Abstract

We investigate the modelocking dynamics of quasi-synchronously pumped, dispersion managed Kerr-lens modelocked Titanium-Sapphire lasers. For the first time, self-starting few-cycle laser pulses with 6 fs pulse duration and ultrabroadband optical spectra are demonstrated without using any intracavity elements like saturable absorbers.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Chen , F. X. Kaertner , U. Morgner , S. H. Cho , H. A. Haus , E. P. Ippen , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Dispersion-managed mode-locking ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   16 , 1999 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. D.E. Spence , P.N. Kean , and W. Sibbett , “ 60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   16 , 42 ( 1991 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. Ell , U. Morgner , F. X. Kärtner , J. G. Fujimoto , E. P. Ippen , V. Scheuer , G. Angelow , T. Tschudi , M. J. Lederer , A. Boiko , and B. Luther-Davies , “ Generation of 5-fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 373 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Matos , D. Kleppner , O. Kuzucu , T. R. Schibli , J. Kim , E. P. Ippen , and F. X. Kaertner , “ Direct frequency comb generation from an octave-spanning, prismless Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 1683 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. L. R. Brovelli , U. Keller , and T. H. Chiu , “ Design and operation of antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable semiconductor absorbers for mode-locked solid-state lasers ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   12 , 311 ( 1995 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Tamura , J. Jacobson , E. P. Ippen , H. A. Haus , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Unidirectional ring resonators for self-starting passively mode-locked lasers ,” Opt. Lett.   18 , 220 ( 1993 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Cerullo , S. De Silvestri , and V. Magni , “ Self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking of a Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   19 , 1040 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. Solis , J. Siegel , C.N. Afonso , N.P. Barry , R. Mellish , and P.M.W. French , “ Experimental study of a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser ,” Opt. Commun.   123 , 547 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. H. Sutter , G. Steinmeyer , L. Gallmann , N. Matuschek , F. Morier-Genoud , U. Keller , V. Scheuer , G. Angelow , and T. Tschudi , “ Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror-assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 631 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Tsuda , W. H. Knox , S. T. Cundiff , W. Y. Jan , and J. E. Cuningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Fluck , I. D. Jung , G. Zhang , F. X. Kaertner , and U. Keller ,” Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 743 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. N. Tandon , J. T. Gopinath , H. M. Shen , G. S. Petrich , L. A. Kolodziejski , F. X. Kärtner , and E. P. Ippen , “ Large-area broadband saturable Bragg reflectors by use of oxidized AlAs ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2551 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Ch. Spielmann , F. Krausz , T. Brabec , E. Wintner , and A. J. Schmidt , “ Femtosecond pulse generation from a synchronously pumped Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   16 , 1180 ( 1991 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Craig W. Siders , Erhard W. Gaul , Michael C. Downer , Alexei Babine , and Andrey Stepanov , “ Self-starting femtosecond pulse generation from a Ti:sapphire laser synchronously pumped by a pointing-stabilized mode-locked Nd:YAG laser ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   65 , 3140 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Bartels and H. Kurz , “ Generation of a broadband continuum by a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator with a 1-GHz repetition rate ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1839 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. Seitz , T.R. Schibli , U. Morgner , F.X. Kaertner , C.H. Lange , W. Richter , and B. Braun , “ Passive synchronization of two independent laser oscillators with a Fabry-Perot modulator ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 454 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Ell , W. Seitz , U. Morgner , T.R. Schibli , and F.X. Kaertner , “ Carrier-envelope phase dynamics of synchronized mode-locked lasers ,” Opt. Commun.   220 , 211 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. O. D. Mücke , R. Ell , A. Winter , J. Kim , L. Matos , J.R. Birge , and F. X. Kärtner , “ Self-Referenced 200 MHz Octave-Spanning Ti:Sapphire Laser with 50 Attosecond Carrier-Envelope Phase Jitter ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5163 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-13-5163 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

R. Ell , W. Seitz , U. Morgner , T.R. Schibli , and F.X. Kaertner , “ Carrier-envelope phase dynamics of synchronized mode-locked lasers ,” Opt. Commun.   220 , 211 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

1996 (3)

S. Tsuda , W. H. Knox , S. T. Cundiff , W. Y. Jan , and J. E. Cuningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

R. Fluck , I. D. Jung , G. Zhang , F. X. Kaertner , and U. Keller ,” Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 743 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Solis , J. Siegel , C.N. Afonso , N.P. Barry , R. Mellish , and P.M.W. French , “ Experimental study of a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser ,” Opt. Commun.   123 , 547 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

G. Cerullo , S. De Silvestri , and V. Magni , “ Self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking of a Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   19 , 1040 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craig W. Siders , Erhard W. Gaul , Michael C. Downer , Alexei Babine , and Andrey Stepanov , “ Self-starting femtosecond pulse generation from a Ti:sapphire laser synchronously pumped by a pointing-stabilized mode-locked Nd:YAG laser ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   65 , 3140 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

Afonso, C.N.

J. Solis , J. Siegel , C.N. Afonso , N.P. Barry , R. Mellish , and P.M.W. French , “ Experimental study of a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser ,” Opt. Commun.   123 , 547 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Angelow, G.

Babine, Alexei

Craig W. Siders , Erhard W. Gaul , Michael C. Downer , Alexei Babine , and Andrey Stepanov , “ Self-starting femtosecond pulse generation from a Ti:sapphire laser synchronously pumped by a pointing-stabilized mode-locked Nd:YAG laser ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   65 , 3140 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Barry, N.P.

J. Solis , J. Siegel , C.N. Afonso , N.P. Barry , R. Mellish , and P.M.W. French , “ Experimental study of a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser ,” Opt. Commun.   123 , 547 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Bartels, A.

Birge, J.R.

Boiko, A.

Brabec, T.

Braun, B.

Brovelli, L. R.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, Y.

Chiu, T. H.

Cho, S. H.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. Tsuda , W. H. Knox , S. T. Cundiff , W. Y. Jan , and J. E. Cuningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Cuningham, J. E.

S. Tsuda , W. H. Knox , S. T. Cundiff , W. Y. Jan , and J. E. Cuningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

Downer, Michael C.

Craig W. Siders , Erhard W. Gaul , Michael C. Downer , Alexei Babine , and Andrey Stepanov , “ Self-starting femtosecond pulse generation from a Ti:sapphire laser synchronously pumped by a pointing-stabilized mode-locked Nd:YAG laser ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   65 , 3140 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Ell, R.

Fluck, R.

French, P.M.W.

J. Solis , J. Siegel , C.N. Afonso , N.P. Barry , R. Mellish , and P.M.W. French , “ Experimental study of a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser ,” Opt. Commun.   123 , 547 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gallmann, L.

Gaul, Erhard W.

Craig W. Siders , Erhard W. Gaul , Michael C. Downer , Alexei Babine , and Andrey Stepanov , “ Self-starting femtosecond pulse generation from a Ti:sapphire laser synchronously pumped by a pointing-stabilized mode-locked Nd:YAG laser ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   65 , 3140 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Gopinath, J. T.

Haus, H. A.

Ippen, E. P.

Jacobson, J.

Jan, W. Y.

S. Tsuda , W. H. Knox , S. T. Cundiff , W. Y. Jan , and J. E. Cuningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Jung, I. D.

Kaertner, F. X.

Kaertner, F.X.

R. Ell , W. Seitz , U. Morgner , T.R. Schibli , and F.X. Kaertner , “ Carrier-envelope phase dynamics of synchronized mode-locked lasers ,” Opt. Commun.   220 , 211 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

W. Seitz , T.R. Schibli , U. Morgner , F.X. Kaertner , C.H. Lange , W. Richter , and B. Braun , “ Passive synchronization of two independent laser oscillators with a Fabry-Perot modulator ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 454 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kean, P.N.

Keller, U.

Kim, J.

Kleppner, D.

Knox, W. H.

S. Tsuda , W. H. Knox , S. T. Cundiff , W. Y. Jan , and J. E. Cuningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Krausz, F.

Kurz, H.

Kuzucu, O.

Lange, C.H.

Lederer, M. J.

Luther-Davies, B.

Magni, V.

Matos, L.

Matuschek, N.

Mellish, R.

J. Solis , J. Siegel , C.N. Afonso , N.P. Barry , R. Mellish , and P.M.W. French , “ Experimental study of a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser ,” Opt. Commun.   123 , 547 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

Morier-Genoud, F.

Mücke, O. D.

Petrich, G. S.

Richter, W.

Scheuer, V.

Schibli, T. R.

Schibli, T.R.

R. Ell , W. Seitz , U. Morgner , T.R. Schibli , and F.X. Kaertner , “ Carrier-envelope phase dynamics of synchronized mode-locked lasers ,” Opt. Commun.   220 , 211 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

W. Seitz , T.R. Schibli , U. Morgner , F.X. Kaertner , C.H. Lange , W. Richter , and B. Braun , “ Passive synchronization of two independent laser oscillators with a Fabry-Perot modulator ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 454 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, A. J.

Seitz, W.

R. Ell , W. Seitz , U. Morgner , T.R. Schibli , and F.X. Kaertner , “ Carrier-envelope phase dynamics of synchronized mode-locked lasers ,” Opt. Commun.   220 , 211 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

W. Seitz , T.R. Schibli , U. Morgner , F.X. Kaertner , C.H. Lange , W. Richter , and B. Braun , “ Passive synchronization of two independent laser oscillators with a Fabry-Perot modulator ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 454 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Shen, H. M.

Sibbett, W.

Siders, Craig W.

Craig W. Siders , Erhard W. Gaul , Michael C. Downer , Alexei Babine , and Andrey Stepanov , “ Self-starting femtosecond pulse generation from a Ti:sapphire laser synchronously pumped by a pointing-stabilized mode-locked Nd:YAG laser ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   65 , 3140 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Siegel, J.

J. Solis , J. Siegel , C.N. Afonso , N.P. Barry , R. Mellish , and P.M.W. French , “ Experimental study of a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser ,” Opt. Commun.   123 , 547 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Solis, J.

J. Solis , J. Siegel , C.N. Afonso , N.P. Barry , R. Mellish , and P.M.W. French , “ Experimental study of a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser ,” Opt. Commun.   123 , 547 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Spence, D.E.

Spielmann, Ch.

Steinmeyer, G.

Stepanov, Andrey

Craig W. Siders , Erhard W. Gaul , Michael C. Downer , Alexei Babine , and Andrey Stepanov , “ Self-starting femtosecond pulse generation from a Ti:sapphire laser synchronously pumped by a pointing-stabilized mode-locked Nd:YAG laser ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   65 , 3140 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Sutter, D. H.

Tamura, K.

Tandon, S. N.

Tschudi, T.

Tsuda, S.

S. Tsuda , W. H. Knox , S. T. Cundiff , W. Y. Jan , and J. E. Cuningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Winter, A.

Wintner, E.

Zhang, G.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Tsuda , W. H. Knox , S. T. Cundiff , W. Y. Jan , and J. E. Cuningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Solis , J. Siegel , C.N. Afonso , N.P. Barry , R. Mellish , and P.M.W. French , “ Experimental study of a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked titanium-doped sapphire laser ,” Opt. Commun.   123 , 547 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

R. Ell , W. Seitz , U. Morgner , T.R. Schibli , and F.X. Kaertner , “ Carrier-envelope phase dynamics of synchronized mode-locked lasers ,” Opt. Commun.   220 , 211 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (11)

A. Bartels and H. Kurz , “ Generation of a broadband continuum by a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator with a 1-GHz repetition rate ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1839 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

W. Seitz , T.R. Schibli , U. Morgner , F.X. Kaertner , C.H. Lange , W. Richter , and B. Braun , “ Passive synchronization of two independent laser oscillators with a Fabry-Perot modulator ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 454 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

R. Fluck , I. D. Jung , G. Zhang , F. X. Kaertner , and U. Keller ,” Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation ,” Opt. Lett.   21 , 743 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Tandon , J. T. Gopinath , H. M. Shen , G. S. Petrich , L. A. Kolodziejski , F. X. Kärtner , and E. P. Ippen , “ Large-area broadband saturable Bragg reflectors by use of oxidized AlAs ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2551 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann , F. Krausz , T. Brabec , E. Wintner , and A. J. Schmidt , “ Femtosecond pulse generation from a synchronously pumped Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   16 , 1180 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Sutter , G. Steinmeyer , L. Gallmann , N. Matuschek , F. Morier-Genoud , U. Keller , V. Scheuer , G. Angelow , and T. Tschudi , “ Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror-assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 631 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

K. Tamura , J. Jacobson , E. P. Ippen , H. A. Haus , and J. G. Fujimoto , “ Unidirectional ring resonators for self-starting passively mode-locked lasers ,” Opt. Lett.   18 , 220 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo , S. De Silvestri , and V. Magni , “ Self-starting Kerr-lens mode locking of a Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   19 , 1040 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.E. Spence , P.N. Kean , and W. Sibbett , “ 60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   16 , 42 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ell , U. Morgner , F. X. Kärtner , J. G. Fujimoto , E. P. Ippen , V. Scheuer , G. Angelow , T. Tschudi , M. J. Lederer , A. Boiko , and B. Luther-Davies , “ Generation of 5-fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 373 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

L. Matos , D. Kleppner , O. Kuzucu , T. R. Schibli , J. Kim , E. P. Ippen , and F. X. Kaertner , “ Direct frequency comb generation from an octave-spanning, prismless Ti:sapphire laser ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 1683 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Craig W. Siders , Erhard W. Gaul , Michael C. Downer , Alexei Babine , and Andrey Stepanov , “ Self-starting femtosecond pulse generation from a Ti:sapphire laser synchronously pumped by a pointing-stabilized mode-locked Nd:YAG laser ,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.   65 , 3140 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup of the quasi-synchronously pumped Titanium-Sapphire laser. All cavity mirrors except for the two end mirrors are dispersion compensating mirrors. S: silver mirror, W: BaF2 glass wedges, X: laser crystal (2 mm path length), P: BaF2 glass plate, OC: 1 % output coupler, PZT: piezo controlled mirror mount, L: pump lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Fundamental and second harmonic average power of the self-starting modelocked Ti:sapphire laser with a chopper wheel in the intracavity beam illustrating the fast and reliable self-starting behavior. (b) Magnification of the temporal evolution of the fundamental average power. The transient from CW operation towards modelocked operation typically lasts 5–10 ms.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Radio-frequency spectrum of the quasi-synchronously pumped Ti:sapphire. The repetition frequency of the ps-pump laser is detuned by about 5 kHz and matches the gray dotted line. The output power of the Ti:sapphire laser is modulated by only -30 dBc, corresponding to a 60 dB suppression in the radio-frequency power spectrum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured optical power spectra displaying the wide self-starting range. The spectrum represented by the gray curve is ultrabroadband (suitable for carrier-envelope phase control) and the narrow dotted spectrum gave tunable 100 fs pulses. The spectrum in orange corresponds to the measured autocorrelation. (b) Measured (orange circles) and calculated (black curve) interferometric autocorrelation traces revealing a pulse duration of 6fs.

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