 , 431 – 436 ( 1976 ).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza, D.

T. Lopez-Rios , D. Mendoza , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , J. Sanchez-Dehesa , and B. Pannetier , “ Surface shape resonances in lamellar metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   81 , 665 – 668 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Nash, D. J.

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of zinc ,” J. Mod. Opt.   45 , 2585 – 2596 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of silver ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 81 – 91 ( 1996 ).

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of copper ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 1639 – 1647 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Pannetier, B.

T. Lopez-Rios , D. Mendoza , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , J. Sanchez-Dehesa , and B. Pannetier , “ Surface shape resonances in lamellar metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   81 , 665 – 668 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and J. B. Pendry , “ Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   83 , 2845 – 2848 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Plumey, J.-P.

Popov, E.

E. Popov , L. Tsonev , and D. Maystre , “ Losses of plasmon surface waves on metallic grating ,” J. Mod. Opt.   37 , 379 – 387 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , and J. B. Pendry , “ Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   83 , 2845 – 2848 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Preist, T. W.

N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , W. C. Tan , M. B. Sobnack , and J. R. Sambles , “ Standing-wave surface-plasmon resonances with overhanging zero-order metal gratings ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   15 , 2869 – 2876 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Sobnack , W. C. Tan , N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , and J. R. Sambles , “ Stationary surface plasmons on a zero-order metal grating ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 5667 – 5670 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes , T. W. Preist , S. C. Kitson , and J. R. Sambles , “ Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   54 , 6227 – 6244 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Raoult, G.

J. Chandezon , D. Maystre , and G. Raoult , “ A new theoretical method for diffraction gratings and its numerical application ,” J. Phys. (Paris)   11 , 235 – 241 ( 1980 ).

Salomon, L.

Sambles, J.

I. Hooper and J. Sambles , “ Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on short-pitch metal gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165,432 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles , “ Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 045,421 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon polaritons on narrow-ridged short-pitch metal gratings in the conical mount ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   20 , 836 – 843 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Sobnack , W. C. Tan , N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , and J. R. Sambles , “ Stationary surface plasmons on a zero-order metal grating ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 5667 – 5670 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , W. C. Tan , M. B. Sobnack , and J. R. Sambles , “ Standing-wave surface-plasmon resonances with overhanging zero-order metal gratings ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   15 , 2869 – 2876 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of zinc ,” J. Mod. Opt.   45 , 2585 – 2596 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of silver ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 81 – 91 ( 1996 ).

W. L. Barnes , T. W. Preist , S. C. Kitson , and J. R. Sambles , “ Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   54 , 6227 – 6244 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of copper ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 1639 – 1647 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Dehesa, J.

T. Lopez-Rios , D. Mendoza , F. J. Garcia-Vidal , J. Sanchez-Dehesa , and B. Pannetier , “ Surface shape resonances in lamellar metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   81 , 665 – 668 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. M. Dykhne , A. K. Sarychev , and V. M. Shalaev , “ Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation ,” Phys. Rev. B   67 , 195402 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, U.

U. Schröter and D. Heitmann , “ Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through metallic gratings ,” Phys. Rev. B   58 , 15,419 – 15,421 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. M. Dykhne , A. K. Sarychev , and V. M. Shalaev , “ Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation ,” Phys. Rev. B   67 , 195402 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Sobnack, M. B.

N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , W. C. Tan , M. B. Sobnack , and J. R. Sambles , “ Standing-wave surface-plasmon resonances with overhanging zero-order metal gratings ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   15 , 2869 – 2876 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Sobnack , W. C. Tan , N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , and J. R. Sambles , “ Stationary surface plasmons on a zero-order metal grating ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 5667 – 5670 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W. C.

M. B. Sobnack , W. C. Tan , N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , and J. R. Sambles , “ Stationary surface plasmons on a zero-order metal grating ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 5667 – 5670 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , W. C. Tan , M. B. Sobnack , and J. R. Sambles , “ Standing-wave surface-plasmon resonances with overhanging zero-order metal gratings ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   15 , 2869 – 2876 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

L. Martín-Moreno , F. J. García-Vidal , H. J. Lezec , K. M. Pellerin , T. Thio , J. B. Pendry , and T. W. Ebbesen , “ Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   86 , 1114 – 1117 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

W.-C. Liu and D. P. Tsai , “ Optical tunneling effect of surface plasmon polaritons and localized surface plasmon resonance ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 155,423 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Tsonev, L.

E. Popov , L. Tsonev , and D. Maystre , “ Losses of plasmon surface waves on metallic grating ,” J. Mod. Opt.   37 , 379 – 387 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Wanstall, N. P.

N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , W. C. Tan , M. B. Sobnack , and J. R. Sambles , “ Standing-wave surface-plasmon resonances with overhanging zero-order metal gratings ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   15 , 2869 – 2876 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Sobnack , W. C. Tan , N. P. Wanstall , T. W. Preist , and J. R. Sambles , “ Stationary surface plasmons on a zero-order metal grating ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 5667 – 5670 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays ,” Nature   391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A.

Zayats, A. V.

S. A. Darmanyan and A. V. Zayats , “ Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study ,” Phys. Rev. B   67 , 35424 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (4)

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of copper ,” J. Mod. Opt.   42 , 1639 – 1647 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of silver ,” J. Mod. Opt.   43 , 81 – 91 ( 1996 ).

D. J. Nash and J. R. Sambles , “ Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of zinc ,” J. Mod. Opt.   45 , 2585 – 2596 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

E. Popov , L. Tsonev , and D. Maystre , “ Losses of plasmon surface waves on metallic grating ,” J. Mod. Opt.   37 , 379 – 387 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (9)

» Media 1: GIF (645 KB)     
» Media 2: GIF (599 KB)     
» Media 3: GIF (682 KB)     
» Media 4: GIF (680 KB)     
» Media 5: GIF (614 KB)     
» Media 6: GIF (590 KB)     
» Media 7: GIF (564 KB)     
» Media 8: GIF (319 KB)     
» Media 9: GIF (234 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three silver-air surface profiles. (a) sinusoidal profile, f(x) = h cos(2πx/d); (b)groove-like profile, f(x) = h(cos(2πx/d)+cos(3∙2πx/d)/9+cos(5∙2πx/d)/25); (c) square-well-like profile, f(x) = h (cos(2πx/d)-0.2cos(3∙2πx/d)+0.04cos(5∙2πx/d)).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Complex map of Bloch wave numbers of three air-silver surface profiles at different heights. The number near each symbol is the height of the profile in nanometer. Grating period d is 500 nm and wavelength is 650 nm. The Bloch wave number is normalized to the grating wave number Kd = 2π/d.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Movies of surface plasmon modes at different heights. (a) sinusoidal profile; (b) groove-like profile;(c) square-well-like profile. Grating period is 500 nm. The length unit is nanometer. [Media 1] [Media 2] [Media 3]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Complex map of Bloch wave numbers of three silver-air surface profiles at different heights as in Fig. 2. Grating period d is 100 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Movies of surface plasmon modes at different heights. (a) sinusoidal profile; (b) groove-like profile;(c) square-well-like profile. Grating period is 100 nm. The length unit is nanometer. [Media 4] [Media 5] [Media 6]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Complex map of Bloch wave numbers of three silver-air surface profiles at different heights as in Fig. 2. Grating period d is 20 nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Movies of surface plasmon modes at different heights. (a) sinusoidal profile; (b) groove-like profile;(c) square-well-like profile. Grating period is 20 nm. The length unit is nanometer. [Media 7] [Media 8] [Media 9]

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