Abstract

The simulation of beam propagation is used to study the process of optical power measurement with a heterodyne lidar in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. The inherent statistic uncertainty of coherent return fluctuations have been estimated for ground lidar systems profiling the atmosphere along slant paths with large elevation angles. Our approach makes possible to consider realistic, non-uniform atmospheric conditions for any practical instrument configuration.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. A. Belmonte and B. J. Rye, “Heterodyne lidar returns in turbulent atmosphere: performance evaluation of simulated systems,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2401-2411 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Belmonte, “Coherent power measurement uncertainty resulting from atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Express 12, 168-175 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-168">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-168</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. J. Rye, “Refractive-turbulent contribution to incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar returns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 687-691 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. Siegman, “The antenna properties of optical heterodyne receivers,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1350-1356 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Shapiro, “Reciprocity of the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 492-495 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. G. Frehlich and M. J. Kavaya, “Coherent laser radar performance for general atmospheric refractive turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5325-5352 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, and M. D. Feit, “Time-dependent propagation of high energy laser beams through the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. 10, 129-160 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Martin, “Simulation of wave propagation in random media: theory and applications,” in Wave Propagation in Random Media (Scintillation), V. I. Tatarskii, A. Ishimaru, and V. Zavorotny, eds., SPIE, Washington (1993).
  9. A. Belmonte, “Feasibility study for the simulation of beam propagation: consideration of coherent lidar performance,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5426-5445 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. C. Andrews, "An analytical model for the refractive-index power spectrum and its application to optical scintillation in the atmosphere", J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1849-1853, 1992
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. R. Beland, “Propagation through atmospheric optical turbulence,” in The Infrared and ElectroOptical Systems Handbook, F. G. Smith, ed. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), Vol. 2, Chap. 2.
  12. A. Ishimaru, Wave propagation and scattering in random media, (Academic Press, New York, 1978).
  13. V.A. Banakh, I.N. Smalikho, and Ch. Werner. "Numerical simulation of effect of refractive turbulence on the statistics of a coherent lidar return in the atmosphere". Applied Optics 39, 5403-5414 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Belmonte, "Coherent DIAL profiling in turbulent atmosphere," Opt. Express 12, 1249-1257 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-7-1249">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-7-1249</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. J. Rye and R. G. Frehlich, “Optimal truncation and optical efficiency of an apertured coherent lidar focused on an incoherent backscatter target,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2891-2899 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. (1)

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, and M. D. Feit, “Time-dependent propagation of high energy laser beams through the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. 10, 129-160 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (1)

V.A. Banakh, I.N. Smalikho, and Ch. Werner. "Numerical simulation of effect of refractive turbulence on the statistics of a coherent lidar return in the atmosphere". Applied Optics 39, 5403-5414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Infrared and ElectroOptical Systems, V2 (1)

R. R. Beland, “Propagation through atmospheric optical turbulence,” in The Infrared and ElectroOptical Systems Handbook, F. G. Smith, ed. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), Vol. 2, Chap. 2.

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

L. C. Andrews, "An analytical model for the refractive-index power spectrum and its application to optical scintillation in the atmosphere", J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1849-1853, 1992
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Express (2)

Wave Propagation in Random Media (1)

J. Martin, “Simulation of wave propagation in random media: theory and applications,” in Wave Propagation in Random Media (Scintillation), V. I. Tatarskii, A. Ishimaru, and V. Zavorotny, eds., SPIE, Washington (1993).

Other (1)

A. Ishimaru, Wave propagation and scattering in random media, (Academic Press, New York, 1978).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Statistics of the coherent power turbulent fluctuations as a function of altitude h for a 2-μm wavelength, 16-cm aperture, monostatic lidar system. The Hufnagel-Valley Cn2(h) profile model with different moderate-to-strong near-ground refractive turbulence Cn02 conditions is considered. Both the mean coherent power (left column) and the coherent power standard deviation (right column) are shown for several vertical (90° elevation angle) and slant (30° and 60° elevation angles) propagation paths.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Similar to Fig.1 but for a 10-μm monostatic lidar. Again, both the mean coherent power (left column) and the coherent power standard deviation (right column) are shown for several vertical and slant paths.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( R ) = C ( R ) λ 2 + j T ( p , R ) j BPLO ( p , R ) d p

Metrics