Abstract

A high ambient-contrast-ratio (A-CR) and large aperture-ratio display is conceptually demonstrated and experimentally validated by stacking a normally black reflective liquid crystal display (NB-RLCD) and an organic light-emitting device (OLED). Such a tandem device can be switched between the NB-RLCD mode and the OLED mode under bright and dark ambient light, respectively. The normally black characteristic of the RLCD also helps to boost the A-CR under OLED-mode operation. To obtain a better image quality in the RLCD mode, a bumpy and transmissive structure is used to eliminate the specular reflection and to increase the viewing angle performance that results in CR>2:1 over 55° viewing cone. Besides, such a structure can also increase the external quantum efficiency of the OLED by 49.4%. In our experiments, regardless of the ambient intensity the A-CR is kept higher than 100:1.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke , “ Organic electroluminescent diodes ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   51 , 913 – 915 ( 1987 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. H. Li , H. Liem , C. W. Chen , E. H. Wu , Z. Xu , and Y. Yang , “ Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 143514 – 143516 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Aziz , Y. F. Liew , H. M. Grandin , and Z. D. Popovic , “ Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 186 – 188 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang , Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays , ( Wiley, New York , 2001 ).
  5. X. Zhu , Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Transflective liquid crystal displays ”, J. Display Technology.   1 , 15 – 29 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. Fujieda , “ Display device and driving method thereof ,” US patent application, 20030201960 ( 2003 ).
  7. Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , X. Zhu , and S. T. Wu , “ Reflective liquid-crystal displays with asymmetric incident and exit angles ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   93 , 966 – 977 ( 2005 ), http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=83591 .
    [Crossref]
  8. H. J. Peng , Y. L. Ho , X. J. Yu , and H. S. Kwok , “ Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   96 , 1649 – 1654 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Gu , G. Parthasarathy , P. E. Burrows , P. Tian , I. G. Hill , A. Kahn , and S. R. Forrest , “ Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. I. Design principles and transparent compound electrodes ,” J. Appl. Phys.   86 , 4067 – 4075 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Riel , S. Karg , T. Beierlein , W. Rieβ , and K. Neyts , “ Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study ,” J. Appl. Phys.   94 , 5290 – 5296 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. S. Lewis and M. S. Weaver , “ Thin-film permeation-barrier technology for flexible organic light-emitting devices ,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.   10 , 45 – 57 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Möller and S. R. Forrest , “ Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 3324 – 3327 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. K. Wei and I. L. Su , “ Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5777 – 5782 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-23-5777 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Ishihara , “ How far has the molecular alignment of liquid crystals been elucidated? ” J. Display Technology.   1 , 30 – 40 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]

2005 (4)

X. Zhu , Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Transflective liquid crystal displays ”, J. Display Technology.   1 , 15 – 29 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , X. Zhu , and S. T. Wu , “ Reflective liquid-crystal displays with asymmetric incident and exit angles ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   93 , 966 – 977 ( 2005 ), http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=83591 .
[Crossref]

S. H. Li , H. Liem , C. W. Chen , E. H. Wu , Z. Xu , and Y. Yang , “ Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 143514 – 143516 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

S. Ishihara , “ How far has the molecular alignment of liquid crystals been elucidated? ” J. Display Technology.   1 , 30 – 40 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

M. K. Wei and I. L. Su , “ Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array ,” Opt. Express   12 , 5777 – 5782 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-23-5777 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Lewis and M. S. Weaver , “ Thin-film permeation-barrier technology for flexible organic light-emitting devices ,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.   10 , 45 – 57 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

H. J. Peng , Y. L. Ho , X. J. Yu , and H. S. Kwok , “ Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   96 , 1649 – 1654 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

H. Aziz , Y. F. Liew , H. M. Grandin , and Z. D. Popovic , “ Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 186 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

H. Riel , S. Karg , T. Beierlein , W. Rieβ , and K. Neyts , “ Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study ,” J. Appl. Phys.   94 , 5290 – 5296 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest , “ Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 3324 – 3327 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. Gu , G. Parthasarathy , P. E. Burrows , P. Tian , I. G. Hill , A. Kahn , and S. R. Forrest , “ Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. I. Design principles and transparent compound electrodes ,” J. Appl. Phys.   86 , 4067 – 4075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke , “ Organic electroluminescent diodes ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   51 , 913 – 915 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Aziz, H.

H. Aziz , Y. F. Liew , H. M. Grandin , and Z. D. Popovic , “ Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 186 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel , S. Karg , T. Beierlein , W. Rieβ , and K. Neyts , “ Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study ,” J. Appl. Phys.   94 , 5290 – 5296 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

G. Gu , G. Parthasarathy , P. E. Burrows , P. Tian , I. G. Hill , A. Kahn , and S. R. Forrest , “ Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. I. Design principles and transparent compound electrodes ,” J. Appl. Phys.   86 , 4067 – 4075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

S. H. Li , H. Liem , C. W. Chen , E. H. Wu , Z. Xu , and Y. Yang , “ Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 143514 – 143516 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest , “ Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 3324 – 3327 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

G. Gu , G. Parthasarathy , P. E. Burrows , P. Tian , I. G. Hill , A. Kahn , and S. R. Forrest , “ Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. I. Design principles and transparent compound electrodes ,” J. Appl. Phys.   86 , 4067 – 4075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Fujieda, I.

I. Fujieda , “ Display device and driving method thereof ,” US patent application, 20030201960 ( 2003 ).

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , X. Zhu , and S. T. Wu , “ Reflective liquid-crystal displays with asymmetric incident and exit angles ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   93 , 966 – 977 ( 2005 ), http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=83591 .
[Crossref]

X. Zhu , Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Transflective liquid crystal displays ”, J. Display Technology.   1 , 15 – 29 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Grandin, H. M.

H. Aziz , Y. F. Liew , H. M. Grandin , and Z. D. Popovic , “ Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 186 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Gu, G.

G. Gu , G. Parthasarathy , P. E. Burrows , P. Tian , I. G. Hill , A. Kahn , and S. R. Forrest , “ Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. I. Design principles and transparent compound electrodes ,” J. Appl. Phys.   86 , 4067 – 4075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Hill, I. G.

G. Gu , G. Parthasarathy , P. E. Burrows , P. Tian , I. G. Hill , A. Kahn , and S. R. Forrest , “ Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. I. Design principles and transparent compound electrodes ,” J. Appl. Phys.   86 , 4067 – 4075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y. L.

H. J. Peng , Y. L. Ho , X. J. Yu , and H. S. Kwok , “ Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   96 , 1649 – 1654 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, S.

S. Ishihara , “ How far has the molecular alignment of liquid crystals been elucidated? ” J. Display Technology.   1 , 30 – 40 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Kahn, A.

G. Gu , G. Parthasarathy , P. E. Burrows , P. Tian , I. G. Hill , A. Kahn , and S. R. Forrest , “ Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. I. Design principles and transparent compound electrodes ,” J. Appl. Phys.   86 , 4067 – 4075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Karg, S.

H. Riel , S. Karg , T. Beierlein , W. Rieβ , and K. Neyts , “ Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study ,” J. Appl. Phys.   94 , 5290 – 5296 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

H. J. Peng , Y. L. Ho , X. J. Yu , and H. S. Kwok , “ Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   96 , 1649 – 1654 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Lewis, J. S.

J. S. Lewis and M. S. Weaver , “ Thin-film permeation-barrier technology for flexible organic light-emitting devices ,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.   10 , 45 – 57 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Li, S. H.

S. H. Li , H. Liem , C. W. Chen , E. H. Wu , Z. Xu , and Y. Yang , “ Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 143514 – 143516 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Liem, H.

S. H. Li , H. Liem , C. W. Chen , E. H. Wu , Z. Xu , and Y. Yang , “ Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 143514 – 143516 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Liew, Y. F.

H. Aziz , Y. F. Liew , H. M. Grandin , and Z. D. Popovic , “ Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 186 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest , “ Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 3324 – 3327 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

H. Riel , S. Karg , T. Beierlein , W. Rieβ , and K. Neyts , “ Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study ,” J. Appl. Phys.   94 , 5290 – 5296 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Parthasarathy, G.

G. Gu , G. Parthasarathy , P. E. Burrows , P. Tian , I. G. Hill , A. Kahn , and S. R. Forrest , “ Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. I. Design principles and transparent compound electrodes ,” J. Appl. Phys.   86 , 4067 – 4075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Peng, H. J.

H. J. Peng , Y. L. Ho , X. J. Yu , and H. S. Kwok , “ Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   96 , 1649 – 1654 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Popovic, Z. D.

H. Aziz , Y. F. Liew , H. M. Grandin , and Z. D. Popovic , “ Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 186 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Riel, H.

H. Riel , S. Karg , T. Beierlein , W. Rieβ , and K. Neyts , “ Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study ,” J. Appl. Phys.   94 , 5290 – 5296 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Rieß, W.

H. Riel , S. Karg , T. Beierlein , W. Rieβ , and K. Neyts , “ Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study ,” J. Appl. Phys.   94 , 5290 – 5296 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Su, I. L.

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke , “ Organic electroluminescent diodes ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   51 , 913 – 915 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Tian, P.

G. Gu , G. Parthasarathy , P. E. Burrows , P. Tian , I. G. Hill , A. Kahn , and S. R. Forrest , “ Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. I. Design principles and transparent compound electrodes ,” J. Appl. Phys.   86 , 4067 – 4075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Vanslyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke , “ Organic electroluminescent diodes ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   51 , 913 – 915 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Weaver, M. S.

J. S. Lewis and M. S. Weaver , “ Thin-film permeation-barrier technology for flexible organic light-emitting devices ,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.   10 , 45 – 57 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Wei, M. K.

Wu, E. H.

S. H. Li , H. Liem , C. W. Chen , E. H. Wu , Z. Xu , and Y. Yang , “ Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 143514 – 143516 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

X. Zhu , Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Transflective liquid crystal displays ”, J. Display Technology.   1 , 15 – 29 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , X. Zhu , and S. T. Wu , “ Reflective liquid-crystal displays with asymmetric incident and exit angles ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   93 , 966 – 977 ( 2005 ), http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=83591 .
[Crossref]

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang , Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays , ( Wiley, New York , 2001 ).

Wu, T. X.

X. Zhu , Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Transflective liquid crystal displays ”, J. Display Technology.   1 , 15 – 29 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , X. Zhu , and S. T. Wu , “ Reflective liquid-crystal displays with asymmetric incident and exit angles ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   93 , 966 – 977 ( 2005 ), http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=83591 .
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

S. H. Li , H. Liem , C. W. Chen , E. H. Wu , Z. Xu , and Y. Yang , “ Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 143514 – 143516 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang , Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays , ( Wiley, New York , 2001 ).

Yang, Y.

S. H. Li , H. Liem , C. W. Chen , E. H. Wu , Z. Xu , and Y. Yang , “ Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 143514 – 143516 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Yu, X. J.

H. J. Peng , Y. L. Ho , X. J. Yu , and H. S. Kwok , “ Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   96 , 1649 – 1654 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , X. Zhu , and S. T. Wu , “ Reflective liquid-crystal displays with asymmetric incident and exit angles ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   93 , 966 – 977 ( 2005 ), http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=83591 .
[Crossref]

X. Zhu , Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Transflective liquid crystal displays ”, J. Display Technology.   1 , 15 – 29 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke , “ Organic electroluminescent diodes ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   51 , 913 – 915 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

S. H. Li , H. Liem , C. W. Chen , E. H. Wu , Z. Xu , and Y. Yang , “ Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 143514 – 143516 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

H. Aziz , Y. F. Liew , H. M. Grandin , and Z. D. Popovic , “ Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   83 , 186 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. S. Lewis and M. S. Weaver , “ Thin-film permeation-barrier technology for flexible organic light-emitting devices ,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.   10 , 45 – 57 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest , “ Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays ,” J. Appl. Phys.   91 , 3324 – 3327 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

H. J. Peng , Y. L. Ho , X. J. Yu , and H. S. Kwok , “ Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films ,” J. Appl. Phys.   96 , 1649 – 1654 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

G. Gu , G. Parthasarathy , P. E. Burrows , P. Tian , I. G. Hill , A. Kahn , and S. R. Forrest , “ Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. I. Design principles and transparent compound electrodes ,” J. Appl. Phys.   86 , 4067 – 4075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

H. Riel , S. Karg , T. Beierlein , W. Rieβ , and K. Neyts , “ Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study ,” J. Appl. Phys.   94 , 5290 – 5296 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. Display Technology. (2)

X. Zhu , Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Transflective liquid crystal displays ”, J. Display Technology.   1 , 15 – 29 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

S. Ishihara , “ How far has the molecular alignment of liquid crystals been elucidated? ” J. Display Technology.   1 , 30 – 40 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Z. Ge , T. X. Wu , X. Zhu , and S. T. Wu , “ Reflective liquid-crystal displays with asymmetric incident and exit angles ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   93 , 966 – 977 ( 2005 ), http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=83591 .
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

I. Fujieda , “ Display device and driving method thereof ,” US patent application, 20030201960 ( 2003 ).

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang , Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays , ( Wiley, New York , 2001 ).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Device structures of the conventional transflective LCD using vertically aligned LC.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Cross section of the tandem device cell, and (b) the equivalent circuit of the display.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated iso-contrast contours of (a) T-mode of the conventional VA transflective LCD, (b) R-mode of the conventional VA transflective LCD, and (c) RLCD of the tandem device.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated viewing angle dependent OLED intensity at different bumpy-transmitter area-ratios.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The tandem device structure used for experimental measurements.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured (symbols) and fitted (lines) ambient-contrast-ratio under different ambient intensities.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Photographs showing the operation of the tandem device: (a) low ambient, RLCD-off, OLED-off; (b) low ambient, RLCD-on, OLED-off; (c) low ambient, RLCD-off, OLED-on; (d) high ambient, RLCD-off, OLED-off; (e) high ambient, RLCD-on, OLED-off; and (f) high ambient, RLCD-off, OLED-on.

Equations (1)

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A CR = Device luminance ( On ) + Reflected ambient light Device luminance ( Off ) + Reflected ambient light

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