Abstract

We demonstrate a compact system, incorporating a 32-element linear array of ultraviolet (290 nm and 340 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a multi-anode photomultiplier tube, to the in-flight fluorescence detection of aerosolized particles, here containing the biological molecules tryptophan and NADH. This system illustrates substantial advances in the growth and fabrication of new semiconductor UV light emitting devices and an evolution in packaging details for LEDs tailored to the bio-aerosol warning problem. Optical engineering strategies are employed which take advantage of the size and versatility of light-emitting diodes to develop a truly compact fluorescence detector.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. Joseph R. Lakowicz in Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy , ( Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, NY , 1999 ).
  2. S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Sivaprakasam , A.L. Huston , C. Scotto , and J.D. Eversole , “ Multiple UV wavelength excitation and fluorescence of bioaerosols ,” Opt. Express   12 , 19, 4457 – 4466 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P.P. Hairston , J. Ho , and F.R. Quant , “ Design of an instrument for real-time detection of bioaerosols using simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic size and intrinsic fluorescence ,” J. Aerosol Sci.   28 , 3, 471 – 482 ( 1997 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L.M. Brosseau , D. Vesley , N. Rice , K. Goodell , M. Nellis , and P. Hairston , “ Differences in Detected Fluorescence Among Several Bacterial Species Measured with a Direct-Reading Particle Sizer and Fluorescence Detector ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   32 , 545 – 558 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P.H. Kaye , W.R. Stanley , E. Hirst , E.V. Foot , K.L. Baxter , and S.J. Barrington , “ Single particle multichannel bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor ,” Opt. Express   13 , 10, 3583 – 3593 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y.L. Pan , J. Hartings , R.G. Pinnick , S.C. Hill , J. Halverson , and R.K. Chang , “ Single-Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ambient Aerosols ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   37 , 628 – 639 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , J.R. Bottiger , S.S. Zhang , J.P. Wolf , and R.K. Chang , “ A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   38 , 598 – 602 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , R.K. Chang , I. Ozden , K. Davitt , and A.V. Nurmikko , “ Application of light-emitting diodes for fluorescence detection ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 18, 1707 – 1709 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Jesse Mohn , Department of Applied Physics, Yale University (unpublished results, 2003 ).
  13. S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , N.F. Fell , Y.L. Pan , J. Bottiger , B.V. Bronk , S. Holler , and R.K. Chang , “ Fluorescence from airborne microparticles: dependence on size, concentration of fluorophores, and illumination intensity ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 18, 3005 – 3013 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
    [CrossRef]
  15. J.R. Bottiger and P.J. DeLuca , “ Low Concentration Aerosol Generator ,” United States Patent No. 5,918,254 ( 1999 ).

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

V. Sivaprakasam , A.L. Huston , C. Scotto , and J.D. Eversole , “ Multiple UV wavelength excitation and fluorescence of bioaerosols ,” Opt. Express   12 , 19, 4457 – 4466 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , J.R. Bottiger , S.S. Zhang , J.P. Wolf , and R.K. Chang , “ A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   38 , 598 – 602 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , R.K. Chang , I. Ozden , K. Davitt , and A.V. Nurmikko , “ Application of light-emitting diodes for fluorescence detection ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 18, 1707 – 1709 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.L. Pan , J. Hartings , R.G. Pinnick , S.C. Hill , J. Halverson , and R.K. Chang , “ Single-Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ambient Aerosols ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   37 , 628 – 639 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , N.F. Fell , Y.L. Pan , J. Bottiger , B.V. Bronk , S. Holler , and R.K. Chang , “ Fluorescence from airborne microparticles: dependence on size, concentration of fluorophores, and illumination intensity ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 18, 3005 – 3013 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L.M. Brosseau , D. Vesley , N. Rice , K. Goodell , M. Nellis , and P. Hairston , “ Differences in Detected Fluorescence Among Several Bacterial Species Measured with a Direct-Reading Particle Sizer and Fluorescence Detector ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   32 , 545 – 558 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P.P. Hairston , J. Ho , and F.R. Quant , “ Design of an instrument for real-time detection of bioaerosols using simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic size and intrinsic fluorescence ,” J. Aerosol Sci.   28 , 3, 471 – 482 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adivarahan, V.

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Barrington, S.J.

Baxter, K.L.

Bottiger, J.

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , N.F. Fell , Y.L. Pan , J. Bottiger , B.V. Bronk , S. Holler , and R.K. Chang , “ Fluorescence from airborne microparticles: dependence on size, concentration of fluorophores, and illumination intensity ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 18, 3005 – 3013 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Bottiger, J.R.

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , J.R. Bottiger , S.S. Zhang , J.P. Wolf , and R.K. Chang , “ A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   38 , 598 – 602 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

J.R. Bottiger and P.J. DeLuca , “ Low Concentration Aerosol Generator ,” United States Patent No. 5,918,254 ( 1999 ).

Boutou, V.

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , J.R. Bottiger , S.S. Zhang , J.P. Wolf , and R.K. Chang , “ A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   38 , 598 – 602 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , R.K. Chang , I. Ozden , K. Davitt , and A.V. Nurmikko , “ Application of light-emitting diodes for fluorescence detection ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 18, 1707 – 1709 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bronk, B.V.

Brosseau, L.M.

L.M. Brosseau , D. Vesley , N. Rice , K. Goodell , M. Nellis , and P. Hairston , “ Differences in Detected Fluorescence Among Several Bacterial Species Measured with a Direct-Reading Particle Sizer and Fluorescence Detector ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   32 , 545 – 558 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R.K.

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , J.R. Bottiger , S.S. Zhang , J.P. Wolf , and R.K. Chang , “ A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   38 , 598 – 602 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , J. Hartings , R.G. Pinnick , S.C. Hill , J. Halverson , and R.K. Chang , “ Single-Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ambient Aerosols ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   37 , 628 – 639 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , R.K. Chang , I. Ozden , K. Davitt , and A.V. Nurmikko , “ Application of light-emitting diodes for fluorescence detection ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 18, 1707 – 1709 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , N.F. Fell , Y.L. Pan , J. Bottiger , B.V. Bronk , S. Holler , and R.K. Chang , “ Fluorescence from airborne microparticles: dependence on size, concentration of fluorophores, and illumination intensity ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 18, 3005 – 3013 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.T.

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Chou, T.

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

Cobler, P.

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Davitt, K.

DeLuca, P.J.

J.R. Bottiger and P.J. DeLuca , “ Low Concentration Aerosol Generator ,” United States Patent No. 5,918,254 ( 1999 ).

Eversole, J.D.

Feather, G.

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Fell, N.F.

Foot, E.V.

Gherasimova, M.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, W.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Goodell, K.

L.M. Brosseau , D. Vesley , N. Rice , K. Goodell , M. Nellis , and P. Hairston , “ Differences in Detected Fluorescence Among Several Bacterial Species Measured with a Direct-Reading Particle Sizer and Fluorescence Detector ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   32 , 545 – 558 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Hairston, P.

L.M. Brosseau , D. Vesley , N. Rice , K. Goodell , M. Nellis , and P. Hairston , “ Differences in Detected Fluorescence Among Several Bacterial Species Measured with a Direct-Reading Particle Sizer and Fluorescence Detector ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   32 , 545 – 558 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Hairston, P.P.

P.P. Hairston , J. Ho , and F.R. Quant , “ Design of an instrument for real-time detection of bioaerosols using simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic size and intrinsic fluorescence ,” J. Aerosol Sci.   28 , 3, 471 – 482 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halverson, J.

Y.L. Pan , J. Hartings , R.G. Pinnick , S.C. Hill , J. Halverson , and R.K. Chang , “ Single-Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ambient Aerosols ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   37 , 628 – 639 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Hartings, J.

Y.L. Pan , J. Hartings , R.G. Pinnick , S.C. Hill , J. Halverson , and R.K. Chang , “ Single-Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ambient Aerosols ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   37 , 628 – 639 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S.C.

Y.L. Pan , J. Hartings , R.G. Pinnick , S.C. Hill , J. Halverson , and R.K. Chang , “ Single-Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ambient Aerosols ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   37 , 628 – 639 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , N.F. Fell , Y.L. Pan , J. Bottiger , B.V. Bronk , S. Holler , and R.K. Chang , “ Fluorescence from airborne microparticles: dependence on size, concentration of fluorophores, and illumination intensity ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 18, 3005 – 3013 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Hirst, E.

Ho, J.

P.P. Hairston , J. Ho , and F.R. Quant , “ Design of an instrument for real-time detection of bioaerosols using simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic size and intrinsic fluorescence ,” J. Aerosol Sci.   28 , 3, 471 – 482 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holler, S.

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , N.F. Fell , Y.L. Pan , J. Bottiger , B.V. Bronk , S. Holler , and R.K. Chang , “ Fluorescence from airborne microparticles: dependence on size, concentration of fluorophores, and illumination intensity ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 18, 3005 – 3013 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Huston, A.L.

Jeon, S.R.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Kaye, P.H.

Khan, M.A.

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, Joseph R.

Joseph R. Lakowicz in Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy , ( Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, NY , 1999 ).

Mandavilli, V.

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Maruska, H.P.

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Mohn, Jesse

Jesse Mohn , Department of Applied Physics, Yale University (unpublished results, 2003 ).

Nellis, M.

L.M. Brosseau , D. Vesley , N. Rice , K. Goodell , M. Nellis , and P. Hairston , “ Differences in Detected Fluorescence Among Several Bacterial Species Measured with a Direct-Reading Particle Sizer and Fluorescence Detector ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   32 , 545 – 558 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Niles, S.

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , N.F. Fell , Y.L. Pan , J. Bottiger , B.V. Bronk , S. Holler , and R.K. Chang , “ Fluorescence from airborne microparticles: dependence on size, concentration of fluorophores, and illumination intensity ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 18, 3005 – 3013 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A.V.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , R.K. Chang , I. Ozden , K. Davitt , and A.V. Nurmikko , “ Application of light-emitting diodes for fluorescence detection ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 18, 1707 – 1709 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orr, C.S.

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Ozden, I.

Pan, Y.L.

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , J.R. Bottiger , S.S. Zhang , J.P. Wolf , and R.K. Chang , “ A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   38 , 598 – 602 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , R.K. Chang , I. Ozden , K. Davitt , and A.V. Nurmikko , “ Application of light-emitting diodes for fluorescence detection ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 18, 1707 – 1709 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.L. Pan , J. Hartings , R.G. Pinnick , S.C. Hill , J. Halverson , and R.K. Chang , “ Single-Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ambient Aerosols ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   37 , 628 – 639 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , N.F. Fell , Y.L. Pan , J. Bottiger , B.V. Bronk , S. Holler , and R.K. Chang , “ Fluorescence from airborne microparticles: dependence on size, concentration of fluorophores, and illumination intensity ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 18, 3005 – 3013 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R.G.

Y.L. Pan , J. Hartings , R.G. Pinnick , S.C. Hill , J. Halverson , and R.K. Chang , “ Single-Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ambient Aerosols ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   37 , 628 – 639 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , N.F. Fell , Y.L. Pan , J. Bottiger , B.V. Bronk , S. Holler , and R.K. Chang , “ Fluorescence from airborne microparticles: dependence on size, concentration of fluorophores, and illumination intensity ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 18, 3005 – 3013 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Potter, A.

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

Quant, F.R.

P.P. Hairston , J. Ho , and F.R. Quant , “ Design of an instrument for real-time detection of bioaerosols using simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic size and intrinsic fluorescence ,” J. Aerosol Sci.   28 , 3, 471 – 482 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Z.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, S.

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

Rice, N.

L.M. Brosseau , D. Vesley , N. Rice , K. Goodell , M. Nellis , and P. Hairston , “ Differences in Detected Fluorescence Among Several Bacterial Species Measured with a Direct-Reading Particle Sizer and Fluorescence Detector ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   32 , 545 – 558 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Scotto, C.

Shatalov, M.S.

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Sivaprakasam, V.

Song, Y.K.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, W.R.

Su, J.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.H.

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Vesley, D.

L.M. Brosseau , D. Vesley , N. Rice , K. Goodell , M. Nellis , and P. Hairston , “ Differences in Detected Fluorescence Among Several Bacterial Species Measured with a Direct-Reading Particle Sizer and Fluorescence Detector ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   32 , 545 – 558 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.P.

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , J.R. Bottiger , S.S. Zhang , J.P. Wolf , and R.K. Chang , “ A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   38 , 598 – 602 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.W.

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.S.

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , J.R. Bottiger , S.S. Zhang , J.P. Wolf , and R.K. Chang , “ A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   38 , 598 – 602 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. and Tech. (3)

Y.L. Pan , J. Hartings , R.G. Pinnick , S.C. Hill , J. Halverson , and R.K. Chang , “ Single-Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer for Ambient Aerosols ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   37 , 628 – 639 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Pan , V. Boutou , J.R. Bottiger , S.S. Zhang , J.P. Wolf , and R.K. Chang , “ A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   38 , 598 – 602 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

L.M. Brosseau , D. Vesley , N. Rice , K. Goodell , M. Nellis , and P. Hairston , “ Differences in Detected Fluorescence Among Several Bacterial Species Measured with a Direct-Reading Particle Sizer and Fluorescence Detector ,” Aerosol Sci. and Tech.   32 , 545 – 558 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Adivarahan , S. Wu , W.H. Sun , V. Mandavilli , M.S. Shatalov , G. Simin , J.W. Yang , H.P. Maruska , and M.A. Khan , “ High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 10, 1838 – 1840 , ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Field Anal. Chem. and Tech. (1)

S.C. Hill , R.G. Pinnick , S. Niles , Y.L. Pan , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , J. Bottiger , B.T. Chen , C.S. Orr , and G. Feather , “ Real-Time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles ,” Field Anal. Chem. and Tech.   3 (4–5), 221 – 239 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

P.P. Hairston , J. Ho , and F.R. Quant , “ Design of an instrument for real-time detection of bioaerosols using simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic size and intrinsic fluorescence ,” J. Aerosol Sci.   28 , 3, 471 – 482 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.R. Jeon , M. Gherasimova , Z. Ren , J. Su , G. Cui , J. Han , H. Peng , Y.K. Song , A.V. Nurmikko , L. Zhou , W. Goetz , and M. Krames . “ High Performance AlGaInN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode at the 340nm Wavelength ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   43 , 11A, L1409 – 1412 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Y.L. Pan , P. Cobler , S. Rhodes , A. Potter , T. Chou , S. Holler , R.K. Chang , R.G. Pinnick , and J.P. Wolf , “ High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   72 , 3, 1831 – 1836 ( 2001 ); Vtech Engineering, Andover MA
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J.R. Bottiger and P.J. DeLuca , “ Low Concentration Aerosol Generator ,” United States Patent No. 5,918,254 ( 1999 ).

Jesse Mohn , Department of Applied Physics, Yale University (unpublished results, 2003 ).

Joseph R. Lakowicz in Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy , ( Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, NY , 1999 ).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Electroluminescence spectra on a semi-log scale taken under 1 kA/cm2 injection current from typical elements of a 290 nm and 340 nm linear array. Light output axes scaled and not comparable for different devices. Inset shows array geometry and individual LED element dimensions. (b) Photographic image of packaged array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top-view schematics of two compact LED array-based detection systems. (a) Optical filter-based and (b) spectroscopic fluorescence detection.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical filter-based system response to fluorophore-doped water droplets. (a) Real-time fluorescence channel recordings for single NADH particles (with two non-functioning 340nm LED array elements after the 1 msec mark) shown for two concentration levels measured against pure H2O, and (b) the measured fluorescence to scatter ratios for both the 290nm array targeting tryptophan (closed circles) and the 340nm array targeting NADH (open circles).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Single particle fluorescence spectra. (a) Ten sequential 0.025% NADH-doped water droplets under 340 nm excitation. (b) 290 nm excitation of single 0.5% tryptophan-doped water droplets with (lower curve) and without (upper curve) an additional LED-scatter blocking filter. Inset shows average over 500 particles of 6 μm diameter dry tryptophan.

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