Abstract

Fiber fuse ignition and self-termination through a single-mode silica glass fiber pumped by 1480 nm light were observed in situ. The formation of void-free segments is discussed on the basis of examinations of corresponding damage sites and in comparison with known periodic void formation. As an optical discharge pumped at near the propagation threshold power loses its energy, it frequently emits a light pulse instead of forming periodic voids. A similar mode was found just before a stable optical discharge appeared during fiber fuse ignition. This transient mode conversion is the origin of the previously reported irregular void patterns.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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ECOC 2004

S. Todoroki, �??In-situ observation of fiber-fuse propagation,�?? in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication Post-deadline papers, pp. 32�??33 (Th4.3.3), (Kista Photonics Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004).

ECOC 2005

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. E. Rakitin, M. A. Melkumov, A. A. Frolov, V. E. Fortov, V. P. Efremov, and M. I. Kulish, �??Temperature of optical discharge under action of laser radiation in silica-based fibres,�?? in Proc. 31st European Conf. Optical Communication, vol. 3, pp. 469�??470 (We3.4.4), (IEE�??s Photonics Professional Network, Glasgow, Scotland, 2005).

Electron. Lett.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, �??Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibres,�?? Electron. Lett. 24, 47�??9 (1988), <a href="http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/abs_free.jsp?arNumber=8155.">http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/abs_free.jsp?arNumber=8155.</a>
[CrossRef]

ICONO/LAT 2005

S. Todoroki, �??In-situ observation of fiber-fuse ignition,�?? in ICONO/LAT 2005 Technical Digest on CD-ROM (St. Petersburg, Russia, 2005). (LSK3).

ICSCCS 2005

E. M. Dianov, V. E. Fortov, I. A. Bufetov, V. P. Efremov, A. E. Rakitin, M. M. Melkumov, M. I. Kulish, and A. A. Frolov, �??Temperature of plasma in silica-based fibers under the action of CW laser radiation,�?? in International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Book of Abstracts, pp. 25�??26 (P23), (Moscow, Russia, 2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Todoroki, �??In-situ observation of fiber-fuse propagation,�?? Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022�??4024 (2005), <a href="http://jjap.ipap.jp/link?JJAP/44/4022/.">http://jjap.ipap.jp/link?JJAP/44/4022/</a>
[CrossRef]

OFC/NFOEC 2005

I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, E. M. Dianov, V. E. Fortov, and V. P. Efremov, �??Dynamics of fiber fuse propagation,�?? in OFC/NFOEC 2005 Technical Digest on CD-ROM (OThQ7), (Anaheim, CA, 2005).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sov. Lightwave Commun.

E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinskii, V. A. Myzina, Y. S. Sidorin, A. M. Streltsov, and A. V. Chickolini, �??Change of refractive index profile in the process of laser-induced fiber damage,�?? Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 293�??299 (1992).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for observing fiber fuse ignition (a), configuration for self-ignition by laser pumping (b) and successive captured video images of fiber-fuse ignition taken with an ordinary video recorder [8, 9] (c–e). The shooting speed is 30 frames per second.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Macroscopic view of an optical discharge (2.63 MB) running through a single-mode silica fiber when the pump laser power is near the threshold value for fiber fuse propagation (wavelength: 1.48 μm). A stripped section of fiber is located between the two bright spots in the captured photograph. The larger spot is the optical discharge at one unstripped end and the other spot is a reflection at the end away from the discharge. The discharge passed through the segment when the power was 1.31 W or more. It self-terminated in or before the segment when the power was 1.30 W or ≤1.28 W, respectively. The propagation speed was about 0.3 m/s.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microscopic view of fiber fuse ignition (2.55 MB). Original gray-scale images are converted to color-scale images.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photographs of visible light emission around the fiber-fuse ignition (upper) and their intensity profiles along the dashed lines on the photographs taken every 10 μsec (lower). The fiber end is located near x=0. The laser pumping started several seconds before t = 0.0 ms.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical micrograph of a damaged fiber, whose diameter is 125 μm. The magnification factor is the same as that for Fig. 4.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical micrographs of void-free segments with a tilted illumination. (a) the same fiber as that shown in Fig. 4 and (b) segments #4 and #5 shown in Fig. 9. The cladding diameter is 125 μm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Microscopic view of fiber fuse propagation just before self-termination (0.85 MB). Original gray-scale images are converted to color-scale images.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(Top) Intensity profiles of an optical discharge every 20 μs along the fiber axis. The intensities of the laser (λ=1.48 μm) coming from the left were about 1.3 W. (Bottom) Time dependence of the peak position of the discharge. The open circles indicate the moment that a flash appears. Insets (a) and (b) are photographs of the optical discharge with and without a flash, respectively. Their intensity profiles are shown by the thick lines at the top.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Photograph of the damage train left by a self-terminated optical discharge after it entered a stripped segment of fiber circuit. The magnification factor is the same as that for Fig. 8. The vertical arrow on the left indicates the cladding diameter of 125 μm. The numbered arrows indicate void-free segments within the area shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

A series of optical micrographs showing the damage generated by a laser light of about 1.3 W. The interval between the two vertical lines corresponds to average length of eight void-free segments located nearby for each fiber. The micrograph at the bottom is the same as that at the top but shifted about 85 μm to the left. The heights of the photographs except (a) correspond to 50 μm.

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