Abstract

The design, micro-fabrication, and electronic and optical performance of a tuneable short-wavelength infrared Fabry-Perot micro-resonator on a mercury cadmium telluride photoconductor is presented. The maximum processing temperature of 125 °C has negligible effect on the electronic and optical performance of photoconductor test structures. Maximum responsivity, effective carrier lifetime and detectivity are 60 × 103 VW-1, 2 × 10-5 s and 8 × 1010 cmHz1/2W-1, respectively. The maximum effective carrier lifetime and specific detectivity are in good agreement with the theoretical maxima. Uncooled device operation is possible since responsivity is observed not to improve with thermo-electric cooling. Spectral tuning of the micro-filters is demonstrated over the wavelength range 1.7 to 2.2 μm using drive voltages up to 8 V, with the full-width-half-maximum of the resonance approximately 100 nm. Membrane deflection can be up to 40% of the cavity width.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  4. G. Sarusi , B. F. Levine , S. J. Pearton , K. M. S. Bandara , and R. E. Leibenguth , “ Improved performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors using random scattering optical coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 960 – 2 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. A. Wood , C. J. Han , and P. W. Kruse , “ Integrated uncooled infrared detector imaging arrays ,” in Technical Digest. IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (Cat. No.92TH0403-X) , pp. 132 – 5 ( 1992 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. H. Choi and K. D. Wise , “ A silicon-thermopile-based infrared sensing array for use in automated manufacturing ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   33 , 72 – 9 ( 1986 ).
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  7. P. G. Datskos , P. I. Oden , T. Thundat , E. A. Wachter , R. J. Warmack , and S. R. Hunter , “ Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 2986 – 8 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Zhao , M. Mao , R. Horowitz , A. Majumdar , J. Varesi , P. Norton , and J. Kitching , “ Optomechanical uncooled infrared imaging system: design, microfabrication and performance ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   11 , 136 – 46 ( 2002 ).
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  11. R. W. Basedow , W. S. Aldrich , J. E. Colwell , and W. D. Kinder , “ HYDICE system performance - an update ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2821 , pp. 76 – 84 ( 1996 ).
  12. C. Simi , E. Winter , M. Williams , and D. Driscoll , “ Compact airborne spectral sensor ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   4381 , pp. 129 – 36 ( 2001 ).
  13. J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , M. P. Martyniuk , and L. Faraone , “ Local bonding environment of nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 093 , 714 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. T. K. Soh , C. A. Musca , N. Savvides , J. M. Dell , and L. Faraone , “ Evaluation of plasma deposited silicon nitride thin films for micro-systems-technology ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   14 , 971 – 7 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. T. K. Soh , A. C. Fischer-Cripps , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , and L. Faraone , “ Nanoindentation of plasma-deposited nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys. (submitted June 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. M. A. Kinch , S. R. Borrello , B. H. Breazeale , and A. Simmons , “ Geometrical enhancement of HgCdTe photo-conductive detectors ,” Infrared Phys.   17 , 137 – 45 ( 1977 ).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Ashley and C. T. Elliott , “ Accumulation effects at contacts to n-type cadmium-mercury-telluride photocon-ductors ,” Infrared Phys.   22 , 367 – 76 ( 1982 ).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. L. Smith , D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and M. W. Scott , “ HgCdTe heterojunction contact photoconductor ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   45 , 83 – 5 ( 1985 ).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. F. Siliquini , C. A. Musca , B. D. Nener , and L. Faraone , “ Temperature dependence of Hg0.68Cd0.32Te infrared photoconductor performance ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   42 , 1441 – 8 ( 1995 ).
    [Crossref]
  24. P. Capper , Properties of Narrow Gap Cadmium-based Compounds , chap. A6.2, pp. 212 – 4 ( INSPEC (London, U.K.) , 1994 ).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  27. S. Adachi , Optical Constants of Crystalline and Amorphous Semiconductors: numerical data and graphical information (Springer, 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  28. F. L. Galeener , “ Optical evidence for a network of cracklike voids in amorphous germanium ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   27 , 1716 – 9 ( 1971 ).
    [Crossref]
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2005 (4)

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , M. P. Martyniuk , and L. Faraone , “ Local bonding environment of nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 093 , 714 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , C. A. Musca , N. Savvides , J. M. Dell , and L. Faraone , “ Evaluation of plasma deposited silicon nitride thin films for micro-systems-technology ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   14 , 971 – 7 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , A. C. Fischer-Cripps , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , and L. Faraone , “ Nanoindentation of plasma-deposited nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys. (submitted June 2005 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Rogalski , “ Infrared detectors: status and trends ,” Prog. Quantum Electron.   27 , 59 – 210 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Y. Zhao , M. Mao , R. Horowitz , A. Majumdar , J. Varesi , P. Norton , and J. Kitching , “ Optomechanical uncooled infrared imaging system: design, microfabrication and performance ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   11 , 136 – 46 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Simi , E. Winter , M. Williams , and D. Driscoll , “ Compact airborne spectral sensor ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   4381 , pp. 129 – 36 ( 2001 ).

1996 (3)

P. G. Datskos , P. I. Oden , T. Thundat , E. A. Wachter , R. J. Warmack , and S. R. Hunter , “ Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 2986 – 8 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. Eismann , C. R. Schwartz , and J. N. C. amd R. J. Huppi , “ Comparison of infrared imaging hyperspectral sensors for military target detection applications ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2819 , pp. 91 – 101 ( 1996 ).

R. W. Basedow , W. S. Aldrich , J. E. Colwell , and W. D. Kinder , “ HYDICE system performance - an update ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2821 , pp. 76 – 84 ( 1996 ).

1995 (1)

J. F. Siliquini , C. A. Musca , B. D. Nener , and L. Faraone , “ Temperature dependence of Hg0.68Cd0.32Te infrared photoconductor performance ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   42 , 1441 – 8 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

G. Sarusi , B. F. Levine , S. J. Pearton , K. M. S. Bandara , and R. E. Leibenguth , “ Improved performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors using random scattering optical coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 960 – 2 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

L. J. Kozlowski , G. M. Williams , G. J. Sullivan , C. W. Farley , R. J. Anderson , J. C. D. T. Cheung , W. E. Tennant , and R. E. DeWames , “ LWIR 128 × 128 GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well hybrid focal plane array ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   38 , 1124 – 30 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. L. Strong , J. D. Luttmer , D. D. Little , T. H. Teherani , and C. R. Helms , “ Characterization of anodic sulfide films on Hg0.78Cd0.22Te ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vac. Surf. Films   5 , 3207 – 10 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

I. H. Choi and K. D. Wise , “ A silicon-thermopile-based infrared sensing array for use in automated manufacturing ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   33 , 72 – 9 ( 1986 ).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

D. L. Smith , D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and M. W. Scott , “ HgCdTe heterojunction contact photoconductor ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   45 , 83 – 5 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and D. L. Smith , “ High responsivity HgCdTe heterojunction photoconductor ,” J. Appl. Phys.   58 , 2360 – 70 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

T. Ashley and C. T. Elliott , “ Accumulation effects at contacts to n-type cadmium-mercury-telluride photocon-ductors ,” Infrared Phys.   22 , 367 – 76 ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

M. A. Kinch , S. R. Borrello , B. H. Breazeale , and A. Simmons , “ Geometrical enhancement of HgCdTe photo-conductive detectors ,” Infrared Phys.   17 , 137 – 45 ( 1977 ).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

F. L. Galeener , “ Optical evidence for a network of cracklike voids in amorphous germanium ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   27 , 1716 – 9 ( 1971 ).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi , Optical Constants of Crystalline and Amorphous Semiconductors: numerical data and graphical information (Springer, 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Aldrich, W. S.

R. W. Basedow , W. S. Aldrich , J. E. Colwell , and W. D. Kinder , “ HYDICE system performance - an update ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2821 , pp. 76 – 84 ( 1996 ).

Anderson, R. J.

L. J. Kozlowski , G. M. Williams , G. J. Sullivan , C. W. Farley , R. J. Anderson , J. C. D. T. Cheung , W. E. Tennant , and R. E. DeWames , “ LWIR 128 × 128 GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well hybrid focal plane array ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   38 , 1124 – 30 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Antoszewski, J.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Arch, D. K.

D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and D. L. Smith , “ High responsivity HgCdTe heterojunction photoconductor ,” J. Appl. Phys.   58 , 2360 – 70 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

D. L. Smith , D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and M. W. Scott , “ HgCdTe heterojunction contact photoconductor ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   45 , 83 – 5 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

Ashley, T.

T. Ashley and C. T. Elliott , “ Accumulation effects at contacts to n-type cadmium-mercury-telluride photocon-ductors ,” Infrared Phys.   22 , 367 – 76 ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

Bandara, K. M. S.

G. Sarusi , B. F. Levine , S. J. Pearton , K. M. S. Bandara , and R. E. Leibenguth , “ Improved performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors using random scattering optical coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 960 – 2 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Basedow, R. W.

R. W. Basedow , W. S. Aldrich , J. E. Colwell , and W. D. Kinder , “ HYDICE system performance - an update ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2821 , pp. 76 – 84 ( 1996 ).

Beck, J. D.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Borrello, S. R.

M. A. Kinch , S. R. Borrello , B. H. Breazeale , and A. Simmons , “ Geometrical enhancement of HgCdTe photo-conductive detectors ,” Infrared Phys.   17 , 137 – 45 ( 1977 ).
[Crossref]

Breazeale, B. H.

M. A. Kinch , S. R. Borrello , B. H. Breazeale , and A. Simmons , “ Geometrical enhancement of HgCdTe photo-conductive detectors ,” Infrared Phys.   17 , 137 – 45 ( 1977 ).
[Crossref]

Broudy, R. M.

R. M. Broudy and V. J. Mazurczyk , Semiconductors and Semimetals , vol. 18 , chap. 5 ( Academic Press (New York) , 1981 ).
[Crossref]

Capper, P.

P. Capper , Properties of Narrow Gap Cadmium-based Compounds , chap. A6.2, pp. 212 – 4 ( INSPEC (London, U.K.) , 1994 ).

Cheung, J. C. D. T.

L. J. Kozlowski , G. M. Williams , G. J. Sullivan , C. W. Farley , R. J. Anderson , J. C. D. T. Cheung , W. E. Tennant , and R. E. DeWames , “ LWIR 128 × 128 GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well hybrid focal plane array ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   38 , 1124 – 30 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Choi, I. H.

I. H. Choi and K. D. Wise , “ A silicon-thermopile-based infrared sensing array for use in automated manufacturing ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   33 , 72 – 9 ( 1986 ).
[Crossref]

Colwell, J. E.

R. W. Basedow , W. S. Aldrich , J. E. Colwell , and W. D. Kinder , “ HYDICE system performance - an update ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2821 , pp. 76 – 84 ( 1996 ).

Datskos, P. G.

P. G. Datskos , P. I. Oden , T. Thundat , E. A. Wachter , R. J. Warmack , and S. R. Hunter , “ Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 2986 – 8 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Dell, J. M.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , C. A. Musca , N. Savvides , J. M. Dell , and L. Faraone , “ Evaluation of plasma deposited silicon nitride thin films for micro-systems-technology ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   14 , 971 – 7 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

DeWames, R. E.

L. J. Kozlowski , G. M. Williams , G. J. Sullivan , C. W. Farley , R. J. Anderson , J. C. D. T. Cheung , W. E. Tennant , and R. E. DeWames , “ LWIR 128 × 128 GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well hybrid focal plane array ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   38 , 1124 – 30 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, D.

C. Simi , E. Winter , M. Williams , and D. Driscoll , “ Compact airborne spectral sensor ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   4381 , pp. 129 – 36 ( 2001 ).

Eismann, M. T.

M. T. Eismann , C. R. Schwartz , and J. N. C. amd R. J. Huppi , “ Comparison of infrared imaging hyperspectral sensors for military target detection applications ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2819 , pp. 91 – 101 ( 1996 ).

Elliott, C. T.

T. Ashley and C. T. Elliott , “ Accumulation effects at contacts to n-type cadmium-mercury-telluride photocon-ductors ,” Infrared Phys.   22 , 367 – 76 ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

Faraone, L.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , C. A. Musca , N. Savvides , J. M. Dell , and L. Faraone , “ Evaluation of plasma deposited silicon nitride thin films for micro-systems-technology ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   14 , 971 – 7 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , A. C. Fischer-Cripps , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , and L. Faraone , “ Nanoindentation of plasma-deposited nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys. (submitted June 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , M. P. Martyniuk , and L. Faraone , “ Local bonding environment of nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 093 , 714 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. F. Siliquini , C. A. Musca , B. D. Nener , and L. Faraone , “ Temperature dependence of Hg0.68Cd0.32Te infrared photoconductor performance ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   42 , 1441 – 8 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Farley, C. W.

L. J. Kozlowski , G. M. Williams , G. J. Sullivan , C. W. Farley , R. J. Anderson , J. C. D. T. Cheung , W. E. Tennant , and R. E. DeWames , “ LWIR 128 × 128 GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well hybrid focal plane array ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   38 , 1124 – 30 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Fischer-Cripps, A. C.

M. T. K. Soh , A. C. Fischer-Cripps , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , and L. Faraone , “ Nanoindentation of plasma-deposited nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys. (submitted June 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Galeener, F. L.

F. L. Galeener , “ Optical evidence for a network of cracklike voids in amorphous germanium ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   27 , 1716 – 9 ( 1971 ).
[Crossref]

Han, C. J.

R. A. Wood , C. J. Han , and P. W. Kruse , “ Integrated uncooled infrared detector imaging arrays ,” in Technical Digest. IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (Cat. No.92TH0403-X) , pp. 132 – 5 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Helms, C. R.

R. L. Strong , J. D. Luttmer , D. D. Little , T. H. Teherani , and C. R. Helms , “ Characterization of anodic sulfide films on Hg0.78Cd0.22Te ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vac. Surf. Films   5 , 3207 – 10 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Horowitz, R.

Y. Zhao , M. Mao , R. Horowitz , A. Majumdar , J. Varesi , P. Norton , and J. Kitching , “ Optomechanical uncooled infrared imaging system: design, microfabrication and performance ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   11 , 136 – 46 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Hunter, S. R.

P. G. Datskos , P. I. Oden , T. Thundat , E. A. Wachter , R. J. Warmack , and S. R. Hunter , “ Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 2986 – 8 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Huppi, J. N. C. amd R. J.

M. T. Eismann , C. R. Schwartz , and J. N. C. amd R. J. Huppi , “ Comparison of infrared imaging hyperspectral sensors for military target detection applications ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2819 , pp. 91 – 101 ( 1996 ).

Keating, A. J.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Kinch, M. A.

M. A. Kinch , S. R. Borrello , B. H. Breazeale , and A. Simmons , “ Geometrical enhancement of HgCdTe photo-conductive detectors ,” Infrared Phys.   17 , 137 – 45 ( 1977 ).
[Crossref]

Kinder, W. D.

R. W. Basedow , W. S. Aldrich , J. E. Colwell , and W. D. Kinder , “ HYDICE system performance - an update ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2821 , pp. 76 – 84 ( 1996 ).

Kitching, J.

Y. Zhao , M. Mao , R. Horowitz , A. Majumdar , J. Varesi , P. Norton , and J. Kitching , “ Optomechanical uncooled infrared imaging system: design, microfabrication and performance ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   11 , 136 – 46 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Kozlowski, L. J.

L. J. Kozlowski , G. M. Williams , G. J. Sullivan , C. W. Farley , R. J. Anderson , J. C. D. T. Cheung , W. E. Tennant , and R. E. DeWames , “ LWIR 128 × 128 GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well hybrid focal plane array ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   38 , 1124 – 30 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Kruse, P. W.

R. A. Wood , C. J. Han , and P. W. Kruse , “ Integrated uncooled infrared detector imaging arrays ,” in Technical Digest. IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (Cat. No.92TH0403-X) , pp. 132 – 5 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Leibenguth, R. E.

G. Sarusi , B. F. Levine , S. J. Pearton , K. M. S. Bandara , and R. E. Leibenguth , “ Improved performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors using random scattering optical coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 960 – 2 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Levine, B. F.

G. Sarusi , B. F. Levine , S. J. Pearton , K. M. S. Bandara , and R. E. Leibenguth , “ Improved performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors using random scattering optical coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 960 – 2 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Little, D. D.

R. L. Strong , J. D. Luttmer , D. D. Little , T. H. Teherani , and C. R. Helms , “ Characterization of anodic sulfide films on Hg0.78Cd0.22Te ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vac. Surf. Films   5 , 3207 – 10 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Luttmer, J. D.

R. L. Strong , J. D. Luttmer , D. D. Little , T. H. Teherani , and C. R. Helms , “ Characterization of anodic sulfide films on Hg0.78Cd0.22Te ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vac. Surf. Films   5 , 3207 – 10 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Madou, M. J.

M. J. Madou , Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization , 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2002 ).

Majumdar, A.

Y. Zhao , M. Mao , R. Horowitz , A. Majumdar , J. Varesi , P. Norton , and J. Kitching , “ Optomechanical uncooled infrared imaging system: design, microfabrication and performance ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   11 , 136 – 46 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Mao, M.

Y. Zhao , M. Mao , R. Horowitz , A. Majumdar , J. Varesi , P. Norton , and J. Kitching , “ Optomechanical uncooled infrared imaging system: design, microfabrication and performance ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   11 , 136 – 46 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. J.

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , P. J. Martin , and C. A. Musca , “ On the bonding microstructure of amorphous silicon oxide thin films ,” Thin Solid Films (submitted April 2005 ).

Martyniuk, M. P.

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , M. P. Martyniuk , and L. Faraone , “ Local bonding environment of nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 093 , 714 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Mazurczyk, V. J.

R. M. Broudy and V. J. Mazurczyk , Semiconductors and Semimetals , vol. 18 , chap. 5 ( Academic Press (New York) , 1981 ).
[Crossref]

Mitra, P.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Musca, C. A.

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , M. P. Martyniuk , and L. Faraone , “ Local bonding environment of nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 093 , 714 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , C. A. Musca , N. Savvides , J. M. Dell , and L. Faraone , “ Evaluation of plasma deposited silicon nitride thin films for micro-systems-technology ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   14 , 971 – 7 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , A. C. Fischer-Cripps , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , and L. Faraone , “ Nanoindentation of plasma-deposited nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys. (submitted June 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. F. Siliquini , C. A. Musca , B. D. Nener , and L. Faraone , “ Temperature dependence of Hg0.68Cd0.32Te infrared photoconductor performance ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   42 , 1441 – 8 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , P. J. Martin , and C. A. Musca , “ On the bonding microstructure of amorphous silicon oxide thin films ,” Thin Solid Films (submitted April 2005 ).

C. A. Musca , “ Photoconductive infrared detector technology based on epitaxially-grown mercury cadmium tel-luride heterostructures ,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at The University of Western Australia ( 1997 ).

Nener, B. D.

J. F. Siliquini , C. A. Musca , B. D. Nener , and L. Faraone , “ Temperature dependence of Hg0.68Cd0.32Te infrared photoconductor performance ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   42 , 1441 – 8 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Norton, P.

Y. Zhao , M. Mao , R. Horowitz , A. Majumdar , J. Varesi , P. Norton , and J. Kitching , “ Optomechanical uncooled infrared imaging system: design, microfabrication and performance ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   11 , 136 – 46 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Oden, P. I.

P. G. Datskos , P. I. Oden , T. Thundat , E. A. Wachter , R. J. Warmack , and S. R. Hunter , “ Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 2986 – 8 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

G. Sarusi , B. F. Levine , S. J. Pearton , K. M. S. Bandara , and R. E. Leibenguth , “ Improved performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors using random scattering optical coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 960 – 2 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Petersen, P. E.

P. E. Petersen , Semiconductors and Semimetals , vol. 18 , chap. 4 ( Academic Press (New York) , 1981 ).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J. E.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Rogalski, A.

A. Rogalski , “ Infrared detectors: status and trends ,” Prog. Quantum Electron.   27 , 59 – 210 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Sarusi, G.

G. Sarusi , B. F. Levine , S. J. Pearton , K. M. S. Bandara , and R. E. Leibenguth , “ Improved performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors using random scattering optical coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 960 – 2 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Savvides, N.

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , M. P. Martyniuk , and L. Faraone , “ Local bonding environment of nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 093 , 714 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , C. A. Musca , N. Savvides , J. M. Dell , and L. Faraone , “ Evaluation of plasma deposited silicon nitride thin films for micro-systems-technology ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   14 , 971 – 7 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , A. C. Fischer-Cripps , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , and L. Faraone , “ Nanoindentation of plasma-deposited nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys. (submitted June 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , P. J. Martin , and C. A. Musca , “ On the bonding microstructure of amorphous silicon oxide thin films ,” Thin Solid Films (submitted April 2005 ).

Schwartz, C. R.

M. T. Eismann , C. R. Schwartz , and J. N. C. amd R. J. Huppi , “ Comparison of infrared imaging hyperspectral sensors for military target detection applications ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2819 , pp. 91 – 101 ( 1996 ).

Scott, M. W.

D. L. Smith , D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and M. W. Scott , “ HgCdTe heterojunction contact photoconductor ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   45 , 83 – 5 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

Siliquini, J. F.

J. F. Siliquini , C. A. Musca , B. D. Nener , and L. Faraone , “ Temperature dependence of Hg0.68Cd0.32Te infrared photoconductor performance ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   42 , 1441 – 8 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Silva, K. K. M. B. D.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Simi, C.

C. Simi , E. Winter , M. Williams , and D. Driscoll , “ Compact airborne spectral sensor ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   4381 , pp. 129 – 36 ( 2001 ).

Simmons, A.

M. A. Kinch , S. R. Borrello , B. H. Breazeale , and A. Simmons , “ Geometrical enhancement of HgCdTe photo-conductive detectors ,” Infrared Phys.   17 , 137 – 45 ( 1977 ).
[Crossref]

Skokan, M. R.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. L.

D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and D. L. Smith , “ High responsivity HgCdTe heterojunction photoconductor ,” J. Appl. Phys.   58 , 2360 – 70 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

D. L. Smith , D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and M. W. Scott , “ HgCdTe heterojunction contact photoconductor ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   45 , 83 – 5 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

Soh, M. T. K.

M. T. K. Soh , A. C. Fischer-Cripps , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , and L. Faraone , “ Nanoindentation of plasma-deposited nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys. (submitted June 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , M. P. Martyniuk , and L. Faraone , “ Local bonding environment of nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 093 , 714 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , C. A. Musca , N. Savvides , J. M. Dell , and L. Faraone , “ Evaluation of plasma deposited silicon nitride thin films for micro-systems-technology ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   14 , 971 – 7 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , P. J. Martin , and C. A. Musca , “ On the bonding microstructure of amorphous silicon oxide thin films ,” Thin Solid Films (submitted April 2005 ).

Strong, R. L.

R. L. Strong , J. D. Luttmer , D. D. Little , T. H. Teherani , and C. R. Helms , “ Characterization of anodic sulfide films on Hg0.78Cd0.22Te ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vac. Surf. Films   5 , 3207 – 10 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, G. J.

L. J. Kozlowski , G. M. Williams , G. J. Sullivan , C. W. Farley , R. J. Anderson , J. C. D. T. Cheung , W. E. Tennant , and R. E. DeWames , “ LWIR 128 × 128 GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well hybrid focal plane array ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   38 , 1124 – 30 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Teherani, T. H.

R. L. Strong , J. D. Luttmer , D. D. Little , T. H. Teherani , and C. R. Helms , “ Characterization of anodic sulfide films on Hg0.78Cd0.22Te ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vac. Surf. Films   5 , 3207 – 10 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Tennant, W. E.

L. J. Kozlowski , G. M. Williams , G. J. Sullivan , C. W. Farley , R. J. Anderson , J. C. D. T. Cheung , W. E. Tennant , and R. E. DeWames , “ LWIR 128 × 128 GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well hybrid focal plane array ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   38 , 1124 – 30 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Thundat, T.

P. G. Datskos , P. I. Oden , T. Thundat , E. A. Wachter , R. J. Warmack , and S. R. Hunter , “ Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 2986 – 8 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Varesi, J.

Y. Zhao , M. Mao , R. Horowitz , A. Majumdar , J. Varesi , P. Norton , and J. Kitching , “ Optomechanical uncooled infrared imaging system: design, microfabrication and performance ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   11 , 136 – 46 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Wachter, E. A.

P. G. Datskos , P. I. Oden , T. Thundat , E. A. Wachter , R. J. Warmack , and S. R. Hunter , “ Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 2986 – 8 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Warmack, R. J.

P. G. Datskos , P. I. Oden , T. Thundat , E. A. Wachter , R. J. Warmack , and S. R. Hunter , “ Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 2986 – 8 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Williams, G. M.

L. J. Kozlowski , G. M. Williams , G. J. Sullivan , C. W. Farley , R. J. Anderson , J. C. D. T. Cheung , W. E. Tennant , and R. E. DeWames , “ LWIR 128 × 128 GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well hybrid focal plane array ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   38 , 1124 – 30 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

Williams, M.

C. Simi , E. Winter , M. Williams , and D. Driscoll , “ Compact airborne spectral sensor ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   4381 , pp. 129 – 36 ( 2001 ).

Winchester, K. J.

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Winter, E.

C. Simi , E. Winter , M. Williams , and D. Driscoll , “ Compact airborne spectral sensor ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   4381 , pp. 129 – 36 ( 2001 ).

Wise, K. D.

I. H. Choi and K. D. Wise , “ A silicon-thermopile-based infrared sensing array for use in automated manufacturing ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   33 , 72 – 9 ( 1986 ).
[Crossref]

Wood, R. A.

D. L. Smith , D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and M. W. Scott , “ HgCdTe heterojunction contact photoconductor ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   45 , 83 – 5 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and D. L. Smith , “ High responsivity HgCdTe heterojunction photoconductor ,” J. Appl. Phys.   58 , 2360 – 70 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

R. A. Wood , C. J. Han , and P. W. Kruse , “ Integrated uncooled infrared detector imaging arrays ,” in Technical Digest. IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (Cat. No.92TH0403-X) , pp. 132 – 5 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao , M. Mao , R. Horowitz , A. Majumdar , J. Varesi , P. Norton , and J. Kitching , “ Optomechanical uncooled infrared imaging system: design, microfabrication and performance ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   11 , 136 – 46 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Sarusi , B. F. Levine , S. J. Pearton , K. M. S. Bandara , and R. E. Leibenguth , “ Improved performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors using random scattering optical coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 960 – 2 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

P. G. Datskos , P. I. Oden , T. Thundat , E. A. Wachter , R. J. Warmack , and S. R. Hunter , “ Remote infrared radiation detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   69 , 2986 – 8 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

D. L. Smith , D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and M. W. Scott , “ HgCdTe heterojunction contact photoconductor ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   45 , 83 – 5 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (3)

J. F. Siliquini , C. A. Musca , B. D. Nener , and L. Faraone , “ Temperature dependence of Hg0.68Cd0.32Te infrared photoconductor performance ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   42 , 1441 – 8 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

L. J. Kozlowski , G. M. Williams , G. J. Sullivan , C. W. Farley , R. J. Anderson , J. C. D. T. Cheung , W. E. Tennant , and R. E. DeWames , “ LWIR 128 × 128 GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well hybrid focal plane array ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   38 , 1124 – 30 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref]

I. H. Choi and K. D. Wise , “ A silicon-thermopile-based infrared sensing array for use in automated manufacturing ,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices   33 , 72 – 9 ( 1986 ).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. (2)

M. A. Kinch , S. R. Borrello , B. H. Breazeale , and A. Simmons , “ Geometrical enhancement of HgCdTe photo-conductive detectors ,” Infrared Phys.   17 , 137 – 45 ( 1977 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ashley and C. T. Elliott , “ Accumulation effects at contacts to n-type cadmium-mercury-telluride photocon-ductors ,” Infrared Phys.   22 , 367 – 76 ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , M. P. Martyniuk , and L. Faraone , “ Local bonding environment of nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 093 , 714 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

M. T. K. Soh , A. C. Fischer-Cripps , N. Savvides , C. A. Musca , and L. Faraone , “ Nanoindentation of plasma-deposited nitrogen-rich silicon nitride thin films ,” J. Appl. Phys. (submitted June 2005 ).
[Crossref]

D. K. Arch , R. A. Wood , and D. L. Smith , “ High responsivity HgCdTe heterojunction photoconductor ,” J. Appl. Phys.   58 , 2360 – 70 ( 1985 ).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mat. (1)

J. Antoszewski , K. J. Winchester , A. J. Keating , T. Nguyen , K. K. M. B. D. Silva , C. A. Musca , J. M. Dell , L. Faraone , P. Mitra , J. D. Beck , M. R. Skokan , and J. E. Robinson , “ A monolithically integrated HgCdTe pho-todetector and Micro-Electro-mechanical Systems-Based optical filter ,” J. Electron. Mat.   34 , 716 – 21 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (2)

M. T. K. Soh , C. A. Musca , N. Savvides , J. M. Dell , and L. Faraone , “ Evaluation of plasma deposited silicon nitride thin films for micro-systems-technology ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   14 , 971 – 7 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao , M. Mao , R. Horowitz , A. Majumdar , J. Varesi , P. Norton , and J. Kitching , “ Optomechanical uncooled infrared imaging system: design, microfabrication and performance ,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.   11 , 136 – 46 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vac. Surf. Films (1)

R. L. Strong , J. D. Luttmer , D. D. Little , T. H. Teherani , and C. R. Helms , “ Characterization of anodic sulfide films on Hg0.78Cd0.22Te ,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vac. Surf. Films   5 , 3207 – 10 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. L. Galeener , “ Optical evidence for a network of cracklike voids in amorphous germanium ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   27 , 1716 – 9 ( 1971 ).
[Crossref]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Rogalski , “ Infrared detectors: status and trends ,” Prog. Quantum Electron.   27 , 59 – 210 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Other (12)

M. J. Madou , Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization , 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2002 ).

R. A. Wood , C. J. Han , and P. W. Kruse , “ Integrated uncooled infrared detector imaging arrays ,” in Technical Digest. IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (Cat. No.92TH0403-X) , pp. 132 – 5 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

C. A. Musca , “ Photoconductive infrared detector technology based on epitaxially-grown mercury cadmium tel-luride heterostructures ,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at The University of Western Australia ( 1997 ).

M. T. Eismann , C. R. Schwartz , and J. N. C. amd R. J. Huppi , “ Comparison of infrared imaging hyperspectral sensors for military target detection applications ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2819 , pp. 91 – 101 ( 1996 ).

R. W. Basedow , W. S. Aldrich , J. E. Colwell , and W. D. Kinder , “ HYDICE system performance - an update ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   2821 , pp. 76 – 84 ( 1996 ).

C. Simi , E. Winter , M. Williams , and D. Driscoll , “ Compact airborne spectral sensor ,” in Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng ., vol.   4381 , pp. 129 – 36 ( 2001 ).

M. T. K. Soh , N. Savvides , P. J. Martin , and C. A. Musca , “ On the bonding microstructure of amorphous silicon oxide thin films ,” Thin Solid Films (submitted April 2005 ).

R. M. Broudy and V. J. Mazurczyk , Semiconductors and Semimetals , vol. 18 , chap. 5 ( Academic Press (New York) , 1981 ).
[Crossref]

E. D. Palik , ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, Inc., 1991 ).

S. Adachi , Optical Constants of Crystalline and Amorphous Semiconductors: numerical data and graphical information (Springer, 1999 ).
[Crossref]

P. Capper , Properties of Narrow Gap Cadmium-based Compounds , chap. A6.2, pp. 212 – 4 ( INSPEC (London, U.K.) , 1994 ).

P. E. Petersen , Semiconductors and Semimetals , vol. 18 , chap. 4 ( Academic Press (New York) , 1981 ).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: GIF (321 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication sequence of photoconductors: (a) mesa etching for the photoconductors, (b) insulator deposition and etching for metal contacts, and (c) metal deposition/liftoff.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication sequence of micro-filters: (a) bottom DBR deposition and polyimide sacrificial layer deposition, (b) deposition of a-SiN x H y and top DBR, (c) metal deposition, and (d) membrane definition and release.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microscope image of a released (tuneable) micro-filter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of the spectrometric measurement setup. S: optical source; P: pinhole; L1-L3: lenses; Ch: chopper; CM: concave mirrors; Gr: diffraction grating; M: mirror; O: objective lens; DUT: device under test.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Photoconductor responsivity as a function of wavelength at T = 290 K, and (b) noise as a function of frequency. All measurements were taken at various voltage biases between 0.07 and 2.5 V.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Photoconductor responsivity at λ= 2.4 μm as a function of measurement temperature and applied bias (a) before and (b) after a 1-hour bake at 125 °C.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Photoconductor (a) τeff and (b) D * at λ = 2.4 μm as a function of voltage bias at T = 290 K. Shown alongside are the theoretical effective lifetime τ Auger,radiative (taking into account Auger and radiative recombination processes) and Dthermal* [Eq. (5)], respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured (points) and modelled (lines) transmission of two etalon test structures with varying cavity width. Amplitude deviations for λ < 1.5 μm are caused by (optical gap) absorption, which was not included in the model.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Micro-filter spectral tuning characteristic for 1.7 < λ < 2.2 μm and 0 < VD < 8.8 V. Δz is the membrane displacement. Each frame shows the theoretical response (solid line) using the optical model and parameters in Table 2, and the experimental measurements (dots). The inset shows a representation of the displacement motion of the filter, to scale vertically but, to allow representation here, not to scale laterally. File size: 325 kB

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Micro-filter relative displacement and (b) FWHM of resonant peak vs drive voltage.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fixed filter optical configuration including the Cauchy parameters for refractive index [Eq. (6)] and thickness of each material.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Tuneable micro-filter optical configuration including the Cauchy parameters for refractive index [Eq. (6)] and thickness of each material.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( λ ) V ( λ ) P ( λ ) ,
( λ ) = η V b λ hc 1 wld τ e ff n 0 ,
NEP V n ( λ ) ,
D * ( wl Δ f ) 1 / 2 NEP ,
D thermal * = ηλ 2 hc ( τ e ff n o d ) 1 / 2 .
n ( λ ) = A + B λ 2 ,

Metrics